Warm floor – idea and concept
The idea of underfloor heating in living quarters is not new. A man has long paid attention to the laws of physics operating around us – warm air in a room always accumulates at the top, under the ceiling. The cooled air, on the contrary, sinks down, making the floor the coldest place in the room, eating up precious kilocalories with its significant area.
The floor, artificially heated to a certain temperature, becomes a powerful source of heat in the room. Due to the large heating area, the air warms up evenly and rises up, filling the entire internal space. The air exchange process provides the required temperature in the room, and, moreover, minimizes the difference between its values at floor level and under the ceiling. In rooms equipped with warm floors, there are practically no zones with cool air.
Gas boilers used today for home autonomous heating are quite capable of ensuring the normal operation of a warm water floor. An effective increase in comfort in this situation can be achieved if certain conditions are met – accurate thermal and hydraulic calculations, competent installation of the underfloor heating system.
Floor heating can be provided by laying it in the space of the pipeline between the floor and the floor covering, in which the heat carrier heated by the gas boiler will circulate. Water (ordinary or with special anti-freezing additives) acts as a heat carrier – a traditional liquid used for autonomous boiler equipment.
The heat exchanger in this case is a pipeline laid under the floor covering. The effect is achieved due to the large heat transfer area. The amount of heat entering the interior space is sufficient for horizontal and vertical distribution of the warm air mass.
Important! The fundamental difference between this system and other types of heating systems is the low temperature of the coolant. For a warm water floor, it is enough to heat the coolant to a temperature of 30-50 0 С.
What lies at the heart of the technology
Such efficiency was achieved thanks to the provision of the system with convection. The lower the installation level, the more evenly the floor surface will warm up. When connecting warm gas floors to the boiler, it is necessary to install a whole system of pipes under the floor. Additionally, a manifold, distribution and circulation pump is installed. The collector is used in the case of installing a warm water floor. Hot water enters the collector from the boiler, after which it evenly fills all existing circuits. Passing through them, it heats the floor surface, and after cooling it returns back to the boiler..
The system must also be equipped with additional control devices, such as:
- the thermostat is installed in any case, including under the heating boiler;
- a pressure gauge helps to monitor the level of water in the system;
- check valves (their number depends on the level of complexity of the system and its size).
Different contours will be needed for different sized rooms. The maximum system capacity and pipe length will have a number of design constraints. Compliance with the basic parameters when installing a water floor is more important than when installing an electric one. The cable will evenly heat up along its entire length, however, over time, the water passing along the circuit will cool down. One circuit is designed to heat a room whose area does not exceed 35 squares.
The installation scheme depends directly on the size of the room. For large rooms it is better to use a spiral, while for small rooms it is recommended to use a snake. In rare cases, it is necessary to resort to combining schemes, but a professional should deal with this issue. The pitch between the turns can be from 15 to 25 cm. To complete the contour, you need to use only one pipe. It is recommended to use pipes made of metal-plastic. Such designs will bend well, cost inexpensively and be sold in booths. If a connection of several individual elements is required within the circuit, then welding should be used. Couplings are suitable for mechanical connection, but can only be used in open areas.
The main trump card of a warm floor
Water floors are primarily a low temperature heating system. It works efficiently when the coolant is heated at only 45 C. Many people consider this fact to be almost the main advantage, focusing on the fact that such a “low temperature” allows you to save money. On the one hand, this is true. On the other hand, on the contrary, you can start overpaying without knowing about the features of some boilers..
But if you choose a boiler for a water heated floor, which is sharpened for low-temperature work, then only in this case you can really start saving.
Efficiency of underfloor heating from a gas boiler
Since gas is the most popular type of fuel in our country, let’s start with it. Many people buy gas boilers for a water-heated floor, without thinking about how then they will have to overpay.
As many do:
- Put the boiler
- They set a temperature of 45-55 degrees on it
As a result, they do not notice that they are overpaying extra money. Because of which? Yes, everything is simple – conventional gas boilers achieve maximum efficiency at maximum operating temperatures. And they are equal to 70-90 degrees.
If you see a proud figure from the manufacturer “The efficiency of our boiler is 94%”, then keep in mind that in the passport he will definitely indicate that this applies only to high operating temperatures. In low temperature mode, performance drops to 80-85%.
Also, the low-temperature operation of a gas boiler entails the formation of condensate. And this negatively affects the service life of the boiler..
Of course, such boilers can be adapted for the efficient operation of water-heated floors. To do this, of course, you will have to complicate the system a little..
If you have a combined floor heating system + radiators, then by means of a mixing module, the boiler efficiency can be brought immediately to the maximum level.
And now what i can do? Do not buy gas boilers for underfloor heating? In fact, there is a type of gas boilers that are sharpened for the work of underfloor heating. Such boilers are called condensing boilers. Such boilers receive additional energy from the resulting condensate. At low operating temperatures, the boiler efficiency is close to 100%.
Sectional view of the condensing boiler
Heat pump. We pay a lot, we save even more
A heat pump is also an ideal “boiler” for a water-heated floor. It costs exorbitant money and pays off indecently for a long time. But it is capable of producing a conversion factor of 1 to 6 at low operating temperatures. That is, from 1 KW of consumed energy, to produce 6 KW of thermal energy.
We wrote a separate article about the principle of operation. There you will find all the secrets of the warm pump and why such a transformation occurs. But in short, this device is capable of converting the energy of the Earth into thermal energy..
It is worth calculating the actual payback before buying. Perhaps, while reading this material, the purchase will already be advisable.
Heating underfloor heating with electricity
The next boiler for a water-heated floor, which we will consider, will be electric. Studied these models up and down. They did not come up with anything particularly ingenious either. There are no pitfalls like in gas boilers.
Therefore, take what you like, set the desired heating temperature and rejoice.
Some models of electric boilers have special operating modes for the water floor heating system. Whether such functions provide any advantages or not is an open question. Therefore, take the boiler model at your discretion..
The main disadvantage of such boilers is that they consume a lot of electricity and require separate wiring. Well, and most often they fail faster than gas and solid fuel boilers.
What’s with the rest of the boilers?
As mentioned at the beginning of the article, any boilers can be used to heat a water-heated floor, but there are only a few ways to do this as efficiently as possible. As for the rest of the models, let’s break them down briefly..
Solid fuel boilers
Focus all the same on the model of long burning. So at least you will deprive yourself of an unscheduled residence permit in the boiler room. Also provide yourself with a buffer tank to avoid unnecessary problems when heating a water floor heating with a solid fuel boiler.
Expensive and impractical in most cases. But if you want, then why not?
A separate material was also written about them. We recommend reading. If you want such a boiler for yourself and there are available raw materials nearby, then a pellet boiler will be a good device for a water floor heating
Features of warm floors
A warm water floor looks like pipes (15-20 mm) fixed in a concrete screed in the form of a spiral or a serpentine and located throughout the entire area of the house under the floor covering. It can be either an independent heating source or an additional one to a radiator. Individual parts of the floor are called loops, contours, or branches. Heating is provided with hot water circulating through them. It is much easier to make a water floor in a private house than in an apartment. This is due to the fact that autonomous heating can be used in the house, and in the apartments there is only a common water supply system, and when connected to it, there will certainly be a drop in water pressure in the system and radiators of a residential multi-apartment area.
Requires permission from the design organization to carry out work, correct installation.
In modern apartments with improved planning and new buildings, a riser is provided for connecting a water floor system. The mounted water floor is connected to the central heating, an electric heater or an autonomous heater – a gas boiler. An undeniably positive point is the ability to maintain optimal heat in the room. The water temperature in the heater is usually kept at 50-55 degrees. Even if on the street the thermometer shows 20-25 degrees of frost, then the entire heat and water supply system will work with full efficiency. So, it is the floor that is the main component in creating a comfortable temperature regime..
With the help of adjustable collectors, the water supply system reacts to temperature changes outside. Unlike radiators and batteries, a warm water floor allows you to evenly heat the entire area of an apartment or house. An important nuance when using such a heating system is the maintenance of a stable heating temperature and its accurate regulation. An increase or decrease by 2-3 degrees creates a feeling of heat or cold in the home. Modern gas boilers are equipped with automation that regulates these processes..
The principle of operation of a warm water floor from a gas boiler
A water underfloor heating is a pipe system through which hot water is constantly circulated, heated by an energy carrier. In this case, a gas boiler. It is impractical to install such structures in multi-storey apartments, since it is prohibited by the Legislation, but in a private house this is the best option..
We offer you to find out which boiler for a warm water floor to choose, how to calculate the power, diagrams and installation instructions.
It is much easier to install the system from centralized heating, but it is inconvenient – you will have to wait for the heating season. The gas system can be used all year round.
A gas boiler is a specialized unit that heats water and cools liquid using natural gas. The system is equipped with a coolant mixing unit, which has a manifold, a thermostatic mixer and a pump, due to which the required temperature regime is maintained. Hot water flows along the contours.
For a private house of a large area, where it is planned to increase the comfort of the temperature regime in a large number of rooms, the best choice would be a floor-standing double-circuit gas boiler in an autonomous design. Such units have high power, are able to simultaneously solve several problems at once – heating living quarters and providing hot water supply.
Note: for floor-standing gas-heating equipment, it is necessary to equip an appropriate room with a chimney and ventilation. The room allocated for the boiler room (boiler power up to 30 kW) must have an area of at least 4 square meters, and the minimum volume – 8 cubic meters. If a single-circuit gas boiler is used for the underfloor heating, then for the DHW system, you will have to additionally install an indirect heating boiler, which can be placed in the same room.
For an apartment where every square meter of area is expensive, you can use a wall-mounted gas boiler, which, with the correct selection of power, will also ensure the efficient operation of a water heated floor. Due to its dimensions, it is easier to find a place for placing such equipment; wall-mounted gas boilers can be installed even in the kitchen or in the bathroom. Typically, the power of wall-mounted gas boilers varies in the range of 7-30 kW.
Wall-mounted autonomous gas appliances in most cases have a closed combustion chamber, therefore, for efficient and safe operation, it is sufficient to equip a coaxial chimney with access to the street or to the central chimney shaft.
An important point when buying equipment is to determine the optimal power of a gas boiler, which will have to ensure the operation of the “water underfloor heating” system, therefore, when choosing a model of a gas boiler, it is necessary to rely on the data of thermal calculations.
For reference: for heating 1 sq. m of living space, approximately 100 W of electricity is required, provided that the room is well insulated, ceilings no more than 3 m in height and there is no excessive number of windows.
Most of the premises of a private house have external walls in their design, heat losses through which may require an increase of up to 150 W in heat consumption for heating 1 sq. M. living space. Therefore, when buying a gas boiler, even having a heat calculation indicating the required power of the unit, it is better to purchase a device that exceeds the calculated value of this characteristic by 15-20%.
In most cases, the power of double-circuit boilers is designed for hot water supply with one or two points of water intake. Therefore, with an increase in the number of hot water intake points, an increase in boiler power will be required..
In this regard, a water-heated floor has an advantage – it loads the gas boiler in a gentle mode. The principle of operation of the underfloor heating system in this situation requires the boiler to heat the coolant with minimal energy consumption. Most of the boiler’s power is released to heat the hot water system.
Underfloor heating is a system that uses the circulation of hot water in pipes as a source of energy. The principle of operation is simple: flexible pipes are installed under the final coating, through which hot water flows. Usually it is taken either from central heating or from a gas boiler..
Any knowledgeable person will recommend using a gas boiler. The fact is that central heating is turned on only in the autumn-winter period, when the average temperature per day reaches a certain norm. That is, the rest of the time, a warm water floor does not bring any benefit..
If you want not to depend on the season, then install a gas boiler.
Open and closed systems
All storage systems can be divided into two categories – closed and open. In the first case, the system is made using a large number of sheet materials – for example, chipboard, mirrors, plastic, etc. It can be installed on the wall or along it and partially hide it, hiding all defects. Also, such storage systems usually have doors behind which you can hide all things laid on the shelves..
Open storage systems do not have any doors, but they can help create a certain level of comfort in the house, because various decorative items can be placed on the shelves. They can also be installed in a dressing room, provided that the room is used only as a wardrobe. Such systems include racks.
Nowadays, construction systems are very popular, which the owner can assemble as it suits him, changing the number of sections, shelves, the distance between them. It is very easy to assemble such a system, the main thing is to follow the instructions..
Pros and cons of underfloor heating from a gas boiler
Gas equipment is one of the most popular methods of floor heating in a private house. This option has several undeniable advantages:
- Provides uniform, efficient heating.
- Energy costs are minimal – in many cases this is the most budgetary option.
- Suitable for any coating and heating medium.
- Absolutely safe for health (compared to electric floor heating, which generates magnetic fields).
- Such a floor is easy to integrate into the general heating system, which facilitates the installation process..
This method has no specific disadvantages. The main disadvantages are of a general nature – they are inherent in both gas and other types of floor heating:
- Warming up takes a long time, but it turns off too slowly, so it is impossible to achieve instant heating or cooling of the surface.
- The system is dependent on electricity, so in the event of overvoltage or other interruptions, the equipment will shut down.
- Installation of the system requires certain skills. However, the installation of the boiler itself is not particularly difficult. The most important stage is connecting the device to the gas supply.
A gas floor boiler has quite a few tangible advantages and is practically devoid of disadvantages.
Gas consumption for underfloor heating
Gas consumption is one of the most important indicators that need to be determined even before buying a gas boiler for underfloor heating. When calculating, one should proceed from 2 basic rules:
- In accordance with the requirements of GOST, 1 m3 of gas consumed gives 9.3 kW of energy.
- For every 10 m2 of underfloor heating, 1 kW of energy is needed. If the area of the house is 100 m2, you will need 10 kW, if 150 m2 – 15 kW, 200 m2 – 200 kW, and so on..
At the same time, the real efficiency of the device is never 100%, and in most cases does not exceed 93% (for calculations, it is better to take a margin of 90%). Therefore, from the performance of 9.3 kW, the difference of 10% should be subtracted, that is, 9.3 * 0.9 = 8.37 kW. This is a more or less real figure. However, there are other factors as well:
- frosty winters;
- poor insulation of the house;
- low heat capacity of building materials.
Then the efficiency can be reduced by another 3%, that is, the indicator will be 87%, and then: 9.3 * 0.87 = 8.0 kW. This is the minimum value – such an amount of a heated floor on gas will be guaranteed (at a flow rate of 1 m3). Therefore, to heat the entire area of the house you will need:
gas consumption, m3
Usually, the power of gas boilers does not exceed 240 kW, and in this series there are already the most expensive models (35-50 thousand rubles). Therefore, if the area of underfloor heating is not too large (up to 240 m2), you can install 1 powerful device. If the surface is much larger (for example, there are 2-3 floors), you will need not 1, but 2-3 boilers.
When calculating gas for heating a warm floor, it is imperative to take into account the material of the walls, the characteristics of the climatic zone and other factors
Which boiler is suitable for the functioning of the system?
In order for the hot water floor to function, a heating boiler must be connected. That is why it is not recommended to use such systems in apartments. It is very difficult to install a large boiler, since there is simply no place for it, and the connection to the central heating system leads to a strong drop in the pressure level in the entire riser.
Wiring diagram of a water-heated floor to the boiler.
For a private house, the option of installing a water heated floor is optimal. There is the possibility of connecting a large boiler, which will supply hot water to the whole house. Such work does not cause any particular problems, but the system will work without interruption all year round. It is necessary to choose equipment based on its power. The calculation here is not very difficult, you need to calculate the power of all warm floors and add 15-20%.
To ensure the operation of the boiler and the system as a whole, it is required to install a circulation pump or several. This will ensure the movement of the coolant through the system, the correct distribution of heat. The very scheme of connection to the boiler looks like this: first comes the boiler itself, which provides heating of water to 70 ° C, after which a special safety group is installed, an expansion tank. Then the supply pipe goes to the collector, the underfloor heating is laid. A special pumping and mixing unit is installed between the supply pipe and the collector, which ensures the supply and smooth operation of the warm floor. The return of the system goes to a separate collecting manifold, passes through the pump-mixing unit, then it goes back to the boiler to heat the already cooled water. Usually, on the return route, the coolant temperature is already 30 ° C.
How to choose a boiler?
The owners usually select a heating unit for a private house for the benefit of using any energy carrier from those that are available. This approach is correct, and it must be followed when choosing a boiler for underfloor heating (TP). That is, when choosing a suitable heater, the following factors must be taken into account:
- what energy carrier is the most profitable;
- what heat power is required;
- how electricity is supplied in the region of residence, are there frequent blackouts;
- comfort during operation, including ease of maintenance;
- how easy it is for the future heat source to fit into the underfloor heating circuits.
In the context of this article, the last point is of particular interest. The fact is that no manufacturer produces special boilers for underfloor heating. In some models of gas heat generators, you can find only the function of working with water heated floors and nothing more..
The main difference between a radiator heating system and floor heating circuits is the temperature of the coolant. For supply to radiators, water is heated to a maximum of 85 ° С, while in pipes of water floors it should not exceed 55 ° С.
The optimal temperature schedule in the underfloor heating system is 35-45 ° C in the supply and 25-35 ° C in the return pipeline. If a warm floor and radiators supplied with heated water from one boiler participate in the heating of the house, then this does not affect the choice of the heat generator. Another issue is when batteries are not provided, and the boiler plant should only serve a low-temperature floor heating system..
See also: Insulation of the basement outside and inside: step by step instructions
Not every heat source is capable of maintaining a coolant temperature of 30-40 ° C. The issue is solved using various methods of piping the heating unit. The complexity of joining depends on the type of boiler used for a warm water floor:
- gas wall or floor;
- solid fuel;
- automatic pellet or coal.
How compatible these boilers are with underfloor heating and how to connect them correctly, we will consider separately for each of the varieties.
The best gas boilers for underfloor heating
Underfloor heating and a gas boiler are the main elements of the surface heating system in the house. Therefore, the selection of equipment requires a special approach. When choosing a boiler, you should pay attention not only to its technical characteristics, but also to the reviews of real buyers who have already purchased this equipment for a warm floor, as well as to the manufacturer’s brand. Based on these indicators, you can make a rating of the 10 best models that are most popular:
- BaltGaz Turbo E 24: double-circuit boiler with a maximum power of 24 kW. Designed for underfloor heating up to 240 m2. Has a built-in pump and an expansion bank, the approximate price of 30,000 rubles.
- BAXI ECO-4s 24F is a reliable double-circuit gas boiler for underfloor heating with a capacity of up to 24 kW. Wall mounted, electronically controlled, built-in pump. Sold at a price of 35,000 rubles.
- Ferroli Fortuna F24 is a double-circuit wall-mounted boiler with electronic control and built-in pump, power up to 24 kW, heated area up to 240 m2. Sold at an average price of 28,000 rubles.
- EVAN Next 7 is a budget model (8500 rubles), designed for underfloor heating up to 70 m2 (power up to 7 kW). The device is mechanically controlled, single-circuit, placed on the wall.
- EVAN Next 3 is another budget model, which is designed for 1-2 rooms (up to 30 m2, power up to 3 kW). Mechanical control, can be placed on the wall, single-circuit. It is also sold at a price of 8,500 rubles.
- BAXI LUNA-3 240 Fi is one of the most powerful gas boilers (up to 25 kW), which can heat the floors throughout the house. Equipped with a circulation pump and electronic control. Price about 53,000 rubles.
- Viessmann Vitopend 100-W A1JB010 is another powerful (up to 24 kW) gas boiler for a warm water floor. Dual-circuit system with built-in pump and expansion tank, electronically controlled. Average price 41,000 rubles.
- Bosch Gaz 6000 W WBN 6000-24 С is a boiler model from a trusted manufacturer, develops up to 24 kW. A double-circuit device with a pump and an expansion tank, mounted on the wall. Sold at a price of 49,000 rubles.
- EVAN Warmos-IV-5 5.1 is a single-circuit boiler for underfloor heating, heats a room up to 51 m2. It is electronically controlled and operates on a single-phase mains voltage. Budget model, average price 15,000 rubles.
- Navien DELUXE COAXIAL 24K is one of the most affordable models (price 30,000 rubles), which develops power up to 240 kW and can heat the floor up to 240 m2. Double-circuit boiler with single-phase voltage, built-in pump and electronic control.
Attention! All models described are covered by a manufacturer’s warranty for up to 2 years. If necessary, the period can be extended to 3 years for an additional fee.
How to calculate power
What kind of boiler is needed for warm water floors is economical, so we choose based on its performance. To find the right model, you need to calculate the power.
The average given indicator of the unit for a suburban building – 1 kW of power is required per 10 m2, that is, the specific performance is 100 W per m2. But this is a rather rough calculation, which is suitable for a brick building with minimal heat loss..
When installing gas equipment, it is necessary to prepare and coordinate the project with government agencies, and obtain permission from the gas inspection. The project has a section in which the calculation of the power of the device is indicated..
If the plans include the placement of an electric or pyrolysis boiler, then a form is used to calculate the load of the house. The formula is suitable for the regions of the middle lane, if the apartment is located in the northern regions, a correction factor of 1.2 or 1.3 is used. In case of poor insulation or provision of DHW, a factor of 1.2 is also applied..
