The principle of operation of radiator heating systems
What could be simpler than heating radiator wiring diagrams? There is a boiler: solid fuel, diesel, gas, etc. The boiler heats up the coolant, which gets there under the action of the pump. The heated coolant goes into the radiator heating system, in the radiators the heat is transferred to the ambient air. The coolant cools down and the already cooled one returns again to the boiler, where it heats up again and so the circle closes. Everything is very, very simple, but, nevertheless, in reality, the schemes are much more complicated. Let’s see what these schemes are and how they differ from each other, analyze their advantages and disadvantages.
Heating in the house
At the first stage, you should decide on the types of radiators and options for their connection, since the buildings should be prepared in advance for the selected type of heating. A modern space heating system includes several components.
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General instructions for installing batteries looks like this:
- first select a place to place them;
- bring pipes to them;
- connect them together;
- make a test run, and if everything is in order, turn on the heating at full power.
Special radiator models
In apartment buildings, the heating distribution is often made in such a way that only the side or bottom connection of the heating batteries is possible. Changes to the project can only be made by agreement with the commission, and this is a long and tedious business. But many manufacturers of radiator batteries provide for such a problem and produce systems with diagonal collector wiring:
- For the side connection of the radiators, a flow take-off extension is used. This is a tube-mounted bracket that screws into the bottom or top entry. Due to the bracket, the intake or release of the coolant occurs in the far corner of the radiator and the flow passes through the entire battery diagonally.
- For the bottom connection of radiators, the insulation of the outermost section is most often used. For this, a plug is installed at the factory at the junction of the lower collector of the last and penultimate sections. It blocks the direct then the coolant, turning the entire remaining battery into a radiator with a diagonal connection.
Such upgrades can also be made with the batteries already installed. Brackets with flow extensions are readily available at plumbing stores. For installation, an experienced plumber will be needed, since it will be necessary to disconnect the radiators from the network, disassemble the approach or outlet pipeline and seal the assembly.
There are similar solutions for overlapping the outermost section. Most often this is a sleeve that twists at the exit point and has a distance plug. It closes the hole between the penultimate and the last section of the radiator and redirects the main flow of the coolant along a bypass path.
And finally, some useful tips:
- do not make too long branches, especially to other floors. The coolant must necessarily reach the radiator;
- when placing the collector in a room, do not place it at the end. The length of the branches to the radiators should be approximately the same. Otherwise, the temperature of the coolant in different radiators may differ markedly;
- when installing pipes in the floor or in the ceiling, lead them to the radiators as a whole, without breaking the connections. Otherwise, if one day such a pipe flows, it will be a very big problem..
As you can see, there is nothing complicated in the schemes for connecting heating radiators of typical heating systems. Anyone with a general secondary education can understand them in order to design and build their own system. Of course, when creating heating systems, it is necessary to take into account many nuances, but this is a topic for a separate conversation..
Types of heating systems
Before talking about how to properly connect heating batteries, you should consider in detail what system options are most common today. Even after studying numerous photos of these communications, one way or another, it is required to understand the principle of their work and understand the peculiarities of the functioning of each of the parts of a particular system.
This option provides for the supply of a coolant to a heating device, which is usually located in a multi-storey building. Such methods of connecting heating batteries are the simplest, since their implementation does not require any serious construction skills (read: “Single-circuit heating system – possible implementation schemes”). The main disadvantage of this design is the lack of the ability to control the heat supply, since this system does not provide for any special devices like a temperature sensor that perform this function. That is why the amount of heat transfer is strictly fixed and is prescribed in advance even at the stage of drafting the future system..
In the overwhelming majority of cases, radiators are installed under windows, and this arrangement is quite justified. The fact is that there is always a flow of cold air from the windows – and the heated air masses rising from the battery prevent them from entering the room. In addition, the heated air prevents condensation on the glass.
In order to know exactly how to properly connect a heating battery in an apartment, you need to take into account the following rules and follow them when designing and installing a heating system:
- Normal prevention of the ingress of cold from the windows and the formation of condensation on them is possible only if the dimensions of the radiator occupy at least 70% of the width of the window opening. This factor must be taken into account even at the stage of choosing radiators..
- It is recommended to install heating batteries at a height of about 10 cm from the floor level. A large deviation from this indicator will lead to insufficient heating of the lower level of the room or provoke difficulties in cleaning. The distance to the window sill should be about 10-12 cm – this value allows the air to freely bend around the obstacle and fully warm the window.
- The distance between the battery and the wall should be about 3-5 cm.With this arrangement, heated air masses pass freely in the space behind the battery, as a result of which the efficiency of heating the room improves.
I must say that electric heating is the most efficient of all existing ones. Not only is the efficiency of boilers about 99%, but in addition they do not require chimneys and ventilation. There is practically no maintenance of the units as such, except that they are cleaned once every 2-3 years. And most importantly: the equipment and installation are very cheap, while the degree of automation can be anything. The boiler just doesn’t need your attention.