Mk = 0.1 * Po * k1 * k2 * k3, where:
Let’s calculate, for example, the performance of a generator for a house of 250 m2 in the northern region, with poor insulation and hot water supply:
MK = 0.1 * 250 * 1.2 * 1.2 * 1.3 = 46.8 kW
If the room is located in a central area, then the calculation of the indicator looks like this:
MK = 0.1 * 250 * 1.2 * 1.2 = 36.8 kW
If the room is well insulated and hot water supply is not required, then:
Mk = 0.1 * 250 = 25 kW
It is not recommended to make a large reserve of power, in addition to the increase in the cost of heat energy, this will lead to overheating of the TP and failure.
Condensation process and underfloor heating
According to the instructions, cold water cannot be supplied to a working boiler – this can adversely affect the durability of the heat exchanger, but this rule applies only to convection boilers. In the case of a condensing boiler, there will be no temperature imbalance, since the cold water is preheated in the economizer to the optimum temperature. Heated water will already come to the main heat exchanger.
If insufficiently cooled water is supplied to the condensing boiler, then it will simply lose all its advantages, because the steam will not condense, which means that the coolant will not heat up. Therefore, the water in the return line must be cooled as much as possible. Warm floors will help us with this..
Heat storage and advanced models
It is recommended to use a buffer tank with conventional solid fuel boilers, despite the costs (you can do it yourself).
Then, with a powerful boiler, it will be possible to heat it once a day, which will significantly increase the comfort of your stay. And the warm floor will work stably and correctly, without overloading the equipment.
How the buffer tank works
There are automated pellet machines, but they are expensive in themselves and fuel for them is more expensive than ordinary coal and firewood. But with them it is possible to use underfloor heating without problems …
T.N. pyrolysis boilers are very suspicious, eminent manufacturers do not classify them as reliable and useful equipment, and do not produce.
What are the differences between pyrolysis boilers
Typical options are automated gas and electric
There is no technical concept of “underfloor heating boiler”. Any heat generator can heat this system..
However, a heated floor will work better with an automated heating system, which is usually formed on the basis of heat generators – wall gas and electric.
Where there is main gas, of course, nothing else is heated, and the choice falls on wall-mounted gas automated boilers, suitable for the “normal” area of apartments and houses, or floor-standing boilers for large buildings.
But in terms of comfort, electric boilers are even better – they make less noise, there are no emissions, there are no difficulties in maintenance.
True, electricity is the most expensive form of energy. But only daytime. If there is an opportunity to issue a night rate, then this should be used. And use a heat generator, again, with a buffer tank, which needs to be charged at night. Moreover, night electricity, perhaps, is the leader in terms of the ratio of comfort and price, if there is no gas, of course.
Automated gas and electric boilers are characterized by stable operation – just what you need for a water heated floor.
The best solution to the question
Condensing boilers appeared relatively recently, and immediately began to be widely used, especially in Europe. The reason is increased energy savings. Their purpose is to work with a warm floor, since at the exit they give a temperature of – 40 -50 degrees.
Block diagram of the inclusion of a warm floor without a mixing unit.
We have a proliferation of condensing boilers, which have an efficiency of more than 100%, which is held back by their high cost and low price of energy carriers..
Features of the condensing option
Moreover, “efficiency is more than 100%” is not a slip of the tongue, but a technical fact, since the heat of combustion is calculated according to the usual method, without taking into account the energy contained in water vapor, which is formed during combustion.
And if this vapor passes back into water, which happens at +55 degrees, then additional energy is released. In total, it gives off more energy than is released during normal combustion of fuel, as was commonly believed.
No mixing unit is needed here, only overheating protection. But the area of radiators, in order to obtain normal heat transfer, needs to be increased almost 2 times, at least 1.5 times, since instead of the usual 70 degrees, now we get 45 degrees
Should I use a condensing boiler
Experts say that it will give 10% energy savings when working on radiators and up to 20% – 25% when working on warm floors, depending on the height of the ceiling and insulation. (…. In comparison with a conventional gas boiler (efficiency 97%) and with a conventional radiator network.)
And these are very significant numbers. However, our low gas cost makes them unimportant. In Europe, at the normative level, they already require the installation of only condensing boilers ….
When creating heating in a private house, all experts recommend using progressive and comfortable heating schemes – using a warm floor as the main system and a radiator as an additional one. And also use a condensing boiler, if possible, or other equipment for available energy sources ….
How to choose a solid fuel boiler for underfloor heating
Heading to the store for a solid fuel boiler, most people have no idea what to look for. They rely on sellers, who often act in their own interests.
Let’s consider the issue of choice more carefully. The main criteria for a solid fuel boiler are parameters such as:
- Power regulator.
- Water heating method.
When calculating the power, they take into account how well the room is insulated, as well as its area. On each boiler, the manufacturer indicates the volume that can be heated by the boiler, in the absence of heat loss
Otherwise, they buy a solid fuel boiler with a capacity of 24% more than needed..
Manufacturers produce boilers with and without a power regulator. It can be operated automatically or manually. The first option is more economical.
The use of volatility in the device of a solid fuel boiler increases its productivity, but makes the boiler dependent on electricity and reduces the level of autonomy.
When a device is required not only for heating a house, but also for supplying hot water, then a double-circuit boiler is chosen, since it heats water in a flow-through mode. If a storage device is needed, a buffer capacity is installed.
Solid fuel unit connection
Have you chosen to heat your home with wood using underfloor heating without connecting radiators? Get ready for a significant investment in the piping of a solid fuel boiler, since in this situation you cannot do without a buffer tank. The reason is that wood-burning heaters need to dump heat somewhere, otherwise the water jacket of the unit may boil..
Moreover, a solid fuel heat generator is not able to heat the coolant only up to 40 ° C, its minimum operating temperature is 55 ° C. If it is lower, condensation forms in the combustion chamber, which adversely affects the metal walls. Even in a non-corrosive cast iron boiler, condensation forms a layer of deposits that impedes efficient fuel combustion.
In order for a solid fuel boiler to function with maximum efficiency, and you burn firewood with the greatest benefit, you need to maintain the temperature of the coolant at 80-90 ° C, which is absolutely incompatible with warm floors. This means that a buffer capacity is needed – a heat accumulator.
During the maximum burning of firewood, excess heat will accumulate in the heat accumulator, and the floor heating system will gradually select the required amount using the mixing unit, as shown in the diagram:
Cut-off valves for the heat accumulator are conventionally not shown in the diagram
According to the proposed scheme, you can connect any solid fuel or gas boiler, this is the best of the existing options, although not the cheapest. In the same way, it is recommended to connect pellet and coal automated heat generators. Calculation and selection of the volume of the used heat accumulator is a separate topic discussed here..
A way to reduce the cost of strapping
The condensation protection circuit can be reduced in cost by installing a three-way mixing valve of a simplified design, which does not require the connection of a patch temperature sensor and thermal head. A thermostatic element is already installed in it, set to a fixed mixture temperature of 55 or 60 ° C, as shown in the figure:
Note. Many well-known brands such as Herz Armaturen, Danfoss, Regulus and others produce similar valves that maintain a fixed temperature of the mixed outlet water and are intended for installation in the primary circuit of a solid fuel boiler..
The installation of such an element definitely allows you to save on the piping of the TT-boiler. But at the same time, the possibility of changing the temperature of the coolant with the help of the thermal head is lost, and its deviation at the outlet can reach 1-2 ° C. In most cases, these disadvantages are insignificant..
The principle of operation of an electric underfloor heating system provides for the following work:
- water or other coolant fills the tank with heating elements;
- at the same time, the heating elements are turned on, and the heat carrier is heated to the set temperature. If the boiler is equipped with tubular heaters, the water is heated indirectly. The electrode assemblies do not use heaters. Here, heating occurs when the water is exposed to current;
- after warming up to a predetermined temperature, the liquid passes through the distribution manifold. In it, the carrier is distributed over all areas of the warm floor. For optimal operation of the system, a distributor is required, regardless of the heating of the entire building or when heating the warm floor;
- when it cools down, the liquid passes into the boiler, where it heats up again.
Thus, the floor, equipped with an electric boiler, is heated..
Choosing a solid fuel boiler for a warm floor
Having decided for yourself to create maximum comfort and coziness in the house with the help of a solid fuel boiler and a “warm floor” heating system, you should not build any special illusions. This circuit is so sensitive and gentle in operation, therefore, you will need constant attention and control to the operating equipment..
In order to at least somehow facilitate your task in the future, you must strictly treat the choice of a solid fuel unit.
It is possible to use a traditional wood-burning unit, only then you will have to spend more time on its maintenance. The situation looks better with boiler equipment equipped with an automated fuel supply mechanism. Pellet solid fuel apparatuses are good in this regard. By installing a pellet hopper next to the heating unit, you can free up a lot of time for yourself.
For example: loading the bunker, on average 1-2 m3 with fuel in the form of pellets, will allow a 50 kW boiler to work without interruption for almost a week. The heating system is practically protected from defrosting during your long absence.
To balance the disadvantages characteristic of traditional solid fuel units, pyrolysis-type boilers will allow.
Home heating is divided into several types. It depends on a number of factors. For example, according to its location, a warm water floor is divided into an option for a house and an apartment..
In fact, a warm water floor is often installed in a private house built of aerated concrete. Due to it, uniform heating of the house is carried out. In your home, you do not depend on central heating, you have the opportunity to carry out chimney and ventilation. Such a floor is suitable for unpredictable climatic conditions in Russia, so it is common among summer residents who spend a lot of time in a country house. With such a floor, you can come there at any time of the year, and not wait for a warm period when the house, due to the air temperature around, will be able to warm up on its own.
In the apartment, problems may arise with the installation of a water-heated floor. Old houses are not adapted for this – the floor is uneven, the heating system is old, and the management company is all the more unlikely to take risks and will not give consent to the installation of the floor. In a new building, the situation may be different. Plus, you need a written consent from the house service company that the installation of such a floor is really allowed. Otherwise, you can get a fine.
Electric boilers are the most efficient water heaters for warm water floors, they are: heating elements, ionic and induction. In them, there is a transformation of electrical energy into heat. They are fully automated, easy to install and adjust, and can be configured remotely. The devices maintain the heating of the coolant at a given level without losing their efficiency.
Wall-mounted heating elements are often used, since they are simple in design and easy to install. They are equipped with an expansion tank and a pump.
If the area of the room is not large, then the TP circuits can be connected directly to the heat generator.
When constructing a warm water floor from a heating boiler in a large private house, it will be necessary to install a mixing and distribution unit.
The disadvantages include the high price of energy. To reduce the cost of heat, it is recommended to use a scheme with an external water storage tank and a two-tariff energy meter.
Electrode type device
An electrode boiler is the most efficient but expensive source of heating for a TP system. It is easy to operate and provides 15 to 100% adjustment. Can be configured remotely via SMS or via the Internet.
Many users attribute the high cost of heat energy and the need to reconstruct the in-house electrical network to the disadvantage of such a source. In order to reduce the cost of heat, experts recommend using an external water storage tank and two-tariff metering of electricity in the circuit..
- Automatic – the loading of pellets is regulated by programming by specialists;
- Semi-automatic – with manual adjustment;
- Mechanical – manual hopper filling.
By the number of contours
1. Single-circuit – only for operation in heating mode.
2. Double-circuit – the possibility of additional production of hot water.
The principle of operation of diesel boilers, for which diesel fuel serves as fuel, is similar to the operation of gas boilers. Their combustion process is fully automated. They have high performance, low fuel consumption, easy installation and easy maintenance. It is worth noting their environmental suitability and cost-effectiveness..
The disadvantage of such models is the smell of diesel fuel, so they are installed in a separate room (boiler room). In addition, a tank for fuel is also required, and a pump for supplying it.
System advantages and disadvantages
As a rule, the heating system of a TP with heating is easy to install and very economical. It does not interfere with the tenants, as it is built into the floor.
Does not require significant maintenance and free space on the wall under the radiator window. Such heating does not require high heating temperatures, which makes the system ideal for condensing boilers..
Radiated heat from the warm floor is distributed evenly throughout the room, so a person feels comfortable in it.
With traditional heating, warm air rises to the ceiling, thereby heating only the upper part of the room, leaving the lower part cold. This is very uncomfortable for the residents of the first floor, especially when a tiled floor is installed in the room..
Underfloor heating evenly heats the house, removing cold spots that are typical for radiator heating. Heat is transferred directly to the human body, so even if the room temperature is below +18 C, it will still feel warm, unlike radiators. The TP system allows the use of any heating source, even a self-made boiler for a warm floor.
The system has its drawbacks that you need to know before making a warm floor. The most significant is heating inertness. It takes no more than 30 minutes to warm up a wooden floor, while a concrete floor heats up from one to several hours, depending on the depth of the laid pipe systems.
It is impossible to install underfloor heating throughout the entire area; you need to take into account the location of floor units and utilities. For maintenance and repair, the owner will have to remove the existing covering to access the heating cables or pipes..
How to find sufficient boiler power
Calculate the required thermal power of the heating system source in order to choose the right boiler equipment.
If a gas-fired boiler is installed in the house, then the implementation and approval of the boiler room project with state authorities will be required for the subsequent commissioning of equipment and obtaining permission from the gas inspection. One of the sections of such a project is the calculation of the thermal power of the heat supply scheme, which can be used to choose the right equipment.
If it is planned to equip a solid fuel boiler or an electric boiler in the house, then a practical formula is used to calculate the load of the house. The formula has proven itself well for facilities located in the central regions of Russia. For the northern regions, a correction factor of 1.2 -1.3 is additionally adopted. In addition, a correction factor is introduced for houses with a poor level of thermal insulation – 1.2 and, if necessary, heating hot water – 1.2.
Mk = 0.1 * Po * k1 * k2 * k3
- Мк – boiler power, kW;
- By – the area of the heating object, m2;
- k1 – correction for thermal insulation;
- k2 – correction for hot water supply;
- k3 – amendment for the area of residence.
Thus, for a heating area of 250 m2 with a DHW load, in the northern areas of residence and in a house with poor thermal insulation, boiler power will be required for a warm floor:
MK = 0.1 * 250 * 1.2 * 1.2 * 1.3 = 46.8 kW
For the same area in the central region of Russia, you will need:
MK = 0.1 * 250 * 1.2 * 1.2 = 36.8 kW
And in well-insulated private houses and without DHW load, the boiler is selected with the capacity:
Mk = 0.1 * 250 = 25 kW
At the same time, the owner should not get carried away with an increase in the power reserve, this principle is very harmful to the TP system, since it will cause overheating of the coolant with the subsequent creation of an emergency situation, and will also lead to an increase in the cost of thermal energy due to fuel burnout.
Varieties of water floor and their structure
A correctly selected base ensures good air heating and high work efficiency. The differences lie in the material from which it is made.
Modular wood floor
The wooden floor is lightweight, therefore it is applicable in wooden and panel houses, on the upper floors and loggias. It is installed on the sub-surface using insulating sheets. To create a flat surface, moisture-resistant gypsum-fibrous sheets are laid under the wooden floor.
The modular system consists of 22 mm thick chipboard strips, on which aluminum heat-reflecting plates with channels for pipe laying are attached. Depending on the pitch of the hinge, the width of the wooden module varies from 130 to 280 mm. The aluminum heat reflectors are 15-30 cm wide. They are equipped with grooves for pipes. The modules are placed on a layer of thermal and waterproofing, increasing the efficiency of heat transfer.
Slatted wood floors
Unlike the modular type, the rack system does not have ready-made slotted modules.
The grooves are formed by themselves when laying wooden slats with a thickness of 28 mm and a pitch of 30-60 cm. An aluminum plate also serves as a heat reflector. Rack installation does not require a thick layer of thermal insulation; ceramic tiles can be laid on it. It is used for heating second floors and balconies.
The concrete system is only applicable in houses with strong reinforced concrete floors..
Unlike a wooden floor, the loops of the coolant are laid directly into the concrete screed, heating it during operation. A concrete subfloor requires good hydro and thermal insulation of the subfloor. The thickness of the filling above the pipes is 3-4 cm. Reinforcing mesh is used to strengthen the screed. A damper tape must be used along the perimeter of the wall base, which compensates for the thermal expansion of the concrete and reduces heat loss from the wall. When pouring the underfloor heating screed, concrete of the M300 B22.5 brand is used. Ceramic tiles are laid on top of the screed, less often parquet, laminate, wooden boards.
The mechanism of the project
The floor is warm water – there is nothing more than an autonomous heating system for housing.
The structure is a network of pipelines that are embedded in the base of the floor. Hot water flows through them, it acts as a heat source. The pipes are located under the floor covering. Hot water flows through polymer pipes, it is supplied from the boiler (gas).
The floor gradually heats up, due to which the air in the entire room warms up. The system is thought out: uniform heating of the room is ensured.
It is important to take into account that the project of warm water floors is recommended to be mounted only in private housing, since the installation of the structure in an apartment exposes the risk of leakage due to damage to the pipeline.
This construction does not require screed preparation work. The basis of the project is the planks from the previous floor covering. Pay special attention to the absence of gaps and gaps between these boards, if any – it is recommended to replace the floor covering.
The device of dry floors is the most convenient filling of water-heated floors. Elimination of an emergency situation with underfloor heating will not cause any special costs.
The backfill of expanded clay sand is easily removed. After drying, the sand is returned to its place.
How can you install water floors?
Warm water floors can be laid in different ways – flooring and using concreting. Let’s take a closer look at each of them..
Concreting. The pipes, through which the coolant circulates, are laid in the required way on the prepared base and poured with a concrete screed. Main disadvantages: laborious “wet” work, heavy weight of the system and the complexity of its dismantling.
The proper way. It involves laying pipes in a specially assembled deck. It can consist of plastic modules or wooden blocks with grooves prepared in them for mounting pipes. You can also find wooden mounting modules on sale. The main disadvantage is that the system takes longer to warm up than concrete.
What you need to do before starting installation?
A competent arrangement of a warm water floor requires careful preparatory work. In their course, all the little things must be taken into account, on which the effective functioning of the structure will subsequently depend:
- It is best to entrust the project of the future system to specialists, since it is quite difficult to make independent calculations. It will be necessary to determine the length of the pipe, the step of its installation and the power of the heating circuit, if there are several, then for each separately. This takes into account many nuances and parameters. There are special calculation programs that many people use. However, you need to understand that a flaw in the calculations will lead to a decrease in efficiency or simply the impossibility of the functioning of the entire system..
- Equipment for underfloor heating must be of high quality, manufactured and purchased from a reliable company that gives good guarantees. It will be cheaper to pay for a quality product than to spend a lot of money later on for expensive and time-consuming repairs.
- To minimize the thermal load on the screed and prevent cracking, the system should be divided into sections of no more than 40 square meters. m.
- Underfloor heating must be carefully prepared. It must be clean and leveled, differences of more than 5 mm are not allowed.
- To prevent heat loss, a heat-insulating layer must be spread on the prepared base, with a height of 3 to 15 cm, depending on the operating temperature of the coolant. These can be special heat-insulating materials or mats designed for a warm water floor. The latter can be equipped with pipe fittings, the so-called bosses, which is very convenient.
A damper tape is laid around the perimeter of the room and between the installation areas, which can compensate for the temperature fluctuations of the screed.
Boss mats designed for water floor heating are very comfortable. They not only function as a heat insulator, but also secure the pipes in place.
When drawing up a laying scheme, a large number of pipe joints should be avoided, which carry the potential danger of leaks under the floor. It is best to equip the most secure option, where connections are present only at the outlet and inlet of the collector. In this case, the length of the one-piece pipe should not be more than 90 m, otherwise the temperature of the circulating heat carrier may drop.
Laying a heating water floor in a screed
Work begins with determining the location of the collector, which is most often “hiding” in a special cabinet. It is usually wall mounted. The device should be positioned so that the length of pipes from each of the heated rooms is approximately the same. You can bring the collector closer to the largest contours. The main thing is that it is installed above the level of the warm floor, without piping upwards, otherwise there may be problems in the air exhaust system.
The next stage is the marking of the prepared base, taking into account the division into sectors with an area of 40 sq. m. Then a heat-insulating layer and a damper tape are laid. Next, the reinforcement mesh is laid, on which the pipes will subsequently be attached. If special mats are selected as thermal insulation, the mesh will not be needed. You can start laying out the pipeline. It can be done in different ways: snake, spiral, loops, etc. The laying step varies from 10 to 40 cm, and the distance from the wall to the nearest pipe cannot be less than 8 cm.
The pipes are fixed to the reinforcement mesh with plastic clips. It is important not to pinch the part, it should be in a free loop, otherwise, under the influence of heat, the pipe will expand and may deform in the area of tight pressure. The fastening clamps are installed in increments of 1 m. The pipe must be handled very carefully. Most often it is supplied in the form of a bay. Pulling it out of there along the turns is unacceptable. It should gradually, as it is laid, unwind the pipe, placing and fixing the element on the floor..
There are several options for laying pipes for underfloor heating. Most common: spiral, snake, loops, double snail
Turning the part is done very carefully, observing the minimum bend radius requirements. Usually it is about five pipe diameters. If you squeeze the product, a whitish area is formed-hall. It indicates a sharp stretching of the fragment and the loss of its strength characteristics, which leads to an increased risk of pipe rupture. It is not recommended to lay a part with such a defect in the underfloor heating system. The damaged fragment should be replaced, which leads to the appearance of unnecessary joints in the pipeline, and this is also undesirable.
The laid pipes must be connected to the collector. For this, special crimp fittings or Eurocone systems are used. The beginning of the pipe of each heating circuit is connected to the supply outlet by a collector, so the number of outlets and circuits must be the same. The end of the pipeline is connected to a return manifold. If the pipe is laid near the expansion joint, a corrugated tube must be put on it..