No matter how pleasant the advantages of the electric boiler are, the main disadvantage is just as significant – the price of electricity. Even if you use a multi-tariff electricity meter, you will not be able to bypass the wood-burning heat generator by this indicator. This is the price to pay for comfort, reliability and high efficiency. Well, the second minus is the lack of the necessary electrical power on the supply networks. Such an annoying nuisance can at once cross out all thoughts of electric heating..
Heat power selection
The amount of power consumed depends on four factors:
- the size of the room;
- the number of external walls and windows;
- type of house (brick, panel);
- type of windows (wooden, plastic).
The easiest way is to choose a heating radiator, focusing on the thermal power:
Such a calculation of heat transfer is relevant for a room with ceilings no higher than 3 meters and with windows up to 1.5×1.8 m in size..
The power of the radiator is indicated in the technical specifications, you will find them on the battery packaging. Please note that the set power value is relevant at a coolant temperature of about 70 ° C, it is considered optimal.
When calculating the number of sections, heat loss should be taken into account, focusing on the following scheme:
Two useful tips to help you calculate the power and the number of radiator sections:
- If plastic energy-saving double-glazed windows are installed in the room, it is possible to reduce the power of the radiators by 10-20%, since the windows reduce heat losses;
- If you have a side one-sided piping, then there is no point in installing radiators longer than 10 sections, the last segments will remain practically cold.
Example: You decide that you will take bimetallic batteries from our own Equation brand. The size of the room is 18 sq.m., it is corner, two windows, two walls face the outside. There will be two batteries, both will be installed in niches. We consider: 130 W + 15% = 143 W will be needed for 1 square meter of area. We have 18 square meters, which means the total power of the two batteries will be 2574 watts. We look in the catalog of Leroy Merlin. You can buy two identical radiators: seven sections plus seven sections, or eight sections plus eight sections. You can take one large and one small, say, 12 and four to five sections.
Helpful hint: if you stick a reflective screen on the wall behind the radiator, the heat dissipation of the battery will increase by 10-15%.
In Russian houses and apartments, batteries are usually installed under windows. The wall temperature is lower than the temperature of the radiator. The surface immediately behind the battery heats up to 35-40 ° C, and then this heat goes to the outer part of the wall. The task is to return him to the room. The reflector screen is responsible for this..
The screen is easiest to make of foamed polyethylene, on one side it is covered with foil, and on the other – with an adhesive composition. Cut a piece to the desired size, tear off the protective film and glue the sheet on the wall behind the battery.
Basic rules for installing a heat-reflecting layer:
- The distance between the screen and the battery must be at least three cm;
- The reflective layer should be larger than the battery, it is good if it protrudes five to six cm on each side;
- the reflective side of the material should be directed towards the battery.
Calculation of the heating system and selection of boiler power
It is impossible to select equipment without knowing the amount of heat required for heating the building. It can be determined in two ways: simple approximate and calculated. The first method is liked by all sellers of heating equipment, since it is quite simple and gives a more or less correct result. This is the calculation of the heat output by the area of the heated premises..
Take a separate room, measure its area and multiply the resulting value by 100 watts. The energy required for the entire country house is determined by summing the indicators for all rooms. We offer a more accurate method:
- by 100 W multiply the area of those rooms where only 1 wall contacts the street, on which there is 1 window;
- if the room is a corner room with one window, then its area must be multiplied by 120 W;
- when the room has 2 external walls with 2 windows or more, its area is multiplied by 130 W.
If we consider the power as an approximate method, then residents of the northern regions of the Russian Federation may receive less heat, and the south of Ukraine may overpay for too powerful equipment. With the help of the second, calculation method, heating is designed by specialists. It is more accurate as it gives a clear understanding of how much heat is lost through the building structures of any building..
Before proceeding with the calculations, the house must be measured, having found out the areas of the walls, windows and doors. Then it is necessary to determine the thickness of the layer of each building material from which the walls, floors and roof are erected. For all materials in the reference literature or the Internet, you should find the value of thermal conductivity λ, expressed in units of W / (m · ºС). We substitute it into the formula for calculating the thermal resistance R (m2 ºС / W):
R = δ / λ, here δ is the thickness of the wall material in meters.
Now you can find out the amount of heat leaving through the external building structure, according to the formula:
- QTP = 1 / R x (tv – tn) x S, where:
- QTP is the lost amount of heat, W;
- S is the previously measured area of the building structure, m2;
- tв – here it is necessary to substitute the value of the desired internal temperature, ºС;
- tн – outdoor temperature during the coldest period, ºС.
Natural or forced movement of water?
The battery connection option depends on what type of movement of water or antifreeze is supposed to be used for the functioning of the system. There are only 2 options: natural circulation and forced.
The first option involves the use of physical laws without buying and installing additional devices. Suitable when water acts as a coolant. Any anti-freeze will circulate worse through the system..