At the end of the installation, a system check is mandatory. To do this, water is poured into the pipeline, a pressure of 5-6 bar is supplied during the day. After that, a careful examination is carried out to identify possible extensions on the pipes or leaks. More on video:
If the test run was successful, they start pouring the screed. It should only be carried out with pipes filled with water with a working pressure in them. After pouring, the screed will completely dry out no earlier than 28 days. After this time, you can begin work on the installation of the floor covering..
Before starting to pour the screed, the pipes are attached to the reinforcing mesh using special plastic clamps that prevent the elements from sliding.
There are some nuances regarding the formation of a screed over water-heated floors. They depend on the type of floor covering that will be laid on top of it. If tile installation is planned, the screed should be 3-5 cm high or the distribution of pipes should have gaps of the order of 10-15 cm. Otherwise, according to the principle of heat distribution, there is a danger of the appearance of a “thermal zebra”, which can be clearly felt by the foot. But it is better to lay a thinner screed under the laminate or linoleum. In this case, in order to strengthen the structure, another reinforcing mesh is laid on top of the warm floor, which will also reduce the thermal path to the coating surface..
Where can you mount
Due to the large number of pipes, water heating is done mainly in private houses. The fact is that the heating system of high-rise buildings of early construction is not designed for such a heating method. It is possible to make a warm floor from heating, but there is a high probability that either it will be too cold for you, or with the neighbors above or below, depending on the type of power supply to the system. Sometimes the entire riser becomes cold: the hydraulic resistance of the water floor is several times higher than that of the radiator heating system and it can clog the movement of the coolant. For this reason, it is very difficult to obtain permission from the management company to install a warm floor (installation without permission is an administrative offense).
Underfloor heating implies a large number of small diameter pipes
The good news is that in new buildings they began to make two systems: one for radiator heating, the second for a water-heated floor. In such houses, no permission is required: an appropriate system was developed taking into account a higher hydraulic resistance.
To understand what you need in order to make a water-heated floor with your own hands, you need to understand what the system consists of and how it works.
Heating medium temperature control
To make your feet comfortable on the floor, the temperature of the coolant should not exceed 40-45 ° C. Then the floor heats up to comfortable values - about 28 ° C. Most of the heating equipment cannot produce such a temperature: at least 60-65 ° C. An exception is condensing gas boilers. They show maximum efficiency precisely at low temperatures. From their outlet, the heated coolant can be fed directly into the pipes of the underfloor heating.
When using any other type of boiler, a mixing unit is required. In it, the cooled coolant from the return pipe is added to the hot water from the boiler. You can see the composition of this bond on the connection diagram of the warm floor to the boiler.
Diagram of a water-heated floor device
The principle of operation is as follows. The heated coolant is supplied from the boiler. It goes to the thermostatic valve, which, when the temperature threshold is exceeded, opens the water admixture from the return pipe. In the photo, there is a jumper in front of the circulation pump. A two-way or three-way valve is installed in it. Opening it and mix in the cooled coolant.
The mixed flow through the circulation pump enters the thermostat, which controls the operation of the thermostatic valve. When the set temperature is reached, the flow from the return flow stops, if it is exceeded, it opens again. This is how the temperature of the coolant of the water underfloor heating is adjusted..
Types of boilers for underfloor heating
There are several types of boilers for heating the coolant, that is, water. They differ in the features of work, installation and operation, as well as the type of fuel due to which they function.
Table. Types of heating boilers.
|Such boilers only heat the coolant (in our case, water). In order for them to be used for something else, it is necessary to purchase boilers, heat exchangers, etc..|
|Boilers of this type can be used for heating water and for heating purposes. Heating in such a unit is possible due to the presence of a heat exchanger or boiler already directly in the device itself.|
Also, boilers can be divided into two categories according to the place of installation. They are wall-mounted, floor-mounted. Floorstands tend to have more power than pendant ones. But the latter are much more convenient in terms of installation and less expensive to maintain..
Solid fuel boilers
Firewood and fuel pellets serve as fuel for these units. The principle of operation is similar to burning wood in a conventional stove. But at the same time, combustion occurs at high temperatures (from +250 degrees) and without air access. Heating of the coolant occurs due to the release of hot smoke during fuel combustion.
Solid fuel boiler for underfloor heating
In residential premises, such boilers are rarely used, the usual scope of their use is production, agriculture. These units in the house require constant attention, as well as fuel loading, which complicates operation..
On a note! If the boiler has a closed chamber where fuel burns, then it can be installed anywhere. For equipment with an open-type camera, it is necessary to look for a separate installation room in the house..
Drawing of a homemade solid fuel boiler: how to make it correctly
Those who decided to assemble the boiler on their own should think over its layout in advance and draw up working drawings of all the parts that will participate in the assembly. If there is no opportunity or time to draw up a draft design, you can use ready-made developments that are posted on the Internet by masters who are engaged in the manufacture of boiler units. But the layout of the equipment may differ from the required one, and you still have to make changes to the structure of the heater..
Solid fuel boilers for long burning with a water circuit for a home are the best option for organizing economical and low-cost heating of a house. In general, the unit consists of:
- aperture for loading fuel;
- ash pan;
- air duct systems;
- firebox and ash pan doors;
- water heat exchanger;
- elements of the control system;
- inlet and outlet branch pipes.
One of the best options for making a boiler is to make its body from a steel pipe or shell of a gas cylinder or air receiver. For this, parts of several standard sizes are selected so that they are inserted into one another. The gap between the walls should be within 4-6 cm. A smaller distance will lead to the fact that the water will quickly heat up and boil. The vaporization process will be accompanied by increased noise. It is irrational to increase the distance: at the same time, the consumption of materials, the weight of the unit and the amount of water that also needs to be heated increases.
For your information!
The diameter of the inlet and outlet pipes must be at least 40 mm. If you plan to organize water circulation due to thermal expansion, the flow area is increased to 50 mm.
To ensure trouble-free operation of the boiler unit, safety devices and automation or control elements are installed on it. First of all, the heating circuit is equipped with an expansion tank to compensate for the temperature expansion of the water. At the outlet, a “safety group” is installed – a pressure gauge, a safety valve and an air vent. Additionally, it is necessary to provide a mounting place for placing a thermometer..
These electrically powered units can be used in all areas and are best suited for connection to underfloor heating systems. The connection of this boiler is simple, despite the apparent complexity. Such units will make it possible to organize low-temperature heating – such as is needed for a warm floor – due to the possibility of adjusting the temperature of the outgoing heat carrier flow.
Electric boiler circuit for a warm water floor
On a note! The higher the thermal insulation values in the room, the less power you will have to purchase a boiler.
What is a mixing unit
The boiler usually heats water up to 80-95 ° C, this is the optimal temperature for use in radiators. However, according to sanitary standards, the floor temperature should not be more than 30 ° C..
Exceeding this temperature can lead to an increased emission of harmful substances from the flooring, and in general it will be uncomfortable to walk on such a floor (see the article on the dangers of a warm floor and laminate).
Taking into account the thickness of the floor screed and floor covering, the temperature of the coolant in the circuits is not higher than 55 ° C. That is why water for underfloor heating is supplied through a mixing unit, it mixes a hot liquid with a cooler one (which has already passed through the system and managed to cool down). The scheme of the system is shown in the video:
When the hot coolant reaches the manifold, it rests against the safety valve. The thermal head detects the temperature of the liquid and if it exceeds the set values, the valve opens slightly and the cold and hot heat carrier mix.
In addition, if the circuits are long, they often make a pumping and mixing unit with their own hands. It is equipped with a circular pump that pumps water through it and increases the pressure in the system..
In addition to the main elements (two- or three-way valve and pump), there are additional parts in the unit: bypass (jumper), drainage and shut-off valves, air outlet, expansion tank.
The connection diagram of the underfloor heating system for all devices is almost the same.
You can join:
- to the column;
- pump to the condensing floor gas boiler;
- to the general or individual heating system;
- to radiators.
The main thing is to buy a ready-made collector set, with which you can connect heating pipes..
With it, you can also regulate the temperature of the heat carriers, as well as calculate the gas flow..
Particular attention should be paid to the provision of DHW. The main task of the system is a constant supply of water with a sufficient temperature indicator. It is important to choose and organize the operation of a suitable system for everyone who has decided to mount a warm pore in his home..
The design of the system can be done independently, but there is a great risk of making a mistake, since the calculations must be accurate. In this case, it is better to contact a specialist or a design company, but it can take some money. It’s worth remembering this moment.
As for the installation itself, you need to calculate the costs of all the elements, or rather:
- thermal insulation layer;
- reinforcing mesh;
- fittings and automation;
- pumping and mixing unit;
- pressing and filling the system with liquid.
The last stage of work is adjustment, which includes all final checks. The desired temperature of the circulating fluid is selected here..
Layout “snake” begins along the perimeter of the entire room, then the loop is bent by 1800, and fits from wall to wall in zigzags. In this case, the surface warms up unevenly, there are areas with more and less intense heating..
The second “snake” method implies that pipes with hot and cooled water are placed side by side. As a result, uniform heating of the entire surface occurs..
The “Snake” scheme has the following features:
- the maximum bend of the loop reaches 1800
- the circuit laid in this way works from a not too powerful circulation pump
- is actively used in the bathroom and toilets
- mounted in rooms with a linear slope, laying from the mixing unit in the direction of the slope
The position of the pipes begins along the walls, then at the farthest wall the loop unfolds back.
A snail is laid in a spiral, moving to the center of the room. The advantage of this method is the same heating of the entire surface, even at the outer walls, which makes it possible to reduce the boiler power while maintaining the coolant output..
Features of the “Snail” stacking scheme:
- pipe bend is 31-900
- used when heating large areas, where heating is due to several water circuits
- not used in rooms with a linear slope, because there is a high probability of frequent formation of air jams
Combined layout scheme
With the combined scheme, part of the room is heated with a water circuit, laid in the “snail” method, and the other half – according to the “snake” scheme. Or two living rooms in the house can be heated according to the “snail” scheme, and in the bathroom and shower room you can lay several turns with a “snake”.
When drawing up a floor installation plan, consider the following:
- decide in which rooms the “warm floor” system will be installed, and where the radiators will remain
- boiler power
- room size in m2
- number of heated floors
- base material (wood, concrete, polystyrene)
- arrangement of furniture in rooms
- angle of inclination of the surface
Also, when calculating, you should pay attention to some nuances:
- the length of the circuit (the total length of the coolant pipe) should not exceed 80 m, otherwise the circulation will be disturbed
- the difference between the length of the circuits in different rooms should be no more than 15 m
- the minimum contour area must be 15 m2
- the amount of material depends on the laying step
|Distance between loops / cm||Material consumption / running meter|
That. the amount of material is calculated by the formula:
linear meter of pipe (taking into account the distance between the loops) x area of the room
the maximum step should not exceed 30 cm, otherwise the floor will be cold in some places
The plan of a house or room is transferred to graph paper or a special program is used..
How to choose a gas boiler for underfloor heating
According to the installation method, there are:
- Wall-mounted boilers are hung on the wall, while the wall must be strong and strong enough, since the weight of the boiler is rather big. They are mainly used for the heating system of a house with a small area, from 230 to 360 m2.
- Floor – the advantage of this system is that it is installed on the floor surface, while eliminating additional stress on the wall. Suitable for use in frame houses where the walls are not particularly strong. They are suitable for heating a house with a large area due to their large dimensions..
By the number of contours:
- Single-circuit – used to work with one line of the heating system.
- Double-circuit – serve as a power source for the heating system and as a source of heating hot water, which is used for domestic purposes. It should be borne in mind that work simultaneously in two modes is impossible. When the water heats up, the heating is turned off.
By heat exchange material:
Boiler heat exchanger
- Steel – the material belongs to the budget. It does not have a long service life, because under the influence of temperatures, it quickly wears out and cracks. Also, the material rusts for a short time, despite the application of various anti-corrosion agents to it..
- Stainless steel is one of the most expensive materials that you rarely find on the market. The characteristics of the material are good, because combines the best performance of cast iron and steel devices.
- Cast iron – highly resistant to corrosive processes, the advantages are strength and long service life. When installing such a device, it is necessary to control the uniformity of heating, because different temperatures in different areas can lead to cracks. The disadvantage is the high fragility of the material.
- Copper – is more often used when installing a boiler on a wall surface, it is resistant to corrosion processes, and is light in weight. With such a material, the boiler turns out to be of low inertness, and this allows you to quickly adjust the mode of its operation..
By the type of firebox or combustion chamber:
- Open type – combustion processes are carried out with the help of air, which enters through channels designed for this. When installing such a system, free air access and a room that will be specially designed for this is required. The cost of this type of boiler is low.
- Closed type or turbine – at a cost much more expensive than open type, it is more often used in houses with a small area, such as frame houses, since it does not require a separate room for installation.
Vertical type chimneys are used to eliminate smoke. If you use a horizontal one, you need an additional fan that will supply fresh air, with the help of which the combustion process is carried out.
Turbbing or blowing air to increase the intensity of the combustion process is a feature that is present in almost all new generation gas boilers..
In choosing a boiler, familiarization with its technical characteristics will help, so it will turn out to find out all the advantages, possibilities and disadvantages.
First of all, when choosing, you should pay attention to the boiler power, types of combustion chambers, number of circuits, fuel volume. You also need to take into account the amount of consumed water, the possibility of heating it (the average indicator is 2.5-15 l / min.). The efficiency should be approximately 90-95%.
Then you should choose a water heater for the underfloor heating system. When calculating power, you need to focus on the average value, this is about 1 kW per 10-12 m2 of the entire occupied area.
It is advisable to prefer this type, where it is possible to regulate the operating mode of the boiler. It is preferable to opt for a system with smooth control. The number of circuits and the type of installation should be as close as possible to the requirements of the room.
Boiler selection criteria
According to the method of installation, a gas boiler under a warm floor can be floor-standing or wall-mounted. The first type is optimal for frame structures, because does not create an increased load on the walls, it is dimensional and capable of fully serving large areas (a separate boiler room will be needed here). Wall-hung devices form the basis of heating systems in compact dwellings.
By the number of circuits, boilers are classified into:
- single-circuit – designed to perform heating tasks (the coolant will be heated for both radiators and underfloor heating),
- double-circuit – serve as a power source for hot water supply and heating. Many models have to alternate modes.
The heat exchanger – the main working unit of the unit – can be made of the following materials:
- cast iron. Resistant to corrosion, durable and reliable, requires control of the uniformity of heating, otherwise there is a high risk of cracking the container. A significant drawback is the fragility of the original substance,
- stainless steel. It does not have wide distribution due to its high cost, it exhibits a decent service life,
- copper. The most popular solution for wall-hung boilers. Possesses such qualities as low dead weight, corrosion resistance. Low inertia for flexible and fast temperature control.
The combustion chamber can be open or closed. In the first case, the air for feeding the flame is supplied by natural draft through the channels provided in the design, such devices need a separate room – a boiler room – where free air access will be provided (this is the most affordable segment of equipment in terms of price). A turbocharged closed boiler is more convenient for arranging underfloor heating; it does not need to provide a separate area for it. Usually combustion products are discharged through a vertical chimney, if a horizontal method is planned, a fan is built into the system.
When choosing the best device, it is important to study the following characteristics of the range:
- equipment power,
- number of contours,
- combustion chamber design,
- maximum heating area,
- fuel consumption,
- the ability to heat and the intensity of water consumption (average values are kept at around 2.5-17 l / min, more productive variations are more expensive),
- Efficiency (it usually does not exceed 80-90%).
In order for the water heater to be able to fully service the warm floor, it is important to correctly calculate its power. On average, 1-1.5 kW is enough to heat 10 sq. m.It is optimal if the equipment is equipped with the ability to smoothly adjust the temperature regime.
Boiler selection recommendations
One of the most important parameters for choosing a heating boiler is the ability to connect it to a floor heating system. This is necessary in order to be able to set the temperature of the coolant that will circulate without sacrificing equipment and budget. On the supply, the heating system should give out only + 35-45 degrees, and on the return – about +25.
If you plan to connect an electric boiler in the immediate vicinity of a living room, it is advisable to pay attention to imported devices
On a note! If the house is heated by radiators connected to the boiler, from which the underfloor heating system also departs, then it will be easier to choose a unit. If the rooms will be heated not by the boiler, then it is important to choose the model that will allow you to set a low floor heating temperature..
It is also important to evaluate the area of the room in which the underfloor heating system will be installed, the materials from which its finishing is made, as well as the parameters of the screed..
Installation of underfloor heating
From the radiator
Radiator connection suitable for snake or snail installation.
In order to connect to the radiator system, you need two taps: a regular radiator, installed on the supply, and an RTL valve with a thermostat, which limits the return flow temperature. The thermostat reacts when the permissible temperature is exceeded and closes automatically. When the liquid cools down to the set value, the valve is automatically opened.
The connection diagram from the radiator is as follows:
- Two underfloor heating loops are brought out: supply and return of cooled liquid. The loop for supplying the hot coolant is connected with a flexible stainless steel hose. An adapter with a female thread is installed on the Pex-pipe, where a flexible liner is fitted.
- On the return flow there is an adapter with an external thread and a similar flexible hose. The RTL valve is attached in the direction of flow of the coolant, it must be checked against the direction of the arrow on the body.
Such a scheme has a number of disadvantages, in particular, various pipes and joints stick out from the outside, taking up free space. It is much more convenient to use a unibox – a device consisting of a two-way valve with a thermostat, a Mayevsky valve for venting air and a thread for connecting fittings. All elements are compactly located in the junction box.
From a three-way valve
The heated water enters directly from the boiler into the distribution manifold, diverges in loops and returns to the boiler, adjusted to the temperature of the “warm floor”.
The situation is somewhat more complicated if the house has additional radiator heating. The water in the radiators has a temperature of 70C, and in the loops it does not exceed 35-450C. In this case, a three-way thermostatic valve is required. It is installed on the circulation pump and regulates the flow temperature. The task of the three-way valve is to connect the high-temperature heating circuit and the underfloor heating manifold.
ATTENTION! Make sure the installation is correct! The thermostatic mixing valve is installed at the junction of the radiator module and the underfloor heating circuit, behind which a circulation pump is mounted.
The regulator is a thermostatic head with an immersion sensor or an actuator with a controlled controller. If the permissible norm of water is exceeded, the automation blocks the flow from the boiler. When the liquid cools down, the stem rises automatically, allowing hot liquid to flow into the loops.
Circuit with electronic thermostat
The TP supply system operates using small-sized thermionic kits, they can ensure the operation of only one loop of a heating area of no more than 20 m2.
A thermostat is a small device with a plastic case, which contains:
The principle of operation of the circuit is simple – the heated liquid is directed into the circuit directly from the boiler, without mixing. Temperature regulation is carried out by the built-in regulator.
He gives the command to an electromechanical valve, which is responsible for supplying gas to the boiler. Water moves along the loop without the action of the pump, and is cooled directly inside the loop.
Connection diagram with a circulation pump
Mainly used for connection to central heating. It is installed on the return line so that there is more heat in the radiators. However, to reduce the heat flux, such a pump is often installed at the supply.
The use of a condensing boiler in a floor heating system is beneficial for cold return.
How to connect the boiler to the floor line?
Markers are installed at the outlet for the coolant and on the return. They show which connection to connect the flow and return circuits. For underfloor heating, it is recommended to use equipment with a low heating capacity. The coolant in it heats up to 60 ° C. Plastic pipes are used for the “warm floor”.
Under the constant influence of high temperatures, they can deform, therefore, the floor line is connected to the boiler through metal pipes made of galvanized steel or copper..
The connection unit is made in a threaded way by means of cap nuts. For tightness, rubber inserts are used. A shut-off valve is installed on the branch pipe in order to be able to shut off the outlet of the hot coolant or chilled water from the floor line. Pipe diameter 26 mm. The circuit is connected to a communication comb. The water “warm floor” from the gas boiler is discharged through the distribution unit.
The equipment is fixed to the wall. The floor line is led out from the supply manifold. The other end of the pipe is connected to the return manifold. The coolant circulates through the floor line. Through the return pipe, it enters the boiler again.
To be able to turn off the comb, valves are installed on the inlet and return pipes. The taps also cut into each branch pipe of the supply and return manifolds. Rotameters are installed to regulate the filling of the water circuit. Automation that regulates the temperature of the liquid is installed in the boiler.
Brass adapter fittings are used to connect the plastic pipe to the manifold. They are inserted using the soldering method. The pipe is heated with an expander, a fitting is installed. The plastic is cooled, securely fixing the adapter; no sealant is used.
Method for calculating the water floor
When calculating a water floor, the following factors are taken into account:
- the total length of the circuit should be limited to a length of 100 m. With an increase in this indicator, the water pressure in the pipes will not reach the standard level;
- adjacent contours should not differ in length by more than 15 m;
- the distance between the rows of pipes should be 150 mm;
- when the inter-row spacing is reduced to 100 mm, it will be necessary to lay 10 m more pipes on 1 m2 of area.
If you feel that your experience in carrying out plumbing work is insufficient, then it is better to call professionals and transfer all responsibility for the quality of installation of a warm water floor to them.