The system consists of a boiler that heats water, an expansion tank, supply and return pipelines, batteries. As the water heats up, it expands and begins to move along the riser, visiting the installed radiators in turn. The cooled water from the system goes back to the boiler by gravity..
With this circulation option, the horizontal pipeline is installed with a slight inclination towards the direction of the coolant movement. This system is self-regulating, because depending on the temperature of the water, its quantity also changes. The circulating head increases, allowing the water to heat the room evenly.
With natural circulation, two-pipe and one-pipe schemes with an upper wiring are used, two-pipe with a lower one. Such methods of connecting radiators to the heating system are beneficial to use for small rooms..
It is important to equip the batteries with air drains to remove excess air or install automatic air vents on the risers. The boiler is best placed in a basement, so that it is lower than the heated room..
The connection diagram for radiators with natural circulation of the coolant should provide for a slight slope in the direction of water movement
For houses with an area of 100 m2 or more, the coolant circulation system will have to be changed. In this case, you will need a special device that stimulates the movement of water or antifreeze through the pipes. It is about installing a circulation pump. Its capacity depends on the area of the heated room..
The pump is installed on the supply or return pipeline. To remove excess air from the system, it is necessary to install automatic drains at the highest point of the pipeline or use batteries with Mayevsky taps for manual bleeding.
The use of a pump for forced circulation allows the use of antifreeze as a heat carrier. In this case, you need to install a closed-type expansion tank so that the fumes do not harm the health of the inhabitants of the house.
The circulation pump is used in two- and one-pipe schemes with a horizontal and vertical system for connecting heating devices.
Factors affecting radiator efficiency
The main requirements for a heating system are, of course, its efficiency and economy. Therefore, its design must be approached thoughtfully so as not to miss all sorts of subtleties and features of a particular living space. If you do not have sufficient skills to create a competent project, it is better to entrust this work to specialists who have already proven themselves and have positive feedback from clients. You should not rely on the advice of friends who recommend certain methods of connecting radiators, since in each case the initial conditions will be different. Simply put – what suits one person may not necessarily suit another..
Nevertheless, if you still want to deal with piping to heating radiators on your own, pay attention to the following factors:
- the size of the radiators and their heat output;
- placement of heating devices inside the house;
- connection diagram.
The modern consumer can choose from a wide variety of models of heating devices – these are mounted radiators made of various materials, and baseboard or floor convectors. The difference between them lies not only in size and appearance, but also in the methods of supply, as well as the degree of heat transfer. All these factors will affect the choice of options for connecting heating radiators..
Depending on the size of the heated room, the presence or absence of an insulating layer on the outer walls of the building, power, as well as the type of connection recommended by the manufacturer of radiators, the number and dimensions of such devices will differ..
As a rule, radiators are placed under windows or in the walls between them, if the windows are at a great distance from each other, as well as in the corners or along the blank wall of the room, in the bathroom, hallway, pantry, often on the stairwells of apartment buildings.
To direct heat energy from the radiator into the room, it is advisable to attach a special reflective screen between the device and the wall. Such a screen can be made of any heat-reflecting foil material – for example, penofol, isospan or any other.
Before connecting the heating battery to the heating system, pay attention to some features of its installation:
- within the same dwelling, the level of placement of all batteries must be the same;
- the ribs on the convectors must be directed vertically;
- the middle of the radiator must coincide with the center point of the window or can be shifted 2 cm to the right or left;
- the total length of the battery should be 75% of the width of the window opening;
- the distance from the window sill to the radiator must be at least 5 cm, and there must be at least 6 cm of the gap between the device and the floor. It is best to leave 10-12 cm.
Please note that not only the heat transfer of the battery, but also the level of heat loss will depend on the correct choice of methods for connecting heating radiators in an apartment building..
It is not uncommon for apartment owners to assemble and connect the heating system, following the recommendations of their acquaintances. In this case, the result turns out to be much worse than expected. This means that mistakes were made during the installation process, the power of the devices is not enough to heat a particular room, or the scheme for connecting heating pipes to batteries is inappropriate for this house.
Why is it important to correctly connect heating radiators
Whichever method of connection and type of radiator you choose, it is very important to carry out competent calculations and correctly install the equipment. At the same time, it is important to take into account the characteristics of a particular room in order to choose the best option. Then the system will be as efficient as possible and will avoid significant heat loss in the future..
If you want to assemble a heating system in a large expensive mansion, it is better to entrust the design to specialists..
For houses of a small area, you can cope with the choice of the wiring diagram and the installation of batteries yourself. You just need to consider the quality of a particular connection scheme and study the features of the installation work.
Please note that piping and radiators must be made of the same material. For example, plastic pipes should not be connected to cast iron batteries, as this is fraught with trouble..
Thus, provided that the features of a particular house are taken into account, the connection of heating radiators can be done independently. A well-chosen scheme for connecting pipes to radiators will allow you to minimize heat loss so that heating devices can work with maximum efficiency.
Heating system classification
The main criterion for dividing heating systems is the number of circuits. On this basis, all heating systems are divided into two groups:
The first option is the simplest and cheapest. This is, in fact, a ring from boiler to boiler, where heating radiators are installed in between. If it comes to a one-story building, then this is a justified option in which you can use the natural circulation of the coolant. But in order for the temperature to be uniform in all rooms of the house, it is necessary to provide for some measures. For example, build up sections on the extreme radiators in the chain.
The best option for such a pipe scheme is to connect the battery using the Leningrad method. In fact, it turns out that an ordinary pipe runs through all the rooms near the floor, and radiator batteries cut into it. In this case, the so-called bottom frame is used. That is, the radiator is connected to the pipe through two lower nozzles – it enters one coolant, and exits the other.
Attention! Heat loss with this type of battery connection is 12-13%. This is the highest level of heat loss. So before making such a decision, weigh the pros and cons. Initial savings can turn into high operating costs.
In general, this is a good wiring diagram that pays off in small buildings. And in order to evenly distribute the coolant over all radiators, you can install a circulation pump in it. The investment is inexpensive, and the device works perfectly and requires little power consumption. On the other hand, an even distribution of heat throughout all rooms is ensured..
By the way, the one-pipe piping scheme is very often used in city apartments. True, the bottom battery connection cannot be used here. The same should be said for the two-pipe system..
Types of heating systems
Before connecting the heating battery, you need to understand the configuration of the heating system – this factor greatly affects the heat transfer of all batteries. There are two main types of heating systems – two-pipe and one-pipe. It is worth talking about each of them in more detail..
A single-pipe heating system is the simplest and cheapest construction to equip. This wiring scheme is usually used in multi-apartment buildings, but it is sometimes found in private houses as well. In a one-pipe system, radiators are installed in series, i.e. the coolant passes through the heating devices in turn. From the last radiator, the cooled coolant returns to the heating boiler or riser.
The key disadvantage of the one-pipe scheme is the uneven heating of the installed radiators and the inability to control their heat transfer. Installing the regulator on one battery leads to the adjustment of a further section of the circuit. Batteries located far from the boiler receive much less heat – it simply remains on the previous devices. Even if you know exactly how to properly connect the battery, uniform heat transfer in a one-pipe system will not work..
A distinctive feature of the two-pipe wiring is the presence of two circuits, one of which is designed to supply the heated coolant to the radiators, and the second is necessary to return the cooled coolant to the boiler. The two-pipe design makes it possible to connect radiators in parallel, as a result of which each of them receives a coolant of the same temperature.
Thanks to the parallel connection, it is possible to achieve the independence of each radiator, therefore, separate thermostats can be installed on them to adjust the heat transfer. The only drawback of such a wiring is the high cost – twice as much materials are required to arrange heating. However, these costs are more than compensated for in the future..
Advantages and disadvantages of one-pipe and two-pipe heating systems
The main difference between the two heating schemes is that the two-pipe connection system is more efficient in operation due to the parallel arrangement of two pipes, one of which supplies the heated coolant to the radiator, and the other removes the cooled liquid.
The scheme of a one-pipe system is a wiring of a sequential type, in connection with which the first connected radiator receives the maximum amount of thermal energy, and each subsequent one heats up less and less.
However, efficiency is an important, but not the only criterion to rely on when deciding to choose a particular scheme. Consider all the pros and cons of both options.
Ways to connect radiators
There are several options for connecting radiators, but they all fall into two large categories – side and bottom. The bottom connection can be done in the only way, which looks very simple: there are two nozzles, one of which is connected to the radiator inlet, and the second to the outlet. The connection diagram for a heating radiator in an apartment is always described in the documentation attached to it..
The side circuit for connecting batteries in an apartment has a greater number of options, including:
- Diagonal connection;
- One-way connection;
- Bottom (saddle) connection.
Each option should be given special attention..
The diagonal scheme for connecting heating batteries in an apartment is considered the most effective, so if possible, you should give preference to it. Most manufacturers of heating devices check their products precisely with a diagonal connection, and, in accordance with the information received, enter the data into the technical passport of radiators.
With a diagonal connection, the heated heating medium is started through the upper inlet on one side of the battery. Having completely passed through the radiator, the cooled coolant is directed to the outlet pipe, which is located on the other side of the battery in its lower part. As a result, the diagonal connection of the radiator in the apartment ensures the maximum flow of the coolant through the internal cavities of the heater..
This radiator connection diagram fully justifies its name – the supply and return pipes are supplied to the device from one side, but at different levels. This option is most relevant in apartments where the riser is located on the side of the radiator. In other situations, a one-way connection will not be very convenient in arrangement..