Construction and connection of underfloor heating to the boiler
consider how to make a warm floor from a water heater, using an example of use
tena with a capacity of 3 kW for heating an area of 30 m2, with the installation of a three-way
We need a recirculation boiler with outlets to connect hoses for hot and cold water supply. The recommended diameter of the nozzles is 2.6 centimeters. In addition, you should stock up on tools that you will need in your work so as not to be distracted during the installation process..
hydraulic floors from a water heater looks like this:
Preparation of the rough base – it should be leveled and cleaned of debris.
Installation of the manifold assembly – it must be fixed on the wall, or mounted in a specially equipped metal
Bonding the room around the perimeter with a damper tape – this will help preserve the integrity of the concrete screed.
Hydro and thermal insulation – polyethylene film can be used as a waterproofing material. The choice of thermal insulation material is huge, from regular foam to expanded polystyrene mat with lugs.
Installation of the water circuit – this can be
pipes made of copper, polyethylene or heat-resistant plastic. Laying heating
elements are produced according to the planned scheme and with a set step.
The pipes can be fastened to the reinforcing mesh, which is laid on the thermal insulation,
plastic clamps, or fix between the grooves of polystyrene plates.
Connection of the circuit to the distribution
collector – one end to the cold tap, and the other to the hot.
Connection of the boiler to the distribution unit – carried out using metal pipes.
Installation of a three-way valve with a thermal head on the manifold – to regulate the temperature level of a warm
Connecting the circulation pump to
underfloor heating – it provides the flow and the necessary pressure of water in the pipeline
Installation of an expansion tank – it is necessary to remove excess water from the heating system. It should be mounted on a cold metal pipe near the outlet to the boiler. And in front of him you need to equip a tube for air outlet.
System performance check – to identify possible leaks and malfunctions. Pressure testing is carried out within 24 hours under operating pressure.
Choosing a boiler for TP
The main problem is that the operation of an electric boiler in this case will be considered improper use, which can naturally lead to failure of the heating device ahead of time. Domestic heaters are designed to provide residents with hot water for domestic purposes. Hanging an additional load on an electrical appliance means fundamentally changing the manufacturability of the device.
A heating system based on electric water heating is nothing special. A boiler is a device in which water is heated by electricity..
For models with a storage tank, the main structural element is the heating element, which provides water heating. Heating elements are usually installed in a storage tank where tap water flows. The mode of switching on and off the heating elements is provided by automatic.
During normal operation of the device, depending on the power of the heating elements and the volume of the tank, the water is heated within 2-3 hours. Due to the double body, the water in the tank maintains the set temperature for a long time (12-24 hours).
Internal structure of the storage boiler connected to the underfloor heating
Due to its high operational parameters, the storage type in its design is best suited to ensure the operation of underfloor heating in your apartment..
If we talk about a flow-through electric boiler, then the schematic diagram is completely different. There is no storage tank, and the whole process takes place inside a compact flask, which is equipped with a heating element. Unlike storage devices, flow devices are equipped with heating elements of higher power (6-20 kW), capable of providing intensive heating of the water flow in a short period of time..
For underfloor heating, a flow-through boiler can be considered unsuitable. It is not worth going into the details of such a decision. There is one obvious fact – high energy consumption!
Which brand is the best
An important factor when choosing a boiler will be the brand under which the equipment is manufactured. There are quite a few manufacturers who supply heating boilers to the market. Let’s get acquainted with the main and most popular of them, as well as with the brands of boilers and their cost. The emphasis will be on electric boilers, since they are the best option.
Popular manufacturers rating
|#1||Buderus Logamax, E series||⭐ 97/100|
|# 2||Kospel EKCO||⭐ 96/100|
|# 3||“Galan”, series “Ochag”, “Geyser” and “Volcano”||⭐ 91/100|
Buderus Logamax, E series
Country of origin – Germany. These are heating elements wall-mounted boilers of various capacities. Eco-friendly heat sources that are used to heat premises for various purposes, including residential.
- it is possible to connect to any heating system;
- mounted in closed-type systems;
- high efficiency;
- models are easy to install, require a minimum number of additional elements.
- high price.
Country of origin – Poland. These are heating boilers, which are designed taking into account the connection of the underfloor heating system. Installed on walls, they allow you to smoothly adjust the power of the equipment. Allows you to set up automatic switching on. The temperature can be adjusted from +30 to +85 degrees.
- there is a 6-step power adjustment, which has a positive effect on energy consumption;
- ease of installation and use;
- high efficiency.
- high price.
“Galan”, series “Ochag”, “Geyser” and “Volcano”
Country of origin – Russia. Electrode boilers are quite reliable and economical in comparison with any heating elements. They pay off quickly and can be optimized for different levels of heat loss. Service life is about 30 years. This equipment is of a flow-through type, therefore it does not require approval from the supervisory authorities. Heating of the coolant occurs due to its ionization, heating is carried out without heating elements. The equipment is automated, which allows you to set the required temperature and not monitor it.
- affordable price;
- ease of installation;
- silent work;
- fear of voltage surges;
- heavy load on the wiring.
Country of origin – Italy. Wall mounted electric single-circuit boiler. Connection to a single-phase or three-phase network. Built-in weather-dependent automatic and boiler heating function. Digital control system and self-diagnostics, control panel with large LCD display, built-in weekly programmer. It is possible to connect an external storage tank for the production of hot water supply and a low-temperature circuit (underfloor heating).
- a wide range of different capacities;
- good quality components;
- large informative LCD display;
- the possibility of using antifreeze liquid in the heating system.
- high price;
- Chinese assembly;
- no room thermostat included.
Country of origin – Russia. Compact and lightweight electric boiler for wall mounting. It can be used as a main or backup heating device for residential buildings, summer cottages, various household premises with an area of up to 80 m².
- affordable price;
- withstands low voltage;
- connection to single-phase and three-phase networks.
- possible connection difficulties.
Baxi (Italy) – manufactured devices are suitable for different heating systems – radiators or floor heating. A number of models can operate at low temperatures.
The devices are compact and easy to operate. Their price is directly related to the power of the unit.
Advantage – they work outdoors at sub-zero temperatures.
Wirbel ECO SM 25
Brand – Wirbel (Austria).
Country of origin – Austria.
Compact monoblock model with power up to 28 kW, providing space heating up to 200 sq. meters. The small body contains the main strapping components, control automation and container. This design facilitates installation – it is enough to bring the supply and return of the coolant.
The dimensions make it easy to carry the product through a standard door to be installed indoors after renovation. The boiler is equipped with an expansion tank, circulation pump, safety valve, which reduces installation costs. Flue gas removal controls the flue gas fan installed in front of the chimney.
Safety is ensured by the insulation of the combustion chamber, equipped with a safety valve that reduces the pressure over 2.5 bar, regulation of the pellet consumption with a screw conveyor.
Wirbel ECO SM 25 Advantages:
- can be installed in any premises, observing the requirements for ventilation, distances to walls and ceilings;
- high efficiency (efficiency up to 93%);
- automatic control of the supply of pellets and supply air, as well as the removal of smoke, setting the operating mode for any day;
- large heat exchange area of the combustion chamber with a water jacket;
- simple control from the display;
- it is enough to clean once a week;
- ecological cleanliness according to the 5th class of the European standard.
- not detected.
Sime Solida 5 PL
Brand – Sime (Italy).
Country of origin – Italy.
Model with cast iron heat exchanger and universal burner for heating rooms up to 192 sq. meters. The basic kit includes a fuel supply system and an 80 kg container. The use of pellets automates feeding, significantly reducing storage volumes. You can install a hopper with a capacity of 500, 300 or 200 liters.
Balanced combustion with low emission of gases is ensured by the structure of the cast iron sections of the heat exchanger. The increase in their number affects the power. According to the owners, the control system guarantees reliable operation in various conditions..
Sime Solida 5 PL Advantages:
- automation of the heating process;
- low gas yield;
- easy maintenance of the combustion chamber;
- easy installation and maintenance;
- the ability to connect an indirect heating boiler;
- the presence of a thermostatic regulator “Regulus”;
- high reliability;
- long service life.
- not very high efficiency (76%).
FACI Base 26
Brand – FACI (Italy).
Country of origin – (Russia).
Automatic basic model of Russian production without additional options for heating premises up to 260 sq. meters. The unit is made of high quality heat resistant steel. A cast iron (retort) burner is installed. The combustion process is completely controlled by the automation. Equipped with a three-row heat exchanger for economical consumption. The design provides for the placement of the hopper from either side or behind the boiler. It is possible to increase the battery life due to more capacious bunkers by one or two thousand liters, which are installed instead of the standard one. The use of a twin-screw feed guarantees protection against flame penetration there.
Additional installation of a GSM module will provide remote control of the heating system. Using SMS messages, the boiler can be started or shut down remotely, as well as the system status is monitored. In addition, it is possible to equip with a room thermostat that will control the boiler according to the set temperature..
- self-cleaning burner;
- high efficiency (92%);
- preventing the penetration of fire into the bunker;
- the possibility of using low quality pellets, as well as firewood or briquettes as backup;
- a large bunker for autonomous work within a week from one bookmark;
- flue gas sensor;
- long service life;
- easy cleaning and maintenance;
- stylish design;
- 5 years warranty.
- dependence of automation on power supply.
FACI Base 26 video review:
ZOTA Pellet 15S
Brand – ZOTA (Russia).
Country of origin – Russia.
Domestic model for heating rooms up to 150 sq. meters. Designed for operation in Russian conditions with possible voltage drops, unstable pellet quality, storage, temperature conditions. In the event of a temporary power outage, the boiler can be fired with wood, for which it is necessary to install the grate, which are included in the delivery set, and remove the tubes to turn off the secondary air supply. In the case of a long absence of residents, heating elements are used to maintain the set temperature.
A bunker with a modified geometry can be placed on either side of the boiler with the possibility of installing additional sections.
You can buy at a price from 149,310 to 167,900 rubles.
ZOTA Pellet 15S Advantages:
- high degree of automation;
- control from the remote control on the front panel;
- good performance characteristics;
- increased efficiency;
- auto ignition;
- outdoor sensor for setting the optimum temperature for weather-dependent regulation;
- control of three pumps and solenoid valve drives;
- advanced security systems: protection against overheating, penetration of combustion into the bunker, burnout of the auger, automatic reverse, as well as alarm when the supply of pellets is stopped;
- optional connection of a GSM module for control from a smartphone or tablet.
- high cost of quality pellets;
- inconvenient cleaning.
ZOTA Pellet 15S video review:
BURNIT PELL EASY 20
Brand – Burnit (Bulgaria).
Country of origin – Bulgaria.
Stylish economical model with built-in burner, pump, expansion tank for heating a small country house or living space up to 150 sq. meters. Small dimensions allow installation on a closed balcony or in a small technical room. The product is operated in automatic mode – pellet feeding, ignition and cleaning. Additionally, it is possible to connect a GSM module for remote control.
The feeding system does not allow the ingress of flame into the hopper, and when the temperature rises above the norm, the STB thermostat stops the supply of pellets. In addition, visual control of the combustion process is carried out in the eyepiece. The functionality provides for the preservation of all settings in the memory of the controller when the power supply is turned off.
Offered at a price of 252,300 rubles.
BURNIT PELL EASY 20 Advantages:
- automatic ignition and feeding of pellets;
- self-cleaning burner;
- control of DHW and heating pumps;
- temperature control in the tank, buffer tank, boiler;
- smoke suction fan;
- eyepiece for visual control of combustion;
- advanced security system;
- high reliability;
- long service life;
- the possibility of remote control via mobile applications IOS or Android;
- excellent value for money.
- volatility of control and automation systems.
Atmos D 21 P
Brand – Atmos (Czech Republic).
Country of origin – Czech Republic.
Compact model for heating residential premises or country houses up to 160 sq. meters. Heat exchanger material – sheet steel up to 8 mm thick. The combustion chamber is lined with special reinforced ceramics that protect against burnout and promote maximum heat transfer. On the top there are openings for pipes on which brush exhaust gas retarders are installed.
The unit is equipped with a patented new generation ATMOS A25 automatic pellet burner with power modulation function. Only ignition is carried out, and the flame is directed into the furnace. A special feature is the possibility of self-cleaning by blowing out the ash with a fan built into the burner. This significantly increases the service life. It is possible to connect a combined boiler or indirect heating.
You can buy at a price of 361,910 rubles.
Atmos D 21 P Advantages:
- high degree of automation;
- long service life;
- easy maintenance;
- economical consumption;
- self-diagnostics with error indication on the display;
- automatic ignition;
- automatic cleaning of the burner;
- dosed supply of pellets;
- stopping the boiler in case of an emergency;
- high efficiency;
- small emission of harmful substances;
- switching off the product after the fuel burns out;
- convenient access to the combustion chamber;
- preventing accidental opening of the combustion chamber door.
- not identified.
Boiler video review:
Ecosystem BW40 + pell 40 + FH500
Brand – Ecosystem (Bulgaria).
Country of origin – Bulgaria.
Heating system model for a private house and regular space heating up to 200 sq. meters. The equipment is reliable and designed for continuous operation. Components meet strict standards and are factory tested. The product is easily installed in any buildings, and does not require specific maintenance.
It is possible to connect various types of burners (gas, diesel, oil, pellet) through the flange on the lower door. Low drag coefficient of the combustion chamber.
Offered at a price of 244,100 rubles.
Ecosystem BW40 + pell 40 + FH500 Advantages:
- compliance with the European standard EN 303-5 2012;
- large area of the finned heat exchanger;
- three-stage smoke exhaust chamber to increase efficiency;
- easy cleaning and maintenance;
- safety valve;
- fire protection of the discharge chamber with a removable metal ash grate.
- volatility of the control and automation unit.
Kiturami KRP 20A
Brand – Kiturama (Republic of Korea).
Country of origin – Republic of Korea.
Model with a three-way heat exchanger of a recognized leader in the production of heating equipment in the Republic of Korea for heating residential buildings up to 300 sq. meters. Installed in rooms with supply and exhaust ventilation to ensure normal operation with a vacuum in the chimney pipe of 2.5-3.5 mm. water column.
The product is equipped with a torch burner with a ceramic heating element. When the starting portion of pellets is filled up, the fan and the heater are turned on, followed by ignition. The air is supplied in a spiral, evenly saturating the entire layer with oxygen with almost complete combustion. The hot gases pass through the heat exchanger three times for maximum heat recovery. The sintered slag from the surface of the burner is automatically removed by a mechanical drive according to the program.
Operating modes, regulation of the process of blowing the heat exchanger and cleaning are set on the control unit. In addition, the setting can be carried out remotely from the remote control..
Sold at a price of 265,000 rubles.
Kiturami KRP 20A Advantages:
- high efficiency over 92%;
- the hot water supply circuit heats water up to 60 degrees with a capacity of 9 l / min;
- automatic diagnostics;
- fire extinguishing system with a temperature sensor at the burner inlet and an electromagnetic valve;
- large volume of coolant;
- overheat protection;
- quiet work;
- heat exchanger pneumatic cleaning;
- remote thermostat for operating modes control and parameter setting.
- the formation of slag cakes on the grate of the burner, interfering with normal operation, the appearance of soot, an increase in the consumption of pellets and a decrease in efficiency;
- power dependence.
Video review of the device:
Kostrzewa Twin Bio Lux NE
Brand – Kostrzewa (Poland).
Country of origin – Poland.
Stylish economical model with automatic fuel supply for heating rooms up to 200 sq. meters. Optimum utilization of the heating surface is ensured by the flat design with “tongues – water pipes” while keeping the minimum dimensions. The device is equipped with a Platinum Bio VG burner with variable geometry, a self-cleaning function in continuous mode, capable of burning the most inexpensive pellets. At the same time, cleaning the boiler does not require its removal. For the manufacture of a compact vertical heat exchanger, high-quality boiler steel P265GH with a thickness of up to 5 mm is used.
The unit is equipped with a system for monitoring the presence of fuel in the tank and ash. In the process of work, information about upcoming actions takes place, incl. feeding pellets or cleaning. The limitation of harmful emissions is achieved through the use of an integrated ceramic chamber and burner.
The average price from the manufacturer is 414,000 rubles.
Kostrzewa Twin Bio Lux NE [Advantages:
- torch with variable geometry and self-cleaning function;
- control of the amount of pellets;
- low level of harmful emissions;
- the ability to connect several heating circuits, incl. warm floor;
- setting the temperature in weather or manual modes;
- regulation of the heat exchanger;
- modulation and control of the flame using a photocell;
- start or stop with low thermal inertia;
- elimination of gas pops during ignition due to three phases of combustion;
- in the event of a power failure, restore the last settings with the Autostart function;
- the possibility of external control of all functions and systems from a computer or smartphone;
- protection against freezing and overheating;
- pump blockage protection;
- inclusion indication.
- complex customization;
- if installed incorrectly, a large gluttony for pellets.
Teplodar Kupper OK 20
Brand – Teplodar (Russia).
Country of origin – Russia.
Compact model of powerful single-circuit automatic heating equipment of Russian production. Heat removal efficiency for space heating up to 200 sq. meters is provided by the developed surface area of the water jacket, supplemented by a water-tube heat exchanger. The installation of the pellet burner is carried out without additional work instead of the ash door. There is a photosensor that detects the presence of fire in the firebox to turn on the ignition with the resumption of the combustion process. Single-phase power supply.
Above, to save space, there is a voluminous hopper with an auger feeding pellets, as well as a control panel for setting parameters.
Minimum price – 86,400 rubles.
Teplodar Kupper OK 20Advantages:
- built-in remote control for automatic control of ignition, combustion process, maintenance of the temperature balance of the coolant;
- partial ash blowing with a built-in fan;
- Heating element for 6 kW;
- easy conversion to solid fuel;
- automatic diagnostics;
- inclusion indication;
- overheat protection;
- basalt insulation;
- economical consumption of pellets;
- without chimney and thermostat elements;
- difficulties in cleaning a horizontal chimney;
- it is not very convenient to get in to fill the bunker with pellets.
Video review Teplodar Kupper OK 20:
12 Savitr Lux 9
Relatively expensive, but powerful and functional equipment. Has three power levels. Automatic rotation of heating elements. The boiler uses a high-quality Omron relay and reliable and independent from the control circuit protection against overheating, freezing and coolant leakage..
Single-circuit electric (heating element) boiler
Power 9 kW
Three-phase and single-phase connection
Circulation pump (built-in), which already largely justifies the high price of the boiler itself
Functionality: pressure gauge, outdoor temperature sensor, thermostat, programmer
There is a display
Possibility of connecting external control
Overheating protection, automatic diagnostics, air vent, safety valve
Contactor not of the highest quality
Because there is a remote pressure gauge, it is difficult to disassemble the boiler
Lack of statistics on average daily temperature
Electric boilers for underfloor heating are the simplest devices for heating and preparing a heat carrier (hot water).
They heat on their own, without the use of fuel, which greatly simplifies their operation, both in terms of less concern and in terms of safety.
To work, they only need an electric current in the network and water in a heat exchanger. There is no need to transport fuel, store and store it, load it into the combustion chamber, etc. Maintenance of such boilers is the simplest and most affordable for everyone. In addition, there is no need to obtain permission to use such a device from the relevant supervisory authorities..
Boiler selection parameters
The arrangement of an underfloor heating system is associated not only with the correct arrangement of elements, but also with the choice of an apparatus for heating the coolant. Most often, electric boilers are used for this purpose. But their quality depends on many parameters, including the price..
Therefore, when choosing an electrical apparatus, you must pay attention to its following characteristics:
- The material from which the boiler tank is made, experts recommend choosing stainless steel
- Corrosion resistance of the heating element
- Insulation resistance
- Protective functions of the device (from switching on without water)
- The ability to adjust the heating power
They are equipped with a microprocessor control system that ensures the quietest operation of the equipment..
|Maximum thermal power, kW||28.6||26||26||15||twenty|
|Heated area, sq. m||200||192||260||150||200|
|Expansion tank, l||Yes||No||No||No||No|
|Heat carrier temperature, deg. WITH||80||50-95||55-85||60-95||95|
|Max. pressure in the heating circuit, bar||2.5||4||1.5||3||2|
|Heating connection branch pipe, inch||1||2||1||2||1½|
|Chimney diameter, mm||80||150||160||150||150|
|Dimensions (WxHxD), cm||94х147,5х65||47x108x55.5||50×120.5×180||114x157x106||48,5x74x83|
Secrets of the right choice
When buying heating equipment that runs on wood pellets, many people are guided by a budget. This is partly the wrong approach. The area to be heated must be taken into account. Choose a boiler with a power reserve of 20%.
If the cost of equipment is a weighty criterion, please note that models with the same technical characteristics from domestic and foreign manufacturers may differ greatly in price. In addition, there are a variety of devices that can operate on different types of fuel. Combined boilers are more expensive but offer more benefits.
It is important to know that the efficiency of a pellet boiler also depends on the quality of the fuel. Buy pellets from reputable manufacturers. Equip the supply and exhaust ventilation in the boiler room.
The principle of operation of automatic pellet boilers
When starting the boiler from a cold state, the pellets are loaded into the screw feed mechanism manually. After that, the automatic control system of the unit is started, the burner is ignited and the automatic supply of pellets to the combustion area starts..
When the temperature of the heating medium reaches the set value, the supply of pellets stops. When the temperature of the heating water decreases, the supply of pellets to the combustion chamber is restored, followed by automatic ignition of the burner.
Fuel supply of pellets to the burner is carried out using a conveyor-type screw feeder. Usually it is divided into 2 parts: if pellets run out in the one located closer to the unit, the second conveyor starts and fills the first with fuel.