The efficiency of one-way connection is quite high and is only slightly inferior to the diagonal one. This statement is true if the number of sections does not exceed 10 – a battery that is too long will not warm up completely, therefore heat transfer will decrease. In panel, aluminum and bimetallic radiators, this problem can be solved by using flow extensions that allow the coolant to pass through most of the radiator..
This connection option is characterized by minimal efficiency – the heat transfer of radiators when using it is reduced by an average of 12%. However, in some situations, these losses will be justified, since the bottom connection allows you to install pipes as invisibly as possible, thereby improving the interior of the room. And heat loss can be compensated for by a more powerful radiator.
It is not recommended to use a saddle type connection in gravitational heating systems due to its insufficient efficiency. If there is a pump in the heating system, then the system will work well enough, and the heat transfer of the heating devices will increase. This is partly due to the poorly studied vortex nature of the coolant flow, in which heat transfer is characterized as the most intense.
Possible radiator connection diagrams
The most efficient battery connection is quite easy to accomplish – both in terms of the number of nodes and in terms of installation technology.
Two-pipe classic wiring
Classic two-pipe wiring diagram for the heating system.
In the classical scheme, the direction of movement of the coolant in the supply pipeline is opposite to that in the return pipeline. This scheme is most common in modern heating systems, both in high-rise buildings and in private individual ones. The two-pipe scheme allows you to evenly distribute the coolant between radiators without temperature loss and effectively regulate heat transfer in each room, including automatically by using thermostatic valves with installed thermal heads.
Such a device has a two-pipe heating system in a multi-storey building..
A passing scheme or “Tichelman’s loop”
Associated heating wiring diagram.
The passing scheme is a variation of the classic scheme with the difference that the direction of movement of the coolant in the supply and return is the same. This scheme is used in heating systems with long and remote branches. The use of a passing circuit allows you to reduce the hydraulic resistance of the branch and evenly distribute the coolant over all radiators.
A fan or beam scheme is used in multi-storey construction for apartment heating with the possibility of installing a heat meter (heat meter) on each apartment and in private housing construction in systems with floor-by-floor piping. With a fan pattern in a multi-storey building, a collector is installed on each floor with a separate pipeline exits to all apartments and an installed heat meter. This allows each apartment owner to take into account and pay only for the heat consumed..
Beam connection diagram
This option needs to be considered separately, since there is another, central element – the collector. The coolant from the boiler follows to it, and already from this device to each battery, two pipelines are laid – direct and reverse. The main requirement is that all branches have approximately the same length. Otherwise, the temperature of the coolant in the devices will differ.
The disadvantage of the beam scheme is exactingness. Its organization is carried out either at the construction stage or during a major overhaul. Such a system can be laid between the rough and finished floor or in a screed (in insulation). To the second floor, the pipeline is sometimes laid along the ceiling. The advantages of the “rays” are aesthetics, the ability to turn off any of the radiators while maintaining the full operability of the heating system.
Spider radiator connection diagram
Let’s figuratively imagine a boiler from which we take a pipeline and bring it somewhere to the center of the house. This system is usually called a spider. We lower the risers and collect, send it all to the return line. We connect radiators to the pipes. The coolant rises up according to its natural physical laws. That is, the hot coolant goes up, and on the second pipe in the middle, it leaves and falls down. Passes through the radiator, cools and enters the return line.
Please note that the lower pipes are sloped. This is the only problem, then, that you need to do the slopes. But it is in today’s time that many are again switching to these old systems, as problems with energy sources begin. For example, electricity is often cut off and the pump will not work. The system will just stand up. But such a system works for you all the time. The boiler can be any: gas, coal, diesel and even electric. This whole system will work.
This system is very cumbersome. It must be practically brought out to the roof and to the attic. Therefore, not everyone is given to master it..
Connection diagram “Leningradka”
Consider the second system. When we take feed from the boiler and then lower it down. We carry out at the level of the radiators and then return it back to the boiler. Here, too, the slope must be observed. Figuratively, this is called a radiator heating system, since 2-3 radiators are mounted along the length. That is, the first one enters the hot coolant, some part goes through the return line cooled, and the hot one goes to the next radiator. Such a scheme for connecting heating radiators is also called “classic Leningrad”. The only thing is to lift the pipes up a little to create acceleration. Then the water will go down the slope, here they are also very important. It is not always convenient to do this, because doors will interfere with you. Also, the fewer taps, the better the system works. If you do not follow this rule, you can plant the entire system.
Leningradka can work with a pump. He crashes into the return line. Due to it, the speed increases and the system works more efficiently. The only drawback of this system is the large diameter of the pipes. If we take pipes with a diameter of 32 in the forced connection diagram of heating radiators, we will supply a pump and it will push everything everywhere. Here, for the system to work, the pipes must be large. Therefore, these are very good systems now. In new buildings, we always recommend doing just such a diagram for connecting heating radiators if there are problems with the supply of electricity. And here you can heat a stove or even gas boilers. Now there are non-volatile systems with temperature control.