The control of the presence of fuel in the feeder is carried out using special photosensors. The fuel supply of pellet boilers is completed with a pellet storage complex, the volume of the bunker will depend on the thermal power of the installation.
If the built-in pellet hopper is empty, the lower tank sensor will work and send a signal to the safety automatics, which will turn off the boiler. Many modern pellet burning devices are equipped with an automatic start system..
The boilers can set different fuel delivery rates in minutes, that is, the user sets the time for the pellets to reach the combustion level, the default value is no more than two minutes, which is enough for automatic ignition. There is also a setting for the speed of the vacuum supply of fuel for automatic filling of the fuel tank.
In the absence of such a system, automatic intake is controlled by the boiler hose from an external fuel storage..
Ignition and combustion
Kindle the pellets in the same way as any solid fuel. The best option is to use special substances for ignition, although the granules ignite well without them. In the case of using a starting liquid, granules are poured over it, a little wait for the liquid to be absorbed, and then set on fire.
In systems of automatic ignition, it is performed by electric heaters through which air is supplied. After the pellets flare up well and the flame becomes stable, they begin to adjust the air supply to increase the thermal power of the unit..
In the case when it is necessary to increase the duration of fuel combustion, and its more economical use, it will be necessary to limit the supply of oxygen. In order to increase the rate of combustion, air, on the contrary, is added
In the automated mode, the combustion of the pellets proceeds on the grate of the burner, the flame is uniform with a yellow color. Then the fuel in the combustion chamber will burn completely, black smoke will not come out of the chimney, and there will be very little ash residues.
Based on the consumer quality of the solid fuel used, ash is removed at different intervals. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the ash level does not rise to the top of the burner..
Usually ash is removed before loading fuel. Modern pellet boilers have an automatic ash cleaning and unloading system, which prevents the build-up and slagging of the inner surfaces around the burner.
How to install
You can try to install a pellet boiler at home on your own with your own hands if you have special knowledge or using the Internet, where step-by-step instructions are presented. However, it is better to entrust the solution of such a question to professionals from a specialized organization that has a construction license, who will reliably mount the unit during repair or construction..
Before proceeding with the installation, it is necessary to complete the design.
- preparation of the premises;
- strengthening and leveling a fireproof base that can withstand the unit;
- laying of electrical wiring;
- installation of ventilation and chimney.
2. Installation and piping:
- installation on a hill, connection to the chimney of the gas-air duct;
- installation of the hopper, connection of the auger;
- assembly of the control panel;
- piping of the circulation pump;
- installation of an expansion tank;
- installation of automation for control of the return;
- backup power supply wiring, stabilizer installation;
- connection of the coolant circuit and return.
3. Commissioning activities:
- control of compliance with the project;
- tightness check;
- check of automation;
- control start and measurement of parameters;
- adjustment work.
4. First start:
- filling the container with pellets;
- checking the water pressure, making up to the standard if necessary;
- opening the smoke damper;
- ignition – by control panel or manually;
- checking the compliance of the parameters with the project;
- stopping after burnout;
- control of the temperature of the heating medium to prevent the formation of condensate.
- Lack of return temperature control.
- Unsatisfactory tightness of the gas circuit, decrease in efficiency due to leakage of pyrolysis gas;
- Poor thermal insulation of the base, causing condensation and emission of harmful substances.
- Inconsistency of the boiler room size with fire safety requirements, which does not allow servicing the bunker or auger.
Pellet boilers are distinguished by their efficiency, ease of operation, and long battery life. But the optimal parameters can be achieved only in the case of the correct choice of equipment, installation and commissioning..
List of the best models of domestic pellet boilers
Despite the great popularity of pellets, the choice of equipment is not so wide:
- Valday 22M. Russia. This is a single-circuit pellet heating boiler. 22 kW is the maximum, 4 kW is the minimum. The equipment operates on pellets made of peat, wood, and can be heated with wood. The moisture content of raw materials is up to 35%. When laying firewood, additional grates are installed. Ash content 90%, built-in remote access control unit, overheating protection. Hopper loading up to 160 kg. Consumption 6.3 kg / h. The heat exchanger is steel; the unit operates on one load up to 26 hours. Price from 1960 $ (13800 rub.).
- Kupper PRO. Teplodar. Unit with one circuit and automatic burner. Power 4-22 kW. Heating with sawdust is acceptable, suitable for houses with an area of 20 m2 or more. There is a possibility of reconfiguring for gas supply, in the basic configuration there is a heating element for 6 kW. The universal device also works on electricity – this is convenient for off-season periods. The automatic control panel minimizes user involvement. At the first start, it is necessary to set the operating modes, then the equipment maintains the specified parameters. Bunker with a volume of 120 kg, consumption up to 9 kg / h, operating period on one load up to 14 hours. Efficiency 95%. Price from 1330 $ (94000 rub.).
- Stropuva P20. The Lithuanian manufacturer offers pellet aggregates without auger for feeding raw materials and an auto-ignition system. To start the device, you need to turn on the gas burner, the energy carrier settles into the chamber under the influence of gravity. The power is 20 kW, the regularity of ash removal is 1 time in 4-5 weeks. Efficiency up to 90%, steel heat exchanger, price from $ 2,200 (160,000 rubles). The device has 4 built-in temperature sensors – this allows you to fine-tune the modes and control the operation of the burner. There is a forced blower fan – it is more convenient to change the intensity of heating the coolant. A relatively small volume of the bunker compartment (90 kg), and low fuel consumption within 4 kg / h are advantages. On one load, the device works up to 23 hours.
Is it possible to use an electric boiler for hot water supply and underfloor heating
The use of electric boilers for a water floor and hot water systems is directly limited exclusively to heating elements. The design provides for two separate circulation rings, each of which has its own heating device. Separate circuits, facilitate the regulation of the heating intensity of the hot water supply and the heating medium.
Electrode models are not intended for connection to hot water supply, but if necessary, the heater can be modified. In this case, the boiler piping will include:
- Indirect heating boiler – for heating hot water supply, it will be necessary to heat the coolant to a temperature of 10-20 ° C more than is required for warm floors. The circuit will work, as in similar systems with an installed gas heat generator.
- Comb with a mixing unit – it will not work directly to power the water floor from the electric boiler, due to the excessive temperature of the coolant. You will need to reduce the intensity of heating. For this, a mixing unit is added to the scheme, located on the hydraulic manifold. Only with this connection, the underfloor heating device with an electric electrode type boiler will work.
- Thermal sensors – a sensor is built into the design that records the heating temperature of the coolant, but, if necessary, a room temperature sensor is additionally connected to control the heating of the air in the room. When using underfloor heating, the sensor is installed at a distance of 15-20 cm from the floor surface.
The piping of the water floor, in addition to the comb, includes a water treatment and filtration system, and a make-up of the water circuit. Be sure to install a ground connection to prevent electric shock..
Electric boilers with a tubular heater are connected to the mains through an RCD. Electrode assemblies, exclusively through automation.
The heating time of the warm floor from the electric boiler directly depends on the type of equipment used. Electrode models reach operating power almost instantly. In heating elements electric boilers, before supplying a heated coolant, you will have to wait about 10 minutes.
Description of the electric boiler
A water-heating boiler, powered by electricity, is an insulated container of a certain volume. Polyurethane foam is used as a heat-insulating material. From the outside, the container is protected by a stainless steel casing.
The inner surface is covered with glass enamel or made of steel, on which enamel with the addition of titanium is applied. The coating withstands high temperatures, does not react with water salts, does not corrode.
The boiler is provided with outlets for cold and hot water. Water heaters, to which the heating system can be connected, are equipped with outlets for the coolant, which flows through the pipe system to the radiators or to the floor main, and returns along the cold circuit back to the boiler. The coolant is discharged through the hot water intake pipe.
A control unit is provided for automatic regulation of the operation of the electric boiler. It consists of a temperature sensor, thermostat and thermostat. The equipment is located under a protective steel casing. Only the thermostat panel is displayed on the outer surface. The thermal regime for water is set on it..
There is a heating element inside the container. It can be a heating element, an electrode or an induction coil. These devices are connected to a 220 V network. Depending on the heating source, some modifications of boilers are distinguished.
- Heating elements; this is the most common water heating equipment. The coolant is brought to a certain temperature using a heating element. It is installed on the lower surface of the firebox. To prevent scale formation on the heating element, it is placed in a metal tube. Magnesium anode provides additional protection.
- Electrode boilers; a metal rod acts as an electrode. He is the cathode. A current is supplied to it. The boiler body acts as an anode. When the system is turned on, the ions begin to change their polarity and are attracted either to the rod or to the walls of the boiler. The chaotic movement of charged particles releases energy that raises the temperature of the water..
- The coolant can be heated using an induction coil, in the center of which is a metal rod; an electric current is applied to the coil. An electromagnetic field is formed around it and around the rod; vortex flows are created that heat the coolant.
If the electric boiler is used only for heating water, which is intended for household needs, then a horizontal low-power unit is chosen. It is easy to install on the wall. Equipment of vertical form, high power is intended for the hot water heating system. They are installed on the floor or on the wall..
Water heaters are recommended to be placed in a separate room. If the unit is mounted on a wooden wall, then it is necessary to cover its surface with asbestos sheet or basalt cardboard. The equipment is installed at a height of 1.5 m from the floor and 80 cm from the ceiling.
To household heating appliances, gas stoves maintain a distance of 50 cm.Electric cables are led out from above so that in an emergency they do not get water.
The main manufacturers of heating equipment are Buderus, Logamax, Kospel EKCO, Aton Electro, Galan, Barskiy Mashzavod. The equipment is chosen depending on the capacity, operating power, and the number of water circuits. For underfloor heating, units with 2 circuits are purchased.
You can assemble an electric boiler for underfloor heating yourself. A stainless steel barrel is chosen as a container. From the outside, it is insulated with mineral wool.
Significant characteristics and equipment
Electric heaters are divided into flow and storage. For hot water supply, flow-through models are often used; for heating, a storage-type boiler (boiler) is required.
With a boiler for multi-tariff energy payment, you can save: most of the time the boiler will work in the night zone when electricity is cheaper.
Experts recommend calculating the volume of the drive based on the ratio of 25 liters per kilowatt of power. The basic requirement for the boiler: good thermal insulation of the walls.
The required boiler power is calculated as 1 kilowatt per ten meters of area plus a correction factor.
For regions with a temperate climate, it is enough to add 15 percent to the design capacity, for northern regions – to increase it by one and a half to two times. For a double-circuit boiler, add to the final value at least a quarter on DHW.
The heating element, regardless of its type, is placed in the heat exchanger tank. The tank itself is equipped with nozzles for connecting the supply pipe and return.
The control devices necessarily include:
- pressure gauge;
- temperature sensor with safety valve;
- air vent;
- manual or autoregulator;
- electrical node for connection to the network.
Power control can be stepped and smooth (if there is a built-in rheostat in the control system).
A high-quality imported model is usually equipped with additional functions: smooth start-up, liquid crystal display, the ability to program settings.
There are models with built-in expansion vessels. The package may include a pump, incl. with multi-stage regulation.
Equipment classification and operating principle
An electric boiler converts electrical energy into heat and, depending on the design features, can be:
Regardless of the type, modern models are equipped with a thermostat, with which you can adjust the power of the device and the degree of heating of the coolant.
Usually it is also possible to receive information from an external sensor in order to monitor the temperature of the air mass in a particular room..
For underfloor heating, only heating elements can be used. The design has two circulating circuits with separate heating devices. This allows you to easily adjust the degree of heating of the coolant and water for domestic needs. Electrode boilers cannot be connected to DHW, but the heater can be modified. In this case, several elements are included in the harness:
indirect heating boiler;
- mixing unit;
- thermal sensors.
The boiler can be used to heat water for domestic use. It should be 10-15 degrees hotter than the coolant. The system works in the same way as equipment with an installed thermal gas generator. It is impossible to bring the boiler to the underfloor heating directly, this does not allow the temperature of the liquid to be made, therefore, a mixing unit is used. It reduces heating by allowing the system to operate from an electrode device..
The temperature fixing sensor is already built into the equipment. But if it is not included in the kit, then you can use room equipment, which regulates the heating of the air in the room. The device must be mounted at a height of 15-20 cm above the floor surface. The piping includes filtration and water treatment, circuit replenishment. The master must definitely install the grounding, it will prevent power outages.
Boilers with tubular heaters are connected to the network, and the units on the electrodes are operated by automation. The floor heating time depends on the type of construction. The heating element equipment raises the temperature in ten minutes, and the electrode devices cope instantly.
Not all electric boilers are suitable for underfloor heating. Some models can be modified by adding additional equipment. Others cannot be changed. TEN-equipment of some manufacturers is purchased for the heating system:
series created specifically for underfloor heating – Kospel EKCO;
- units to which you can connect an indirect heating boiler – Ferroli;
- only ACV boilers are suitable for heating, but a plate heat exchanger for hot water supply can be connected to the E-tech S series;
- devices that allow the use of antifreeze as a coolant – Rilano;
- designs released separately for underfloor heating and radiators – Baxi AMPTEC;
- products of the Barsky Machine Plant.
The electrode equipment is manufactured by the Russian company GALAN. Boilers of the Geyser, Vulkan and Ochag series are suitable for floor heating systems. All models are very popular for quality and reliability, they are tested under normal conditions of use and meet all requirements.
The main disadvantage of operating electric boilers is the high consumption of electrical energy. But according to calculations, it can be understood that even such costs will be much less than when using central heating. Modern models can be called economical, while they are highly efficient..
But you can independently reduce energy costs by following a few recommendations. It is necessary to use automation – temperature control sensors. They will reduce costs by 10-15%. It is better to select equipment with remote control. Using the remote control, they switch modes without opening the boiler room.
Additionally, you can refuse DHW. It is better to install an electric boiler, its electricity costs are 40% lower than that of double-circuit heating systems. To heat the floors, a boiler is enough, which heats only the coolant. Electricity consumption is indicated in the technical documentation that is attached to the equipment.
An experienced craftsman will easily choose and install an electric boiler for a warm floor with his own hands. If the owner of the premises does not have special skills for such work, then it is better to entrust it to a specialist. Installation must be reliable and of high quality, otherwise there will be periodic failures in the system..
Induction heated appliance
In such boilers, the heating element is made of a dielectric body with a coil and a core wound on it. The current in the coil causes a potential difference in the core, which heats up quickly enough. Heat energy is transferred to the heat carrier.
Boilers with an induction principle of operation are resistant to wear, they have a high efficiency and serve for an exceptionally long time. The design is so simple that it can be made from available tools.
This is a boiler with high efficiency and long service life. Industrial models are quite expensive, but if you wish, you can make a homemade induction analogue. Any heat transfer fluid is suitable, and breakdowns are extremely rare.
Why do you need?
With the help of an electric boiler, the heat carrier (and, as a rule, domestic hot water) is heated. The heated coolant heats the house by circulating in the underfloor heating system. Without a boiler, the system can be powered only from the central heating network, which is not always possible both physically and financially. Therefore, an electric boiler for a warm floor, in fact, is a source of heat for a frame house..
Advantages of induction boilers
Among the positive qualities of this device, it is worth highlighting:
- the ability to operate any type of coolant;
- protection against plaque;
- consistently high efficiency;
- quick exit to the working mode;
- lack of detachable connections.
Manufacturing an induction boiler
The design of these boilers, like the heating elements, is quite simple, so if you wish, you can start making your own. You just need to prepare:
- welding inverter;
- steel wire;
- stainless steel wire rod;
- thick-walled plastic pipe;
- metal mesh;
- copper enameled wire.
Stage 1. The material that will be irradiated by electromagnetic waves will be small pieces of wire rod or steel wire ø7 mm. The maximum length of the segments is 5 cm.
Stage 2. It is necessary to make the case. It will simultaneously:
- the basis for creating an induction coil;
- part of the heating main.
For the manufacture of the case, a plastic pipe with an inner diameter of a little less than 5 cm is used.
Stage 3. To connect the boiler to the water supply, adapters are used. Through these adapters, the cooled coolant will enter the boiler, and the heated one will go back to the pipeline. At this stage, the first adapter is attached to the base..
Stage 4. An iron mesh is laid at the bottom of the structure. It will prevent pieces of wire from getting into the trunk.
Stage 5. After that, the wire itself is filled up. There should be just enough of it to completely fill all the free space of the container. The upper part of the body is closed by the second adapter.
Stage 6. After creation, you can proceed to the main thing – the induction coil. Enamelled copper wire is taken and wrapped around the body in ninety turns. They should be placed approximately in the center of the structure..
Step 7. Then the electric heating boiler should be connected to the heating system. To do this, a small section is cut out of the pipeline, and a structure is attached instead.
Stage 8. The coil is connected to the inverter, the system is filled with water.
There are no fundamental restrictions on the use of electric boilers. The main constraints are electricity prices in the region. In areas where it is not possible to connect to the central heating system, there are practically no options for heating the house – either electricity or other types of fuel that are much more laborious to use and require human participation (maintenance, supervision, supervision, delivery and storage of fuel, etc.). etc.). Low maintenance electric boilers are often chosen.
Electricity consumption is determined by the type of heater and its power.
The magnitude of the expected consumption is a very pressing issue, since it determines the amount of money that will have to be paid regularly for electricity..
Therefore, it is useful to calculate its power and determine the consumption parameters before purchasing a boiler..
Attention! The use of more modern designs of electric boilers allows you to stabilize and reduce electricity consumption and, accordingly, the cost of paying for it..
Energy saving options, in addition to choosing more economical models and types of heaters, are based on the use of the thermal inertia of the heat carrier. For example, in the presence of a concrete screed, it becomes possible to periodically disconnect the heater from the network..
The concrete layer cools down for a long time, which allows you to significantly save energy (and money) – up to 30%, and sometimes more. In addition, it will be rational to organize the correct distribution of the operating modes of the circuits in different rooms – it is cooler in the corridors, in the living room or in the bathroom – it is warmer. This separation will help reduce heating intensity and generate savings..
The procedure for assembling a boiler with heating elements with its own rivers
Before making an electric boiler with your own hands, you should take care of the availability of a reliable power line. Only equipment with a capacity of no more than 6 kW can be connected to ordinary networks with a voltage of 220 V and a frequency of 50 Hz. If a more powerful boiler is required, a three-phase wiring and a separate input must be made for it..
So, we start assembling a homemade electric heating boiler from a pipe with a cross section of 159 mm with a wall thickness of 10 mm. This pipe will serve as the boiler drum. For it, you will need either a factory-made hemisphere with a section of 159 mm and a thickness of 10 mm, or sheet metal with a thickness of 8 mm or more of a similar section.
The roof of the boiler, into which the heating elements will subsequently be embedded, can be made from a channel with a thickness of 8 mm.
We cut a ¾ inch sleeve into the boiler dome. We will screw the drain valve into this sleeve. In addition, you will need 2 1-inch pipes for inflow and return. The threads on the branch pipes can be made both internal and external. It all depends on which one is more convenient for you to work with..
To relieve excess pressure, you need to prepare a branch pipe for the tie-in of the bypass channel. You will also need 3 adapters, into each of which a heating element for an electric boiler will be screwed. One more adapter will be needed for the thermal sensor. In addition, you will need holders for automation..
Please note that it is advisable to cut the threads on the nozzles and adapters immediately.
Prepared threaded pipes, the same as on heating elements, must be immediately screwed into the adapters. This is necessary so that the thread is not damaged during welding to the roof. To mark the insertion points of heating elements, the outer diameter of the pipe must be divided into 6 equal sectors according to the size of the radius. Then we draw three identical sectors strictly at an angle of 120 °.
The next step is to start cutting. Having finished with the markings, using a plasma cutter, cut out the holes for the pipes for the heating elements. They should only be cut along the outer contour. With all other pipes, this does not matter..
We start welding. First, we intercept the pipes at several points so that they are not led. Then we check the accuracy of the location, if necessary, tap it lightly with a hammer, and then make a continuous seam. It is important that adapters for heating elements in an electric boiler for heating with their own hands protrude 1 cm above the surface of the boiler arch.
Next, you need to make sure that the heating elements fit completely inside the body of the electric boiler. Therefore, after applying a continuous seam, it is necessary to screw the heating elements into the adapters.
We proceed to cutting the arch from the channel. In its center we make a hole for the air valve branch pipe, after which we weld the branch pipe itself. On the side we make a hole for the temperature sensor and also weld the pipe under it.
All protrusions, burrs and remnants of welding work must be carefully cleaned with a grinder. The inner surface of the vault platform should be perfectly flat. The pipes for installing heating elements will protrude only from the outside by 1 cm.
We got a rather powerful electric boiler with our own hands with 3 heating elements. If you need a simpler unit, according to the same principle it can be assembled for 1 or 2 heating elements.
What tools will be needed
Before starting work, you need to take care of special tools and equipment.
You will need:
- inverter welding machine;
- gas or plasma cutter;
- Angle grinder (grinder);
- electric drill;
- measuring instrument (tape measure, compasses and so on).
Electric boiler on heating elements
Such heating is the most common. To heat water in the heating system, heating elements were used, placed in a special tank – a heat exchanger. It was, in fact, an ordinary metal cylindrical tank with embedded nozzles for the supply and exit of the coolant..
The heating element itself – heating element – is a metal tube with a nichrome spiral inside. To improve heat transfer, the tubes were filled with quartz sand.
When electricity is applied to the spiral, it is heated and transfers heat to the quartz filler. A thin metal tube of the heating element heats up and transfers heat to the surrounding water or other coolant.
Actually, this is the principle of operation of such heaters. After supplying electricity to the contacts of the heating elements, the heating system is filled with hot water in 15–20 minutes.
We start making a homemade electric boiler:
- Prepare three pipes ø13 mm and two ø30 mm.
- The heating tank will need a piece of steel pipe ø219 mm with a wall thickness of 3 mm. The length of the workpiece is about 65 cm. This is our future heating tank. For the supply and return pipes, holes of the corresponding diameter are cut in the tank body. The same holes must be prepared for tapping the drain pipes and expansion tank.
- Prepared nipples are welded to the holes made using an inverter welding machine.
- Cut out a circle from sheet steel with a thickness of 3–10 mm to fit the diameter of the tank. It must be welded to one of the ends of the ø219 mm pipe. Carefully process welded areas.
- Make a hole at the base of the tank for mounting the heating element.
- Connect the boiler to the heating system using the supply and return pipes.
- Connect the wires to the output contacts of the electric heater.
- Install thermostat.
- Fill the structure with water and test it for tightness.
- Supply electricity to heating elements.
- The last stage is painting.
Electrode heating boiler
As a matter of fact, they are superficially similar, but the very principle of heating the liquid in the boiler is different. It is itself a heating element. The second element is an insulated steel electrode.
To start the heating process, the power supply must be separated. A zero is connected to the body, a phase is connected to the electrode.
When voltage is applied, active oscillation of ionic particles in the liquid begins. The coolant begins to heat up. Well, then the hot water rises up and goes through the pipe to the heating system. The cooled liquid is returned back to the boiler.
- Due to the small size of the heater, it can be placed in small rooms;
- There is no need to worry about the boiling off of the coolant. Without water inside the boiler, it simply will not work;
- Not afraid of voltage drops;
- High speed of the boiler reaching the operating mode;
- More economical units in comparison with heating elements.
- The efficient operation of the electrode boiler is affected by the quality of the coolant;
- Reliable grounding is required – there is a possibility of electric shock;
- Such a system does not tolerate airing..
The competition in the market for heating systems for electric boilers is made up of installations operating on diesel and solid fuels (including pellets), as well as gas and combined units..
In practice, when comparing the technical and economic indicators of the presented boilers, it can be concluded that electrical installations for heating a residential building are one of the best options for operation. Their main advantages are reliability in operation, relative cheapness of the apparatus, silent operation, ease of installation and full automation..
Not all units are equipped with a full automation system, and some (for solid fuel) do not have it at all.
A positive feature of electric boilers among other representatives is their environmental friendliness: during operation, smoke, soot, ash do not form, which is extremely important for ensuring fire safety..
So far, the cheapest type of heating is gas. But the situation may change soon: it is rapidly becoming more expensive. In the meantime, when installing a gas boiler for a warm water floor, you will pay the least for the energy resources used monthly..
The second place is for fuel that is unusual for our country – pellets and fuel briquettes. If we compare the cost of a ton of firewood and pellets, then pellets are more expensive, but in terms of the cost of a kilowatt of heat, the use of pellets / briquettes is cheaper. These small pellets are produced from waste from the wood processing industry or crop production. At the same time, their calorific value is higher than that of the best firewood, and for the highest quality pellets it is comparable even to the amount of heat emitted by some brands of coal. And at the same time, waste (ash) is ten times less. Fuel briquettes can also be attributed to the same category. It’s just that pellets are usually used in special installations, and briquettes can be used to heat ordinary solid fuel boilers..
Pellets and fuel briquettes are not yet widespread in our country, but heating with them turns out to be economical. The high degree of autonomy of the units running on this fuel is also pleasing.
The third and fourth places are contested by firewood and coal. In some regions it is more profitable to heat with wood, in others -.
Fifth place for liquid fuel – it is not cheap. The operating costs should also include the need to heat the fuel tank, or the installation of the tank in a heated room. In addition, diesel fuel installations require a boiler room. Moreover, it is better to build a boiler room at a decent distance from the house: the noise during the operation of the burner is decent, and the smell is strong, and it penetrates everywhere.
It is generally accepted that the most expensive heating is electricity. But when using automated modern devices, you have to pay only slightly more than when using coal or firewood. So do not discount electric boilers for underfloor heating. Simply, for more economical heating, it is advisable for you to take a heating unit with the ability to adjust the power. In some traditional electric boilers, the heating elements are assembled in groups, and the automation, turning on / off the groups, regulates the work power and saves electricity. For a warm floor, it is advisable to take a three-stage, or, in extreme cases, a two-stage unit. Induction and electrode boilers are in themselves economical (if controlled by electronics) and low-inertia, that is, they do not waste energy.
Heating cost depending on the type of fuel used
Assembly instructions for a homemade electrode boiler
As a body for an electric heating boiler with our own hands, we use a pipe with an internal section of about 50 mm and a length of 40 cm.In addition, you will need a solid rod with a diameter of 20 mm and a length of 30 cm, as well as two adapters with a cut internal thread. At the end of the rod, we drill a blind hole with a thread for a Ø10 mm bolt.
We prepare the pipes. 1 we will weld at the end of the pipe, and the other at the side. In order for the side pipe to fit perfectly to the pipe, it is cut with a grinder, and then polished with a round file.
We cut the holes for the pipes. If there is no cutter, many small holes can be drilled around the circumference. The work is brought to the ideal with a file and a round file. The hole for the side pipe must be located 10-15 mm from the edge of the pipe.
The next step is to weld the pipes to the pipe. To prevent them from being led, first they do spot welding in several places, and then they impose a continuous seam.
We are preparing a platform for an electric boiler. To do this, you can take a sheet of fiberglass with a thickness of 2 cm and cut a piece of 120 × 120 mm using a metal hacksaw. Then, in this platform, you need to drill one hole in the center, and four around the perimeter. The cross-section of the holes should be 10-12 mm.
Through the holes around the perimeter, the fasteners of the boiler body will be skipped, and the central hole is designed to fix the steel electrode.
We proceed to fixing the boiler body to the platform. To ensure a secure fit, four Ø12 mm nuts can be welded to the body on 4 sides. Bolts Ø10 mm will easily pass through them.
These nuts must be welded with a slight offset from the platform. To ensure it, it is necessary to screw the nuts of suitable size onto the bolts, thread them into wide nuts, and fix them again from the bottom with smaller ones. Thus, it will be easier to carry out welding work..
At the last stage, we carry out the final assembly of the boiler. To do this, cut out a rubber gasket with a section slightly larger than the outer diameter of the boiler. In its central part we make a hole and pass an electrode through it. Then we install the case on the platform and fasten it.
Which electric boilers are recommended for water floors
As has been repeatedly noted in this article, not all electric boilers are suitable for heated floors. Some manufacturers’ models can be modified, others cannot. Judging by the operating experience and technical characteristics, it is better to connect electric boilers of the following brands to underfloor heating:
- Heating elements boilers:
- Buderus Logamax, E series
- Kospel EKCO (a series specially designed for connection to underfloor heating)
- Ferroli LEB and Ferroli ZEWS (with the possibility of connecting an indirect heating boiler)
- ACV E-tech W (only for heating) and ACV E-tech S (with the possibility of connecting an additional plate heat exchanger for hot water supply)
- Vaillant eloBLOCK series
- Baxi AMPTEC (series, separately for radiators and underfloor heating)
- Rilano EVPM (with the ability to use antifreeze)
- Barsky Machine-Building Plant Zh7-KEP
- Electrode boilers:
- GALAN, series OCHAG, GEYSER and VOLCANO
- ATON Electro
All models are tested in domestic operating conditions and have shown themselves well in work with low-temperature heating systems.
An electric boiler for a warm water floor can be a heating element, electrode or induction. Heating elements are most often used to connect to a water floor system; they are the most common and time-tested heaters. The heating element is tubular, quite simple in the device – it can even be made independently, but it is quite reliable, and does an excellent job with its task. The efficiency is quite high – 97-98%.
Also, units with tubular heaters are convenient in that they can be both single-circuit and double-circuit. Power varies from 2 to 60 kW, and can operate from a network of both single-phase and three-phase.
Equipment with a power of 12 kW and above operates only from a three-phase network.
Double-circuit boilers are mini-boiler rooms, each circuit of which can operate both in pairs and separately, while the work of both is independent of each other. One circuit will work for heating, and the second will provide hot water. This is especially convenient for underfloor heating.
For ease of use, it is recommended to use double-circuit boilers – for heating and hot water supply. The cost of such equipment is on average 20-40% higher than single-circuit equipment, but the difference in price is compensated by the comfort of use..
An electrode boiler can also heat the water floor. It works on a slightly different principle – the resistance of positive and negative electrodes heats the coolant in a matter of minutes.
The advantages of these models stand out:
- compact size;
- durability of service life;
- high efficiency, which practically does not decrease over time;
- fairly reasonable prices.
It is possible to connect such boilers to radiators together with the floors by installing a mixing unit. Also, electrode equipment is 30 percent more economical than heating element, which is also a plus..
A significant disadvantage in their use will be that the electrode boiler for correct operation requires a special liquid – antifreeze.
The most high-tech electric boiler for a warm water floor today is induction. These systems are designed to consume the minimum amount of energy while maximizing efficiency and service life. Of course, they are able to heat not only a water-heated floor, but also radiators, for example, on the second floor of a building..
Induction takes up the least space in the room
Induction devices work absolutely silently, are fully automated, have high efficiency, up to 100%, do not require a chimney, separate rooms or care for it, the manufacturer’s declared service life is 30 years.
There are two significant disadvantages:
- high cost, especially in comparison with electrode models.
- untested design principles and reliability. Yes, of course, the manufacturer claims 30 years of possible service life, but there is no actual confirmation of this.
Despite the fact that in recent years there has been almost universal gasification, gas-powered equipment is still rarely installed in rural areas. Its main area of application is city apartments and country cottages, which are similar in terms of comfort to the conditions of a metropolis. In villages, solid fuel equipment is more often installed – a wood, pellet or coal boiler.
The most important advantage that distinguishes a solid fuel (pellet or wood-burning) heating boiler is its low cost and ease of operation. In the village, firewood remains the cheapest fuel to this day, and the likelihood of gas supply to remote corners of the country is still practically in the realm of fantasy..
Heating system connection options
Electric boilers are used in systems with a liquid heat carrier that circulates through pipes.
These can be traditional radiator options:
- with natural movement of the coolant;
- with forced circulation;
- combined options.
In addition, boilers are successfully used in water floor heating systems. They are also suitable where they combine radiators as the main source of heating and TP as an addition to it. When installing heating based on an electric boiler, a suitable scheme should be selected.
Natural type system
Such a system works by exploiting the ability of water to expand when heated. The hot coolant tends upward, displacing the cooled water from the circuit. It returns to the heat exchanger, heats up, replaces the cooled liquid, etc. In this case, the electric boiler is placed in the lower part of the circuit..
For the gravitational heating system to work properly, it is important to select sufficiently wide pipes and lay them with the correct slope (+)
The implementation of a system with natural circulation of water along the circuit requires competent calculation and correct installation.
A significant number of pipes of a certain diameter will be required, which must be laid with the desired slope. Problems may arise if you need to adjust the power of the device and change the heating level of the coolant.
Forced circulation circuit
Here, the movement of hot water through the pipes is provided by a pump connected to the system. In addition to it, you will also need a membrane expansion tank and equipment that ensures its operation: a pressure gauge, shut-off valves, etc..
The electric boiler is placed below, then an expansion tank is connected to the system, after which a circulation pump is mounted.
To ensure forced circulation of the coolant through the system, you will need a circulation pump, a membrane expansion tank, and other elements (+)
This type of circuit is less sensitive to the characteristics of pipes and radiators, which provides ample opportunities for the selection of suitable components. It is in such systems that antifreeze can be used. The possibilities for regulating the temperature of the water in the circuit are also expanding.
Electric boiler and double tariff
One of the most significant reasons for using an electric boiler for heating is the possibility of using double tariffication for the use of electricity. Reduction of fees during the night period allows you to significantly reduce costs.
A two-tariff meter makes it possible to pay for electricity used at night much less than during the day and saves the owners of electric boilers
You will need to purchase and install a two-rate meter. It is worth noting that double-circuit models of equipment with heating elements supply hot water to the collapsible tap with a characteristic noticeable delay. As a result, some of the heat is lost, which reduces the effect of saving electricity..
It makes sense to supplement such a design with an external heat accumulator capable of maintaining a high temperature of heated water for a long time. Such a device is quite effective when using a two-tariff meter..
The water is heated at night, kept warm and used during the day, the energy consumption during the day is reduced, as are the bills for the electricity used..
Heating costs for an electric boiler with a water floor
Electricity costs are one of the most significant disadvantages of electric boilers. But even simple calculations can yield results indicating that electricity consumption will result in costs much less than what you need to pay for district heating. Modern electric boilers are economical and have high thermal efficiency..
There are ways to reduce energy costs:
- The use of automation – costs, after connecting room thermostats, are reduced by 15-20%. Remote control panel, helps to quickly change settings if necessary, without visiting the boiler room.
- Refusal of hot water supply – for comparison, an electric boiler for heating water uses up to 40% less electricity than a hot water circuit installed in an electric boiler.
Electricity consumption for each electric boiler is indicated in the technical documentation.
How to connect the boiler to the underfloor heating yourself
If the electric boiler was installed according to all the rules, then do-it-yourself connection will not cause any difficulties. Usually this operation is performed in the following sequence:
- Wall-mounted or floor-standing boiler is installed according to the instructions.
- 2 pipes from the warm floor are supplied to the heater.
- Pipes are connected to the boiler through a tap.
A circulation pump is already installed in a modern boiler, therefore, after supplying the coolant and pressure testing the system, such a scheme will work as usual..
How the equipment is installed?
- Pour in antifreeze. This will reduce electricity costs by about 5-10 percent. Less commonly, salt water (distilled) is used instead of antifreeze liquid..
- The boiler is connected to the electricity network according to the connection diagram specified in the instructions, while the connection between the equipment should be displayed on the switchboard.
- Additional equipment is installed: a reservoir and a residual current device (RCD). These devices protect against burnout during a strong power surge..
- For boilers with high power, a three-phase network must be installed. This should be done by a competent professional electrician..
- Install temperature sensors. The presence of these devices reduces energy consumption by 5-15%. The thermostat is needed so that the boiler does not work uselessly when the room heats up to the desired temperature.
When installing electric boilers, as well as for installations of this type, it is necessary to comply with safety requirements:
- cables must be insulated with the required cross-section;
- the cable should be laid in a channel special for it;
- mandatory presence of grounding.
It is worth noting that the installation and connection of all devices must be done carefully, there should be no open sections of the cable and bare wires. It is necessary to monitor the appearance of the heat exchanger body using a phase sample for the coolant. Of course, it is possible that such protection is already in the boiler design, but it is better to play it safe and secure yourself.
With proper installation, careful use and installation of additional equipment, the service life of the underfloor heating system is extended. The construction of water heated floors is made in such a way that heating is distributed comfortably and evenly, unlike the use of radiators.
The use of an electric boiler system for a warm water floor is economical and practical. The unit will operate regardless of the availability of general heating in the house, which is very convenient between seasons.
When choosing electrical equipment, it is necessary to rely on the basic criteria and use the help of qualified employees, if necessary, they will help you choose an electric boiler correctly, taking into account the power and country of the manufacturer. The equipment can be installed either independently or by contacting professionals, they will do everything quickly and efficiently.
Prefabricated manifold systems
A complete manifold system, along with shut-off valves and temperature controllers, includes:
- mixing unit;
- drain tap;
- air outlet;
- pump that circulates liquid in pipes.
A valve with a control thermostat can easily serve as an analogue of a shut-off valve at the inputs / outputs. The main advantage of these devices is their ability to narrow and expand depending on the set optimum temperature, setting the intensity of the heated liquid.
The mixer pump must be installed between the supply clamp and the supply pipe, while the third outlet goes to the return and is located in front of the return clamp. The resulting connection will allow the pump to take the cooled liquid from the system and send it directly into the supply.
Emergency piping options
Whichever of the heating system options you choose, an emergency circuit must be implemented in two-circuit heating systems, which will act as protection in the event of various non-standard situations, for example, if the electricity is suddenly cut off. There are several ways to cope with this problem..
The supply of water from the water supply system to the system is used quite rarely, since it is ineffective. It all lies in the fact that the plumbing system stops working when the power is turned off. A certain amount of water is stored in the accumulators, however, this amount will simply not be enough to prevent overheating of the equipment. If antifreeze is used as a coolant, then about 150 liters of this expensive substance will simply be drained into the sewer system..
If you connect the circulation pump to an uninterruptible power supply, you can play it safe against a power outage in the network. However, this solution also has its drawbacks. This power supply may not work due to some unexpected situations. In addition, boilers with a double-circuit system require constant maintenance and preventive maintenance. It is constantly necessary to monitor the health of the batteries and carry out a health check by charging and testing.
The circuit protects the heating system from overheating
The concept of gravitational circulation means a special circuit, which is characterized by small dimensions and serves to remove excess heat energy in the heating system. This circuit must be turned on only after the pump is turned off, which will lead to the fact that not the entire building will be heated, but some part of it.
One of the most effective methods is to create an emergency circuit. It is an indispensable component of any good heating system. Thanks to this, the loop, gravity and forced loops can function in different parts of the system as usual. However, when the pump is off, only the gravity circuit will work..
So, we discussed the main functions and technical characteristics of existing piping schemes for electric boilers. You only need to make your choice, relying on your technical knowledge, family budget and the general arrangement of the heating system in your home. Having weighed all the nuances and focusing on the scheme that is ideal for your home, you should proceed directly to the installation.
Installing the unit
First you need to install an electric boiler indoors. As we have already said, the unit can be floor-standing or wall-mounted. In the first case, the set includes a special stand, on which the “landing” is made.
In order to hang the boiler on the wall, it is necessary to prepare anchors with dowels and a drill with a suitable drill. First, mark the wall using a tape measure and a marker..
The holes must be perfectly aligned horizontally. Next, we drill out the marked places, drive dowels into them and screw in the anchor. After the anchor is firmly seated inside the wall, you can hang the electric boiler.
We draw your attention to the fact that the installation of an electric boiler must be performed perfectly evenly both horizontally and vertically. Any misalignment can affect the performance and service life of the equipment.
Any misalignment can affect the performance and service life of the equipment..
Users respond only positively to the functioning of electric boilers in conjunction with the underfloor heating system.
Stanislav. Zelenogradsk: “I installed a heated floor in the bathhouse. The electric boiler allows you to maintain the required temperature with minimal energy consumption “.
Victor. Kislovodsk: “Previously, radiators were installed, but in winter it was always very cold. I installed an electric boiler and installed pipes in the floor and thus completely solved the problem “.
Novel. Kursk: “In comparison with a heating tank for solid fuel, an electric boiler does not require a chimney, so I installed it directly in a heated room.”.
Attention! Installing a warm floor and an electric boiler is the best option when it is necessary to reduce heating costs without reducing heating efficiency. In addition, such devices are relatively inexpensive, and installation does not take much time..
How to connect correctly?
To connect a warm water floor, in most cases, a wall-mounted double-circuit gas boiler is used. It must be installed indoors at the time the water floor is connected. The connection process itself includes a number of stages. Initially, the floor itself is mounted, and then it is connected to the system.
The workflow for laying and connecting a water floor is divided into parts:
- the length of the contour is calculated;
- the base for laying the floor is selected;
- thermal insulation material is spread;
- the damper tape is attached;
- reinforcement is made;
- pipes are laid;
- a collector is installed;
- circuits are connected;
- crimping is carried out;
- a common water supply system is being created;
- screed is poured.
First of all, it is necessary to calculate the length of each circuit. As a rule, the length of one loop is no more than 100 m with a diameter of 16 mm. If exceeded, the pressure in different branches will vary in one direction or another, which will entail a malfunction of the entire system. Small rooms imply one circuit, large ones – several. They should all be made approximately the same. The difference between them must be kept within 15 meters..
Base for laying the floor
It is necessary to decide on which base the floor will be laid. Either cement screed or dry floors can be chosen. A concrete slab is more commonly used. Its thickness ranges from 5-7 mm. A layer of waterproofing is laid on it – a film with a thickness of at least 0.1 mm.
The reinforcement mesh is attached to the insulation and connected by pieces of wire to each other. It is also recommended to make reinforcement over the laid pipes for their reliable fixation..
It is better to take material that has proven itself in the market. Expanded polystyrene is one of the modern materials used for thermal insulation (35 kg per 1 cubic cm). It is practical and easy to use. Laying is done with an overlap on the walls to a height of 10-20 cm. The joints are glued with tape at a height of 10-20 cm. It is also possible to use mineral wool for these purposes..
Creation of a common heat and water supply system and connection of circuits
The next stage is the choice of the connection scheme and the very connection of the circuits. First you need to install a manifold – a distribution heating system. The collector consists of two pipes (supply and return). Each of them has side holes – an outlet (for the supply) and an inlet (for a return one). These outputs are connected to a valve for connecting a warm water floor and to radiators (batteries).
It may seem difficult to implement a connection to a single heating source. In fact, everything is simple. Both ends of the circuit are connected to two sides of the manifold. One side is attached to the outlet, the other to the inlet (return). A closed loop is formed. Thus, branches are connected in all rooms. Connection elements are located at the ends of the collectors. On one side there is a tap for draining water, on the other – for venting.