Tichelman’s scheme: all radiators in the same conditions
As the name implies, this scheme for connecting heating radiators is quite simple, but at the same time tricky. The first radiator is located closest to the pump, but farthest from the return pipe, and the last one is farthest from the pump, but closest to the “return”. It turns out that the resistance on each radiator, or the pressure on each radiator is the same. The ducts through all radiators are the same. If we take and block any of these radiators, then the rest will work as they did, the system balances itself. It seems that there are more pipes here, but in fact, if these radiators are located around the building, then the scheme turns out to be much easier, simpler, more elegant than the previous ones. The Tichelman loop can be used to tie two or even three floors. Moreover, if all radiators are closed on one floor, they will continue to heat normally on the other..
Norms and restrictions
Warm water floor – low temperature heating system. According to existing standards, the maximum
the temperature level of the coolant should be +55 degrees. At
operation, standard heating usually ranges from +35 to +45, and the floor heats up to +26
+31. The norms for different premises differ:
- for a bedroom, kitchen, living room – +26;
- for bath, toilet, hallway – +31.
The liquid circulates through the floor lines using a pump. In addition, it allows you to adjust
heating level in the room. You need to pick it up based on speed
movement of water. The maximum that is permissible for hydraulic floors is 0.6 m / s.
The difference between the heating of water at the supply and output should not be in the aisles of 10 degrees.
The characteristic features of one-pipe systems result from their ring pattern and the sequential passage of the coolant through the radiators. First of all, it is an inevitable fact that the temperature of the last heater and return flow will always be much lower than in the first radiator..
Other features are most clearly manifested in gravity structures..
- The expansion tank should not be installed on the return line, but at the highest point of the vertical column after the boiler. In this case, the tank can be open type.
- The boiler inlet should be as low as possible. Ideally below floor level.
- The entire line after the vertical column must have a continuous slope. A raised section of the pipeline can stop the operation of the system due to accumulated air and disruption of water flow due to gravity..
Therefore, even at the planning stage, all these features should be taken into account..
What and where to use in the end?
Let’s summarize. If you live in central cities and you do not have problems with energy, gas, electricity and others, we recommend using a two-pipe system, with oncoming traffic, with circular movement and forced circulation. Since then we save on the diameter of the pipes and on the volume of the coolant. Accordingly, the less water is needed, the less energy is needed to heat it.
If you have problems with energy carriers or often there are emergencies, then you should consider the connection diagrams for gravity-type heating radiators with natural circulation. Just in case, you can also cut the pump there, only it cuts around the pipe so as not to interfere with the main passage. At the time when you have electricity, you will drive it with a pump, because the speed increases, the radiators are all of the same temperature. The efficiency of work with the pump is increased by 30-50%. When there is no electricity, this system will continue to work for you. You already know which radiators you have chosen, their quantity and size. Accordingly, you can now calculate what is needed in order to connect them. Let me remind you that in the first case, you need large, large diameters, you can use large valves. And of course, in this case, it is difficult to regulate the temperature. Of course, there are options, we will definitely consider them in a more detailed review..
Features of connection diagrams
There is a fundamental difference in the diagrams for connecting heating devices, depending on the type of pipe routing. It can be one-pipe and two-pipe. Each of these types is subdivided into a system with horizontal lines or vertical risers, depending on the type of wiring chosen, the battery connection option will differ. For one-pipe and two-pipe systems, it is possible to use side, bottom, diagonal connection of heating devices.
The main task is to choose the best option that can satisfy the needs of a particular dwelling in the required amount of heat..
These two types of wiring refer to the T-piece pipe connection system. In addition to it, collector circuits are distinguished. They are also called ray wiring. Its main feature is to lay the pipeline separately to each heating device..
The disadvantage is that the pipes pass directly through the premises of the entire floor and a lot of them will be required. This will affect the cost of the system. A significant plus – they are most often mounted on the floor, without affecting the design of the room.
The collector or beam diagram for connecting radiators does not violate the general concept of the design of the room, and is also used for the installation of a “warm floor” system
This option, which significantly increases the flow rate of pipes, has recently been actively used in the design of heating schemes. The collector connection of heating devices is used in the “warm floor” system. Depending on the type of project, it can serve as an additional source of heating or the main.
Features of the one-pipe system
The type of heating in which all batteries are connected to one pipeline is called one-pipe. The heated and cooled coolant moves along one pipe, alternately entering all devices. It is important for her to choose the right diameter, otherwise the pipe will not cope with its duties and there will be no effect from such heating.
The one-pipe system has its advantages and disadvantages. Many novice craftsmen believe that by choosing this type of wiring, you can save a lot on the installation of heating devices and pipes. But this is a delusion. Indeed, for high-quality operation of the system, you will need to connect everything correctly, taking into account a lot of nuances. Otherwise, the rooms will be cold..
A one-pipe system can really save money when using a supply riser. This is true for 5-storey buildings, where it is beneficial to install one pipe in order to reduce material consumption..
With this option, heated water flows up the main riser, distributing further along the rest of the risers. Alternately, the coolant enters the heating devices of each floor, starting from the uppermost.
With a one-pipe coolant circulation system, warm water enters the radiator and returns back to the same pipe. Therefore, the area of the last device should be larger
The lower the water falls, following the riser, the lower its temperature becomes. This problem is solved by increasing the area of the radiators on the lower floors. It is advisable to equip radiators of a one-pipe system with bypasses.
This will make it possible to dismantle the heating device without problems, for example, for repairs, without disrupting the performance of the entire system..
In a one-pipe system of horizontal distribution, you can use the associated or dead-end movement of the coolant. It works well for pipelines with a total length of up to 30 m.The optimal number of connected heating devices in this case is 4-5 pcs..
Two-pipe wiring: the main differences
Two-pipe wiring involves the use of 2 pipelines: one for the passage of the heated coolant (supply), the second for the cooled one, heading back to the heating tank (return). As a result, each battery receives water of approximately the same temperature, which allows you to evenly heat all rooms..
The use of two-pipe routing is considered the most desirable. With such a connection of heating devices, the least heat loss occurs. Water circulation can be associated and dead-end.
This service system for radiators is characterized by a convenient adjustment of their thermal performance..
When choosing a two-pipe battery connection scheme with forced circulation, it is imperative to install an air release valve
Many craftsmen who independently mount the heating system of their home speak disapprovingly of the two-pipe. The main argument is the high consumption of pipes, which significantly increases the cost of the project.
Upon closer examination of this statement, it turns out that with the correct connection of devices and the use of optimal pipe diameters in a private house, the system will not cost much more than a one-pipe.
Indeed, for the device of the latter, a larger diameter of pipes and a large area of devices are needed. The final price will be affected by the cost of pipes of a smaller diameter, better circulation of the coolant and minimal heat loss..
The connection of heating devices in a two-pipe system can be carried out diagonally, from the side, from the bottom. It is permissible to use horizontal and vertical risers. The most effective option is a diagonal connection. It allows you to maximize the use of heat, evenly distributing it across all heating devices.
Lateral battery connection
Lateral connection is used in two- and one-pipe installations. It is also called one-sided. The main feature is the supply and return pipes are mounted on one side of the battery.
Such a system is used in multi-storey buildings with a vertical coolant supply. The main condition is to install a jumper before connecting to the pipeline, called a bypass, and taps, so that it is possible to remove the radiator without disrupting the entire system.
Installing valves on the pipe connecting the radiator with the main pipeline will facilitate future maintenance. If you need to paint or rinse the heating device, it can be removed without problems without disturbing the overall system
One-sided connection works most efficiently with a small length of the heater – 5-6 sections. Connecting long radiators in this way will have large heat losses..
Bottom connection specifics
The scheme, in which the bottom connection is used, is most often used to solve design problems. When you need to hide pipes by installing them in a wall or floor.
Heating appliance manufacturers offer various models and variations of bottom connection radiators. The product passport indicates how to correctly connect a specific model of the heating battery.
Inside the radiator connection unit there are ball valves built in by the manufacturer, allowing it to be dismantled if necessary. Such information allows you to install devices in the system with your own hands..
In many modern battery models, the bottom connection assumes the circulation of water as with a diagonal connection. For this, a special obstacle is installed inside the radiator, which guarantees the movement of water completely throughout the entire device. Only then the coolant enters the return line
The bottom connection is not recommended for natural circulation of water. High heat losses from the bottom connection are compensated by the higher power of the radiators.
Diagonal connection diagram
The diagonal connection is characterized by minimal heat loss. Its peculiarity is that heat is supplied from one side of the device, passes through all sections and exits through the hole on the other side. It is used for one- and two-pipe systems.
This battery connection option can be implemented in two ways:
- The coolant enters the upper opening of the device, circulates through it and flows out of the lower side opening on the other side.
- Water enters the lower hole from one side and, having passed through the entire radiator, comes out of its upper opposite hole.
The diagonal circuit works effectively when connecting long batteries, with a total number of sections of 12 pcs or more.
The use of a diagonal connection scheme allows you to effectively use rather long devices. They warm up equally well, providing good heating of the room.
Heaters with side connection
When connecting heating batteries in a private house from the side, there are several more options: in this case, the supply and return pipelines can be connected to two nozzles, so there will be as many as four options.
With this type of connection of heating radiators in a private house, as a diagonal one, you can achieve maximum heating efficiency. Such a connection is considered a reference, it is used by the manufacturers of their products for testing. Other connection types are not as efficient. This happens due to the fact that in the case of a diagonal connection, the coolant is supplied to the upper inlet from one side, after which it, bypassing the entire radiator, exits from the other side from the bottom.