The collectors are fixed in the form of a tee or TTT tees. Their number is calculated relative to the number of branches of the heat carrier.
The connection kit includes the following components:
- circular pump;
- mixing valve – two- or three-way;
- shut-off valves;
- drain and air taps;
- fittings for connection.
After the pipes are laid, they are connected to the manifold. One end of the loop connects to the hot water inlet and the other to the outlet. The contours are fastened with fittings or special nuts. Installation is possible using a mixing valve or a circular pump. The pump is installed on the return pipe, not on the supply pipe. If installed on the supply pipe, the pump will take an additional volume of water from the heating system, which, in turn, will cause a decrease in heat in the radiators..
After completing the connection, fill the system with water, remove air using special taps on the manifolds and check for leaks. If no leaks are found, then a test boiler is turned on to make sure that the system is working correctly and heat is supplied to all circuits. This completes the installation of a warm water floor and connecting it to a gas boiler..
Installing the manifold and gauges
The collector is a distribution system for heating. Consists of 2 pipes – supply and return. On the sides of each of them there are openings with an exit and an entrance. They serve as connecting elements of the valve with radiators.
The connection is made by connecting both ends of the circuit to the two sides of the collector system itself. One must be attached to the outlet and the other to the inlet.
As a result, a closed loop is formed, and the branches in all rooms are connected. There are connecting elements at the end of the collector. There are also taps for draining water and air outlet on different sides..
The collector is fixed in the form of tees, the number of which depends on the number of coolant branches.
- circulation pump;
- mixing taps;
- shut-off valves;
- faucet for draining water and venting;
- connecting fittings.
After laying the pipes, they begin to connect them to the collector system. One end on the loop must be connected to the inlet for hot water, the other to the outlet. Everything is secured with nuts and fittings. If desired, installation can be carried out using a circulation pump or mixing valve.
In this case, the pumping system is not installed on the supply pipe, but on the return pipe. When installed on the return pipe, more water from the heating system will be consumed, and, accordingly, the heat in the batteries will decrease.
The last stage consists in filling the system with water, removing air with special taps installed on the manifold, and checking for leaks. If it is not found, we test the boiler to make sure that the entire system is working correctly and that heat is evenly supplied to all circuits..
With the help of collectors, the system reacts to the slightest temperature fluctuations in the street. Warm floors, in contrast to the battery and radiator system, allow you to heat the entire area evenly.
At the same time, an important point is the task of maintaining a stable heating temperature and its accurate regulation. Increasing or decreasing 1-3 degrees can create both cold and heat indoors. How the system will regulate the processes depends on the model of heating boilers.
Calculations and correct pipe distribution
As for the diameter of the pipes, the most widespread are 2-centimeter versions. The maximum distance between the turns is 30 cm, the minimum is 10. At the same time, it is recommended to observe the same interval between the pipe and the walls – 20 cm. Near the walls with windows, the distance between the rows is made smaller. Laying begins from the side of the short wall, and for this, about 15 tubes are taken to create a straight pipe base. The distance from the collector to the turns of the pipeline should not be less than 40 cm. Each circuit of the heating system within the rooms should have a length of 40 m, but preferably no more than 100. In large rooms, you should not invest in this indicator, but simply form 2 or more circuits, ideally the same length. It is still permissible to exceed the limit of 100 m: 120 m is considered the maximum for 18 mm XLPE pipes, 125 m for plastic pipes with a diameter of 2 cm.
How to make a heat accumulator with your own hands
A do-it-yourself heat accumulator for a solid fuel boiler is an energy-efficient and uncomplicated design, representing a container in the middle of which there is a coolant that receives and stores energy. After the boiler has finished performing its operating cycle, the room is heated by absorbing the previously collected energy. Thanks to this, the heat accumulator significantly increases its efficiency and significantly saves resources..
Heating from a solid fuel boiler (installed by hand) with a heat accumulator consists of many spiral tubes that are located around the entire perimeter of the tank. This arrangement is due to the fastest possible use of heat. Each of the spiral circuits located in the container is responsible for one action. For example, the first one receives the generated heat energy, the second heats the area of the room (building), the third heats water for domestic purposes.
Advantages of using a heat storage device:
- Accumulation and concentration of thermal energy.
- Possibility of combining two or more heat sources.
- Increase in productivity.
- Water heating availability.
- Temperature control.
A solid fuel boiler with a water circuit, installed by hand, allows you to save money when it is equipped with a heat accumulator.
For self-manufacture of a heat accumulator for a boiler, you will need a large capacity. It is almost impossible to make it with your own hands. The ideal option is a stainless steel tank or any container with a lid. The thickness of the used steel is 4-9 mm. The preferred shape is a cylinder or a sphere, as a last resort – a cube.
A suitable option is a barrel. For a summer cottage or a country villa, the minimum volume of a barrel for a solid fuel boiler starts from 1 ton. On large containers, before using them, stiffeners are welded on, which will significantly strengthen it.
Having received the necessary capacity, they think over its location, since in the future it will be much heavier. Further, diagrams and drawings will be needed..
Consider the step-by-step manufacture of a heat accumulator for a solid fuel boiler. The order of its manufacture:
- The flange is welded to the size of the cover. In the future, it will be used for bolted connections. Stiffeners are installed to seal the cover.
- The inside surface is treated with phosphoric acid (solution), primed 4 to 6 times and covered with two to three layers of high-temperature paint.
- Welding work is in progress. Coils are welded inside the barrel.
- If possible, powder coating is done together with the coil. It allows you to get a high-quality coating, which increases anti-corrosion properties..
- Main tank and coil are checked for leaks.
- Grinding and painting of the outside of the barrel is carried out. Preferred paint – silver.
- Insulated with a layer of aluminum foil and a thick ball of min. cotton wool.
Considering that the heat accumulator for a solid fuel boiler is constantly heating up, fire safety rules must be observed
What quickly and easily ignites is pushed back at a safe distance.
A closed-type system will have a rather high coolant pressure, therefore, special attention should be paid to welds, joints, joints. It is also necessary to install heat-resistant rubber gaskets on the lid, which can withstand the operating temperature of the coolant..
In the case of using heating elements for additional heating, it is necessary to observe the rules of electrical safety: the tank must have a “ground”, that is, grounding, and the contacts are insulated .. Their use is beneficial when:
Their use is beneficial when:
- The need for hot water supply for large facilities (public baths, hospitals, kindergartens, schools).
- Use of fuel materials.
- The use of heat compressors (makes their work more balanced).
As you can see, installing a solid fuel boiler with your own hands is a rather simple and primitive thing, but at the same time it has a number of features. The element is installed both in an apartment and in a private house. Installation costs are minimal, savings are maximum. The assortment is varied, everyone will find what suits him. Also, it should be noted that you can make a solid fuel boiler with your own hands for a garage. If you are not sure of your own strength, call the master, he will do all the necessary work with high quality and on time.
Design and assembly rules
The decision to choose exactly a water floor, and not an electrical analogue requiring meticulous installation, is optimal for heating systems on gas boilers.
Such schemes are recognized as the least energy-consuming, most efficient and inexpensive to operate. Options with solid fuel boilers are also acceptable.
The flawless operation of the system is possible only under two conditions: professionally performed design calculations and competently carried out installation.
Therefore, the first steps on the way to installing a water heated floor in a country house or in a private house are the analysis of the structure, the choice of materials, and the drafting.
Qualities that a project should have
- Durability and reliability.
- Uniform heating of the room.
- No additional devices for heating the room.
- Aesthetic look.
- Long service life.
Choosing a pipe for the floor
TIM PEX pipe for floor contour, cross-linked with PE
For the underfloor heating system (directly for heating), three types of materials are used, more precisely pipes:
- Crosslinked Polyethylene (PE).
Metalloplast (the same cross-linked polyethylene).
But, I will say right away that copper is very expensive, so we will not even discuss such contours, only cross-linked PE and metal-plastic remains. Although, in fact, both PE and metalloplast are made of the same polyethylene armored with aluminum foil or EVOH, only we are used to distinguish them by color and call them differently.
Based on many years of experience in installing heating and heating systems of various types, I can say that it is best to buy pipes that are used to being called metal-plastic pipes. They are usually white, whereas cross-linked PE is pink, red or gray-blue. The armored layer in the first case is made of aluminum foil (has excellent thermal conductivity), and in the second case, it is an EVOH layer (effective new generation material).
So why did I start to give preference to metal-plastic? Everything is very simple and there are good reasons for this:
- XLPE pipes have the same thermal conductivity as metal-plastic, but at the same time they are much more expensive;
- thanks to aluminum armor, a concrete screed can be poured onto metal-plastic without filling the tubes with water, while PE can deform at this pressure (flatten).
Recommendation. When buying polystyrene pipes, you need to choose a seamless pipe – it is more reliable. If the seller cannot provide a certificate for the product, then check it yourself. To do this, cut a piece 7-10 mm long from the bay and try to disassemble it in layers. If you managed to do this without difficulty, then the product is of poor quality..
The nuances of the underfloor heating device
The construction of the construction of a water floor is complex and simple at the same time. It is multicomponent in composition, so the main thing is to observe the order of laying all layers..
The “wet” type scheme is recognized as universal, in which the contours of the water floor are laid on the heat-insulating layer, and from above they are poured with a cement screed.
Each piece of the “pie” has a specific function. The basis for the structure is soil or a concrete slab. A thin film (but not less than 0.1 mm thick) is laid on it – ordinary polyethylene or a more expensive analogue.
Then cover the floor with heat-insulating material. One of the best options is extruded polystyrene foam – durable, relatively inexpensive, with low thermal conductivity.
- density – from 40 kg / m³;
- thickness – from 300 mm.
The main layer is a cement filling, inside which pipes with a coolant will be located. Plasticizers are added to the solution to make it more mobile and convenient for styling..
For strength, the screed is reinforced with a reinforcing mesh with a cell of 50 * 50 mm or larger 100 * 100 mm and a rod thickness of 3-5 mm.
The finishing layer is a heat-resistant floor covering. The best material is ceramic tiles, which conduct heat well. When buying linoleum or laminate, you should choose products with a special label “warm floor” (+)
The choice of the finishing coating will determine the thermal regime, which can be adjusted automatically or manually by means of mixing units – collectors.
What styling principles to adhere to?
First, you need to make calculations. This is a separate and complex topic, however, for independent quick calculations, you can use the online calculator, having scored individual parameters in the necessary columns.
If a construction company is engaged in underfloor heating, then settlement operations are performed by its specialists..
Standard verified figures are taken as a calculation basis, which must be adhered to, regardless of the installation method and specific installation conditions..
Usually, PEX pipes are used for installation, which cannot be laid closer than 10-15 cm from each other, since there is a great risk of creases. If the thermal load on the floor is small, for example, many people like to relax in cool bedrooms, then a layout step of up to 60 cm is allowed.
Some more helpful tips:
- one circuit is not distributed over two rooms;
- for a room of 35-40 m², 1 circuit is not enough, at least 2;
- one side of the contour – no more than 8 m;
- damper tape compensates for deformation during thermal expansion.
There are exceptions. For example, if the toilet and the bathroom are small in area and are located in the neighborhood, then one water circuit is enough to heat them.
Methods for installing water circuits
The most effective types of pipe installation – “snail” and “snake”, have long been invented, so you will not have to experiment with the circuit device.
There are many varieties of two popular methods, the choice depends on the configuration of the room, the length of the circuit and the temperature regime. Sometimes combined schemes are optimal
“Snake” is the easiest option to implement. Its downside is a large difference in coolant temperatures at the inlet / outlet. It should be borne in mind that the second half of the circuit will give off less heat..
“Snail” evenly distributes heat throughout the room, but it is more difficult to execute. If the owners do not want to divide the room into warm and cool zones, then it is better to use this particular method..
To save pipes and increase energy efficiency, a combination of two options is often used: a “snail” is laid in the center, a “snake” along the walls. If you correctly position the hinges and calculate the laying step, then the floor temperature will be as comfortable as possible for the residents..
Heat consumption for ventilation
To find out how much heat is lost in a private house as a whole, it is necessary to add up the losses of all its rooms. But that’s not all, because it is necessary to take into account the heating of the ventilation air, which is also provided by the heating system. In order not to go into the jungle of complex calculations, it is proposed to find out this heat consumption using a simple formula:
Qair = cm (tв – tн), where:
- Qair – the required amount of heat for ventilation, W;
- m is the amount of air by mass, defined as the internal volume of the building multiplied by the density of the air mixture, kg;
- (tв – tн) – as in the previous formula;
- с – heat capacity of air masses, taken equal to 0.28 W / (kg ºС).
To determine the heat demand of the entire building, it remains to add the value of QTP for the house as a whole with the value of Qair. The power of the boiler is taken with a margin for the optimal operating mode, that is, with a coefficient of 1.3. An important point must be taken into account here: if you plan to use a heat generator not only for heating, but also for heating water for hot water supply, then the power reserve must be increased. The boiler must work effectively in 2 directions at once, and therefore the safety factor must be taken at least 1.5.
Wiring diagram for water underfloor heating, depending on the configuration of the existing heating
one-pipe scheme. The connection of the supply of the circuit with the circulating heat carrier occurs after the circulation pump, and the return – after. The system is adjusted using an installed manifold or ball valve;
two-pipe scheme. When the water underfloor heating has been laid, it is connected to the supply and return pipelines of the existing heating. The work is controlled by two ball valves;
connection diagram without circulation pump. Installation of this system is possible, but there is no guarantee of its normal operation and efficiency. Considering the complexity of installation, it is much easier to use the first or second option. For the operation of the warm floor, the supply is connected at the beginning of the room, and the return is at the end
It is also important to ensure the required level of slope when installing pipelines..
Floor heating device without screed
Using a wooden modular system or mats equipped with bosses, it is not difficult to make underfloor heating. The difference from the previous technology is the absence of a cement screed and laying the topcoat directly on the insulation or boards.
There is an easier and cheaper way to accommodate water loops at a height difference of 5 cm:
- Lay 50 mm extruded polystyrene foam boards with side joint locks over the waterproofing.
- Mark pipe routes on the insulation and cut grooves for them with a thermal knife or a sharp tool.
- Install metal plates in the grooves and lay the piping.
- Install laminate or other thin flooring.
The rest of the work on testing and connecting the warm floor to the mains of the existing heating is carried out according to the technology described in the previous section..
Direct connection to a two-pipe radiator network
Inserting the underfloor heating circuit into a two-pipe radiator network can only be used if a number of conditions are met:
- the size of the heated area does not exceed 100 m2;
- heat supply is provided by a gas boiler, which maintains the temperature at 40-50 ° C;
- high performance of the circular pump in the boiler room.
When using this scheme, the mounted elements are connected to two pipelines at once: supply and return.
This method is acceptable, but has serious drawbacks:
- most of the water will move along the path of least resistance and will simply enter the main line instead of filling the heating circuit;
- in the cold season, with a stronger heating of the boilers in the heated room, it becomes stuffy;
- in rooms where the floor is tiled, the effect of a steam room is created (in addition, constant heating is not required in the bathroom and toilets).
Plan for direct connection to a two-pipe heating system with radiators
If you try to cut the circuit into a break in the return line, then the hydraulic pressure of the entire branch will decrease, as well as the flow rate of the coolant will decrease. This will render both the warm floor and the radiator inoperative..
The standard wiring diagram for a warm water floor includes:
- Pipes – preferable from polymers.
- Mixing unit for underfloor heating, working to normalize the temperature of the liquid to optimal values of the order of 50 ° C.
- Manifolds designed to distribute liquid along the circuits.
- Control devices.
Adjustment of the supply of hot and cooled liquid to the inlet manifold is carried out by means of a damper. When the sensor readings below the optimal temperature, the volume of the hot coolant is greater than the cooled one. In the opposite situation, cold liquid will prevail..
Separate connection from the boiler
If you need to heat the floor in several rooms at once, then the option of connecting to the existing radiator heating immediately disappears. It will be necessary to install a distributor comb and additional pipelines so that each room has its own supply and return.
If everything you need is already there, then the connection methods can be as follows:
Installation of thermal heads, assessing the degree of heating of the return, on the comb (allowed if the total length of the circuits is no more than 50 m).
The meaning of the first method is simple – it is simply the implementation of a variant with the use of regulating thermostatic heads in relation to several connected pipes at once. The presence of several RTLs allows you to control the floor heating in each room separately. The flow of the coolant is provided by a pump, which is located in a wall-mounted gas boiler or in a furnace.
Installation of the mixing unit (the design is complemented by a two-way valve and a manifold).
The valve is installed on the supply pipeline. Its operation is controlled by a thermal head equipped with a remote-type temperature sensor, which is placed inside the collector pipe, or fixed on its outer surface. When the water temperature rises, the valve closes. It is also allowed to install an additional pumping structure that will pump liquid along all the turns of the warm floor.
Mixing unit with a three-way thermo valve. The principle of operation of such structures has already been described above. This option is a better solution. It is more designed for a significant flow rate of the coolant without overloads..
Despite the presence of indisputable advantages, the second and third options are not suitable for everyone, since they require serious time (for installation work) and monetary (for the purchase of the necessary equipment) costs.
Simplified wiring diagram for underfloor heating to the boiler
I guess everything in this diagram is easily recognizable. If you come across something unfamiliar, then you can get acquainted with it in the section about equipment for water heated floors..
K – floor-standing boiler; TK – three-way valve; H – circulation pump; KP and KO – supply and return collectors; TP – warm floor; B – expansion tank; T – room thermostat; TR – thermal relay (servo drive)
The pump is placed in front of the supply manifold; in front of the pump – a three-way valve. The three-way valve and the circulation pump together form a mixing unit that you can do yourself or you can fork out for a ready-made assembly, which also joins the manifold.
Three-way valve circuit
Connection to the heating system in a private house with a warm floor is often carried out using a three-way valve. To build such a structure, you need to have:
- heating radiators, with a heating agent heating level up to 70 – 80 degrees;
- underfloor heating circuits, with water heated to 40 C.
The main task is how to cool the water coming from the radiator to the desired degree. This problem can be solved by using a three-way thermostatic piston. It is installed on the supply pipe, and after it a circulation pump is mounted. In the process, hot water is mixed with cooled water, which comes from the underfloor heating return pipe, until the desired temperature level is obtained.
However, such a combined heating design has one drawback – the impossibility of adjusting the flow of the waste heat carrier intake. This will lead to intermittent supply of either excessively hot or cold water to the circuit. This disadvantage affects the efficiency of the floor..
The differences can be partially compensated for with a concrete screed. But it is difficult to calculate the optimal thickness of the concrete layer..
It is impossible not to say about the advantages of this method:
- ease of installation;
- acceptable cost of equipment.
This option is justified when the size of a private house is small. In addition, the use of a three-way valve allows you to assemble this structure with your own hands..
Connecting the boiler and underfloor heating using a mixing valve
The mixing pump can be replaced with a three-way mixer, which performs the same function, only without a pump (used if there is good circulation, which does not require an additional pump). The installation of a three-way mixer is carried out in the same place as the pump-mixing unit, i.e. at the outlet of the return manifold.
On the one hand, the collectors are connected to pipes from the heating equipment, and on the other, a splitter must be installed on each collector. An air vent is connected on the upper side of the splitter. A drain valve is installed on the underside of the splitter.
Complete manifold system
Complete manifold system includes: shut-off valves, three-way mixer, air vent, drain cock, circular pump.
The complete system of collectors includes, in addition to shut-off valves on the pipes, a three-way mixer (or pump and mixing unit), an air vent, a drain valve, a circular pump to facilitate the circulation of the coolant in the pipes.
The inlet and outlet shut-off valves can be replaced with thermostatic control valves. They are equipped with a paraffin wax bulb, by means of which the throughput of the valve is set..
The pump-mixing unit is necessary for mixing the cooled coolant from the return flow into the supply, reducing the temperature of an excessively hot liquid. People who live in regions with a cold climate need a mixer, because the equipment will operate in a strong heating mode, and the temperature of the coolant of the heated water coating should be no higher than 55 degrees.
The mixing pump is installed between the supply pipe and the supply manifold. The third pump outlet goes to the return flow in front of the delivery pipeline. Thus, the pump will take the coolant with a minimum temperature and add it to the flow.
Features of connecting the structure to a heat source
In the floor circuit, most often the average temperature of the coolant is 35-40 degrees. Wiring diagrams of water-heated floors in a private house function by forced mixing of flows. Part of the coolant from the return flow goes into the supply circuit.
Gas boilers are equipped with special automation. Solid fuel units require a more complex device. They are equipped with circulation pumps and a special buffer tank. In this case, a more complex combustion control is used..
Electric boilers are considered the best option for a floor heating system. Special automation allows you to maintain the desired temperature without losing thermal power.
Before starting the installation of a warm water floor, prepare the tools, materials, premises, make certain calculations, draw up a schematic plan of the system.
Requirements for the premises
Gas boilers are explosive equipment, so you will have to adhere to the basic standards for the room, which ensure safe operation:
- the minimum ceiling height is 2.5 m;
- the boiler must not be installed so that it touches other pieces of furniture – keep a distance of 50-70 cm on all sides;
- walls in a room with a gas boiler must be fire-resistant (make the finish with non-combustible materials);
- a ventilation system must be installed;
- the minimum area of the room is 4 sq. m;
- a ground loop is installed in the room;
- depending on the power of the boiler, the chimney cross-section is selected;
- the door to the room should be 80-100 cm wide;
- the room must have access to the central gas pipeline and a water supply source;
- the presence of a pipeline with cold water is required.
If there is a central water supply, there is no need to use a pump. This significantly saves the family budget. A manifold distribution unit is required to connect the water floor system.
Calculations and project creation
Design is an important step. First of all, a diagram of a house is created with rooms where the pipes will be located (over time, people forget the exact location of the system, and the plan will allow you to see it). Be sure to think about where the furniture will be installed, since pipes are not laid in these places..
There are other nuances that must be adhered to:
- one circuit should not exceed a length of 100 m, as the heating efficiency decreases;
- the length of all contours should be approximately the same (a discrepancy of 10-15 m is allowed);
- retreat from the walls by 28-35 cm;
- distance between pipes – 10-20 cm (under severe climatic conditions, there should be a minimum indicator).
One of the most important points is all calculations. It is difficult to cope with such a task on your own, therefore it is better to entrust this procedure to professionals..
You can calculate the number of pipes as follows: L = S / N * 1.1, where L is the length of the pipes, S is the area of the room, N is the step length, 1.1 – 10% of the margin for pipe turns.
- S = 50 sq. m.
- N = 0.2 m.
- 50 / 0.2 * 1.1 = 275 m.
In this figure, do not forget to add the distance to the collector, multiplied by 2, since 2 pipes pass (to the supply and return collector). Be sure to take into account heat loss, wall width, used flooring material, etc..
An example of a layout for a water floor:
It is important to think over the way of arranging pipes. There are mainly 3 methods applied:
- The snake is a loop-like system that covers the entire area. The hinges run from wall to wall, but hot water only flows on one side.
- The double snake differs from the usual one in that hot pipes are located throughout the room..
- A snail or a spiral is the best option for a private house, since the entire area is heated.
Tools and materials
The first thing to choose is the pipes. They are made from different materials and differ in diameter. What is used:
- Copper pipes are considered the best because they are durable, reliable and have a high degree of heat transfer. At the same time, the cost is the highest.
- Metal-plastic is a modern material that has earned a well-deserved place in the forefront of popularity. The price is lower than copper, the quality is almost the same (they will last several years less).
- PEX is made of polyethylene and is a budget option. There is a significant drawback – it is impossible to achieve an ideal shape, since when water is supplied, the pipes straighten.
The second important material is insulation, as it ensures the preservation of heat. For a warm water floor, powered by a gas boiler, the following is most often used:
- EPPS – extruded polystyrene foam. It is characterized by high strength, low heat conductivity, resistance to high humidity, affordable cost. The material is produced in the form of plates with a thickness of 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8 and 10 cm (dimensions: 50×100 cm, 60×125 cm). The connection method is slotted, so the EPSPs are mounted quickly and easily.
- Heat-insulating profile mats are made of high-density polystyrene foam. Sufficiently convenient material for a water floor, since the surface is equipped with round or rectangular “spikes”, which creates a convenient placement of pipes. The thickness of the mats varies from 1 cm to 3 cm, the size is 50×100 cm or 60×120 cm.The minus is the high cost.
You can use other more affordable materials, but the ones described above are considered the most optimal. EPS can be purchased with a foil layer on which the markings are applied, but the cost of this type of material is higher. In addition, for a cement floor, the presence of foil does not make sense (there is no reflectivity, concrete corrodes aluminum).
Consider the thickness of the insulation based on the following requirements:
- it is better to lay material 10 cm thick in 2 layers on a soil base;
- when paving on a concrete screed, 5 cm is enough;
- when laying on the 2nd floor – 3 cm.
Additionally, you will have to buy fastening material – disc-type dowels, which are attached in the center and at the joints so that the plates do not float when pouring the screed from above.
The third toolkit is a manifold and mixing unit. Its purpose is to receive the coolant, distribute heat throughout the system, adjust temperature and flow, balance the loops of the circuits, and remove air. Collectors are different, but for a water heated floor, powered by a gas boiler, they buy a unit with a special set.
What to look for:
- The manifold block must be equipped with various fittings – balancing valves for adjustment with a flow meter, which are mounted on the supply section, as well as shut-off valves or thermostatic valves for return. There must be an automatic air vent, drain valve.
- Fittings (compression, axial or press fittings) are used to connect the pipes to the manifold.
- To mount the manifold-mixing unit, buy a bracket that provides the required center distance.
- Manifold cabinet, open or closed type.
Before installing a water heated floor, preparatory work is always carried out to clean the area. The floor surface is cleaned of foreign debris, it must be leveled (check with a building level). If there are irregularities, it is recommended to make a small layer of screed or pour in sand. On a hard surface, the floor is cleaned from dust with a vacuum cleaner.
Autonomy of work
There are different boilers for the underfloor heating system, however, gas boilers are gaining popularity, due to the fact that with a sufficient amount of power, they work without interruption. Automated control allows you to easily control the mode of heat supply in the house.
Gas is currently the most profitable raw material for the chosen project. So, when installing a warm water floor from a boiler, the payment for electricity will be lower compared to analogues.
Different boilers are suitable for heating systems familiar to consumers. The temperature regime of such devices is from sixty to ninety degrees.
Note that the underfloor heating system requires lower temperatures (from 35-50º). In such a situation, one cannot do without a collector unit, with the help of which the necessary degree of water heating will be provided..
Experts recommend choosing a gas boiler for this project. It is easy to install this structure with your own hands, using the instructions that are attached to each unit of the product..
Preparation of the base
The base must be properly prepared before laying the pipeline. The surface of the base must be firm, clean and level. Height differences are allowed in the range of plus or minus 10 mm per meter of linear length. If the floor surface does not meet the requirements, has a large curvature and obvious flaws, a leveling screed is installed, followed by waterproofing of the base in case of a system depressurization..
Before laying the pipeline, the sub-floor is also insulated. For these purposes, plates of extruded polystyrene foam or basalt fiber with a thickness of 30-50 mm are used..
With a sufficient budget, the use of foil-shielded plates and equipped with special protrusions for convenient pipe laying is justified. Such measures are resorted to to reduce heat losses through the floor in the premises of the first floor – a heated floor together with a gas boiler of any capacity will work with increased load simultaneously with floor heating to heat a basement room or someone else’s apartment on the floor below.
Important! Before pouring the laid pipes of the underfloor heating system with cement mortar, it is necessary to glue a strip of damper tape 5 mm thick and a width equal to the thickness of the layer of the mortar to be poured around the perimeter of the room on the walls. The tape will compensate for thermal expansion of the screed and reduce its pressure on vertical structures.
After the preparatory measures, lay the waterproofing material, thereby eliminating high humidity in the overall structure. It is advisable to lay the waterproofing on the very bottom, but it is also possible on top of the insulation. Work process:
- spread the material over the surface overlapping each other (10 cm overlap);
- be sure to wrap the edges against the wall;
- glue the joints with construction tape, if there is no glue strip on the material.
If the warm floor is laid on the second floor of the house, you can do without insulation, and lay pipes on top of the waterproofing.
A damper tape is used to compensate for the thermal expansion that occurs during the screed. In simple terms, contraction and expansion are limited and regulated. The height of the tape should be 15 cm, it is glued between the floor surface and the walls around the perimeter of the room.
Thermal insulation is mounted on a waterproofing layer, soil or concrete surface, depending on the owner’s wishes and requirements. It is important to put shoes on a completely flat surface, especially if EPS boards are stacked, since heels can deform the insulation.
The sequence of the installation process and rules:
- With the help of a building, water or laser level, it is necessary to beat off the level of the finished floor surface on the walls, thereby eliminating irregularities. If there are drops, the rough base is covered with sand for leveling..
- The first sheet of heat insulator fits into the farthest corner of the room close to the walls. There should be no gaps between the slabs – the joint is perfectly tight.
- At each stage, check with a level that the plane is even horizontally..
- If obstacles are encountered in the form of communication elements or protrusions, the plates are cut with a knife (holes of the required size are made).
- When installing 2 layers of EPSP boards, work is carried out in a mutually perpendicular direction relative to the first layer.
- After the plates are laid, they are fixed. To do this, make holes of the required diameter with a puncher, insert disc dowels, hammer them in with a hammer. Fasteners are installed at the joints and in the center. Be sure to lay construction tape at the joints..
Reinforcement of a water-heated floor is an optional procedure, but experts strongly recommend installing a reinforcing mesh, since it is aimed at strengthening the overall structure. The material is installed after laying the pipes, and this is the right step, unlike when the mesh is laid directly on the insulation, because the reinforcement involves embedding the mesh into the concrete screed.
A metal or plastic mesh with a wire diameter of 3 mm and a mesh size of 10×10 cm is used.It is strictly forbidden to use fittings with a corrugated surface, as it damages the pipe surface.
- the mesh is overlapped by 1 cell;
- the elements are connected to each other by means of plastic clamps or wire (knitting);
- there should be no sharp and protruding ends – they are cut off;
- reinforcing mesh in some places is attached with clamps to pipes.
Pipe laying and fixing
The pipe-laying method depends on the rough base. If this is a heater, then the top screed may not be required, since other materials are laid on top – chipboard sheets, etc..
If the base is concrete, then the screed is a mandatory procedure. However, experts recommend pouring the top layer with concrete in both cases (the design will be more reliable). On the other hand, in the event of pipe breakage or rupture, the concrete mix has to be broken, and the sheets can be removed after removing the floor covering..
If you use expanded polystyrene profile mats for insulation, then you just need to expand the flexible pipes between the spikes. From above, you can make a screed or lay gypsum fiber sheets.
The situation is completely different if you use a more budgetary option – EPS. Based on the selected scheme (snake, snail, etc.), a pipe layout plan is drawn up, after which a marker is marked on the laid sheets.
Do not forget to leave space for return pipes when laying double – if the laying step is 15 cm, then you need to initially leave 30 cm.
What to do next:
- Unwind about 15 m of pipe from the coil, attach the end to the manifold for water supply.
- Lay the pipes along the marked “route”, gradually unwinding the length from the bay.
- Secure the elements with harpoon brackets, carefully bending the tube (there should be no kinks). Staples on straight sections are attached after 30-50 cm, at a turn – 15 cm.
- If you do not want to use brackets, lay a reinforcing mesh under the pipes, to which you attach the elements with wire or plastic clamps..
- Install the return pipe in the same direction, retreating the required step size.
- Align all pipes.
The manifold has a supply and return pipe. In each of them on the sides there are holes that are connected to the contours by means of valves.
Thus, both loops must be attached to the two side holes – inlet and outlet, forming a closed loop. There are also connecting elements in the end parts of the manifold. They are designed to release air and drain fluid. A mixing valve, shut-off valves and a circular pump must be installed.
The number of holes for the circuits depends on the number of pipes that are connected at one end to the supply inlet, the other to the return outlet.
Fastening is done with fittings or nuts. The pump is always mounted on the back of the manifold where the water return pipes are attached.
After working with the pipes, go to the top tie. Put beacons on cement mortar, – give time to dry (twenty four hours).
- After the work done, it is advisable not to turn on the boiler at full strength.
- To optimize the temperature regime in a house with a floor heating system, you need to choose the right floor covering.
- Do not use carpets in the bedroom and in the nursery..
- The project must be connected in the autumn period.
- The warm floor from the boiler in the house is easy to install with your own hands: do not deviate from the process technology.
The formwork can be installed immediately after excavation – then the sand and gravel will be compacted in it. In the example, the formwork is erected on the finished “pillow”.
The step-by-step instructions for formwork will be as follows:
- Mark the area with a cord (you can use the markings made during excavation).
- Place wooden pegs around the perimeter (outside of the cord) at intervals of 1.5–2 m.
- Install the sides of the formwork between the cord and the pegs – they can be screwed with self-tapping screws or nailed. The horizontal position of the sides and the constancy of the slope are controlled using the building level.
It makes sense to strengthen the joints of the boards to the pegs and the corners of the formwork from the outside – with the help of wooden or metal “corners”.
After connecting the circuits, a pressure test is carried out, that is, a check of the operability of the warm water floor system connected from the gas boiler.
For this, a compressor with a pressure level of 4 bar is used. A pressure gauge is used to adjust and monitor the pressure level. If it drops, check the pipes for damage. During normal system operation, the pressure level does not drop.
The collector has a drain pipe through which water is discharged into the sewer through a hose. It must be connected, as when checking the circuits, liquid will spill.
What should be done:
- a hose from the water supply is supplied to the supply inlet of the manifold with a ball shut-off valve;
- a pressure pump is connected to the input (supply), which is intended for the circuit;
- the rest of the inputs and outputs to the collectors are blocked;
- air vents remain open;
- water is connected for a few minutes to clean the pipes from internal lubrication and remove air.
There are two types of concrete screed – for the rough base and the top layer. In the first case, you need to do the following:
- After preparing the base (cleaning from dirt and dust), make marks on the walls of the height of the first layer. Then fill in a layer of sand of a maximum of 10 cm to level the floor level, then moisten and tamp.
- Next, add 5 cm of crushed stone, add water again and tamp. To simplify the work process, you can immediately mix gravel with river sand and make a layer of 15 cm.We suggest you find out what is the optimal screed thickness for a water-heated floor.
- Install beacons from profiles for ease of use.
- Now prepare the concrete mixture – for 1 part of cement (grade M400) 6-7 parts of gravel and 4-5 parts of sand are needed.
- Pour 5 cm of concrete mix on the floor, carefully leveling the surface.
- It remains to wait a week until the rough base is completely dry.
How to make a top brace:
- After installing the pipes and reinforcing mesh, a concrete solution is prepared for pouring. Optimal proportions: cement (grade M400) – 10 kg, river sand – 18-19 kg, crushed stone – 35-37 kg. If necessary, add plasticizer in the proportion indicated in the instructions..
- Since the procedure is carried out after pressure testing and connecting the entire system, leave water in the pipes, so that they will not float during further work..
- Install beacons on top of the contours – perforated metal strips. To do this, on the sides and in the center of the lighthouses, apply a little concrete mixture to fix the profile.
- Starting from the far corner, fill the warm water floor with cement mortar, stretching it along the lighthouses using a rule. If cavities are formed with liquid, add some dry ingredients to the solution so that the mixture is not too liquid..
The speed of concrete hardening depends on the level of air temperature in the room and the time. You can get acquainted with the indicators using the table (the numbers are indicated in percentages):
|Air temperature (ͦС)||24 hours (day)||48 hours (2 days)||72 hours (3 days)||120 hours (5 days)||168 hours (week)||336 hours (2 weeks)||672 hours (28 days)|
Based on the rules, you can engage in further work when the cement mixture is gaining strength at 50%, start the warm floor, but at the minimum heating temperature – at 75%, fully turn on the underfloor heating system – at 100%.
Now let’s talk about the conditions for the underfloor heating circuit connected to the radiator heating system. First you need to understand that the mounted radiator heating system is not rubber. Hence, it has some limitations. And it must be done right. I very often see how people install radiator heating systems, using, for example, a PPR pipe dm 25 mm. And how, in this case, to connect underfloor heating to the system? That is why I always recommend installing pipes for a radiator heating system starting with a diameter of 32 mm and above..
Now about the length of the underfloor heating contour. The length should not exceed 40-50 meters for a two-pipe system, depending on the above characteristics. It can be mounted both with a snake starting, for example, from the outer walls, and with a spiral.
The length of the underfloor heating circuit for Leningradka with forced circulation should not exceed 20-30 meters. Moreover, if your contour length is longer, then you need to divide it into equal parts.
In this case, I recommend using a metal-plastic pipe dm 16-18 mm maximum. Dm 20 mm is used for gravity systems. Typically, the temperature of the coolant in radiator heating systems is at least 70 degrees. At the same time, PEX-AL-PEX pipes can withstand temperatures of 90 degrees. There are also analogues of XLPE pipes with an oxygen impermeable layer, which also withstand temperatures of 90 degrees Celsius..
Installation of additional automation
Auxiliary automation is required when the circuits are laid in several rooms and the coolant must be heated in each system to a certain temperature. For example, in the bedroom – up to 20 ° C, in the living room – up to 25 ° C, in the bathroom – up to 30 ° C. For this, a control unit is used, consisting of a three-way valve, a circulation pump and a thermal head.
Additional automation is connected to the distribution manifold, thermal heads are mounted on the return outputs, and a bypass is installed between the input and output. In addition, a rotameter must be present at the supply outlet..
Principle of operation:
- When the coolant overheats, the three-way valve automatically closes the supply circuit and more opens the return.
- At the same time, cold water is mixed with hot water in the mixing chamber..
- When the water cools down, the valve also automatically shuts off the return outlet.
The first start-up of the underfloor heating system is carried out in order to check the operability of the entire circuit as a whole and check all joints for leaks. All circuits are filled with coolant, air is released and all valves and taps are checked for functioning.
After connecting the control devices, the pressure test is repeated. The pressure is created one and a half times more than the nominal.
After studying this material, you found out the answer to the question of how to connect a warm floor to the gas boiler circuit and found out what subtleties exist, as well as what problems may arise during repairs in the house.
Underfloor heating systems
These devices are mounted on existing wooden floors or timber joists.
In the modular version, plates (modules) with channels and grooves for heat-distributing plates and pipes are used..
In the slatted subspecies of underfloor heating, the installation of modules is carried out between the logs available on the hard rough floor, or the logs are installed for this in advance. These structures play the role of ribs of rigidity of the arranged warm water floor and its subsequent finishing, the list of structural elements does not differ from the modular form.
After the end of the laying of underfloor heating floors, the system is also pressurized and commissioning (tightness check, tightening of connections).
The layered method of installing the underfloor heating system is universal and applicable in almost all buildings and structures. However, its advantages are reflected in the cost, which is quite high..
Water floor test
At the end of the installation of the underfloor heating structure, the pipelines are tested. This is done in two ways..
The first method consists in creating a water pressure in the pipes that exceeds the standard by one and a half times. The method is complex and requires special testing equipment..
The second test method is more accessible. It is carried out by connecting the mounted underfloor heating to an air compressor. Since air molecules are smaller than water molecules, the compressed air test is much more effective than the first test method..
Before testing, all critical pipe joints are covered with soapy water. Air leakage will indicate itself by the appearance of bubbles..
Be sure to adhere to the safety rules when operating a warm water floor from a gas boiler:
- install a gas analyzer – it is expensive, but you will be sure of safety (if the burner suddenly goes out, the protective system is triggered);
- exclude the location of flammable objects near the boiler;
- do not repair the gas system yourself – be sure to call a gas service employee;
- the boiler must be installed on a fire base;
- if there is a gas leak (there is a specific smell), immediately shut off the supply and call the gas workers.
A water-heated floor from a gas boiler, made by hand, will significantly save the family’s money. To ensure safety, strictly follow all installation requirements. If you are not sure of your own capabilities, consult with specialists or entrust such a difficult task to professionals.
Examples of successful work
With all the difficulties and strict instructions, many people coped with the installation of a warm water floor themselves. The main thing is to do everything correctly. If you are not confident in your abilities, you can contact certain companies, where professionals will help you draw up a floor plan, purchase the necessary materials and install the system. Of course, you also need to pay for this, and it may be more expensive than if you did everything yourself. But sometimes this option is better, because if you do everything wrong, you will have to spend twice.
If you are going to seek help from a professional team, be sure to make sure in advance that these people are really experts in their field. Read reviews of their work, read people’s opinions on specialized forums, and only then contact the company of your choice. Fraudsters or non-professionals are better off avoiding such delicate and heavy work..
If you want to install underfloor heating with a gas boiler, you should remember that this is an expensive, but the most optimal way to reduce the cost of heating your home. When the installation is done correctly and accurately, there will be no problems with operation. But it’s better to weigh all the pros and cons anyway, find out the exact prices for the necessary elements. Then decide how much you need it..
Do not be afraid to ask questions to specialists, seek qualified advice. In order to lay underfloor heating on your own, you will need the maximum amount of useful information. Underfloor heating is a profitable and economical solution for creating a cozy atmosphere in your home.
Such a floor will successfully replace any carpet and will not collect dust in your home..
In order for the underfloor heating system from a gas boiler to work in the correct mode, follow some rules. Experts recommend the following:
- When installing a gas boiler, be sure to install a chimney and additionally an emergency blowdown system for the circuits. This is necessary in case of a breakdown..
- Install cylinders with compressed air. They make it possible to work smoothly at the lowest air temperatures..
- Purchase boilers, collectors and other components only from trusted manufacturers.
- Maximum pressure for warm water floor – 10 bar.
- When buying a gas boiler, pay attention to the set of functions, since some models cannot be used for a water heated floor.
- Try to install the boiler in a residential area, and not in a basement, etc., since in the event of a malfunction in the winter, the system freezes..
- Do not make the top tie until you have checked that the system is working (crimping).
Experts recommend installing a chimney when installing a warm water floor with a gas boiler. Also, in this case, there is a need to connect an emergency circuit advancement system. This is in case any breakdown occurs..
You can supply compressed air cylinders, with the help of which it is possible to maintain the temperature you need in severe frosts. This is explained by the fact that there are some solutions inside that do not allow them to freeze.
When buying pipes, approach this matter responsibly. The wrong choice can lead to bad consequences. Pay attention to the manufacturer’s popularity, labeling, and characteristics. They should be labeled: “Maximum pressure – 10 bar”. A larger figure is not allowed.
If you have any difficulties, then contact the store consultant for help.