When using a one-way connection of heating radiators in a private house, the pipelines are cut into them from one side – the inlet pipe passes from above, and the return pipe is from the bottom. Sometimes this connection option is more convenient, for example, if the riser runs along the side of the battery. This can often be found in apartments..
The supply of the coolant from the bottom is not used so often, because this approach is less convenient from the point of view of the location of the pipes. This option for connecting a radiator has almost the same efficiency – slightly lower, only 2%. But this is possible only if there are no more than 10 sections in the radiators. If the battery is long, then its distant edge will not be able to warm up well or will be cold at all. Panel radiators are devoid of this drawback, since they are equipped with tubes, flow extensions – they deliver the coolant to the center of the radiator. Such devices can be installed in radiators made of aluminum or bimetal to increase heat transfer.
When deciding how best to connect heating radiators, you can use the bottom, or saddle connection. Among the entire list of connections, the saddle one is considered the most ineffective. Losses can reach 12-14%. However, it is the most invisible, since in this case the pipes are laid on the floor or under it, so it can rightfully be called the most aesthetic. So that heat loss does not affect the room temperature in any way, you can purchase more powerful radiators.
This connection method is undesirable to use in systems with natural circulation of the coolant. But if a pump is installed, then such a scheme will function quite well. Sometimes they achieve the same efficiency as when using a side connection. This is explained by the fact that during the movement of the coolant at a certain speed, vortex flows appear, the entire surface heats up, improving heat transfer. Such phenomena have not yet been fully studied, therefore, it is not possible at the moment to determine how the coolant will behave in certain cases..
Two-pipe connection diagram
This version of the system is more expensive than a one-pipe connection, but has a number of advantages. In a two-pipe distribution, the return pipeline from each radiator goes into a separate closed loop, and the coolant is pumped separately. The cooled liquid enters the heating boiler along the return line. Enables heating of complex rooms with a single boiler.
Installation takes place in several stages. A boiler connected to an expansion tank is installed in the designated place. Then a coolant wire loop is drawn, passing through each battery. At the end, a return line is installed, closed on the heating boiler.
- Suitable for any building, regardless of the number of storeys and arrangement of rooms.
- The coolant temperature is evenly distributed on all radiators, which easily maintains comfortable heating of the premises.
- Radiators are independent from each other, it is possible to install individual thermostats and valves for economical water consumption.
Minus – a large consumption of material, which increases the cost of the heating system and the complexity of installation, requiring the mandatory involvement of specialists.
Installation principles of this type
The general architecture of the system consists in the presence of two closed pipe loops. A heated coolant flows along one of them, the second plays the role of a return flow. There are several possible options for cutting in contours..
Dead end system
In this embodiment, both circuits of the mains are oppositely directed, and the batteries have the same number of segments. To shut off, the valve of the first radiator must be tightened as much as possible.
Each radiator is equipped with a thermostatic valve or a needle valve, which simplifies balancing.
With this scheme, the supply pipeline can be cut under the radiators or on a par with them. Suitable for houses no higher than two floors. Installation of Mayevsky cranes on each device will help to avoid air congestion.
Suitable for houses from two floors and above. Requires a significant consumption of pipeline elements, but during operation it is possible to automatically remove air through the release valve.
The advantage of this system is the absence of air locks and a high flow rate of the coolant..
Important! The disadvantages include a non-aesthetic appearance with open communications, as well as uneconomical consumption of material and the impossibility of wiring with a large area of \ u200b \ u200bthe premises
Where to install radiators
Traditionally, heating radiators are placed under windows and this is no coincidence. The rising stream of warm air cuts off the cold air that comes from the windows. In addition, warm air heats the glass, preventing condensation from forming on them. Only for this it is necessary that the radiator occupies at least 70% of the width of the window opening. This is the only way the window will not fog up. Therefore, when choosing the power of radiators, select it so that the width of the entire radiator is not less than a given value.
In addition, it is necessary to correctly select the height of the radiator and the place for its placement under the window. It must be placed so that the distance to the floor is in the region of 8-12 cm. If it is lowered lower, it will be inconvenient to clean, if raised higher, it will be cold to the feet. The distance to the window sill is also regulated – it should be 10-12 cm.In this case, warm air will freely go around the obstacle – the window sill – and rise along the window glass.
And the last distance that must be maintained when connecting heating radiators is the distance to the wall. It should be 3-5 cm.In this case, ascending streams of warm air will rise along the rear wall of the radiator, the heating rate of the room will improve.
How to choose the right place
Heating in the house works simultaneously in two directions:
- Warming up the room,
- Blocking the movement of cold air.
That is why the connection of heating radiators in a private house is a rather complicated process, on the correctness of which the comfort in the room will depend..
Most often, batteries are placed under the windowsill, for this it is necessary to maintain a certain distance:
- Between the wall and the battery – from three to five centimeters.
- Between the floor and the radiator – at least 10 centimeters.
In addition, the battery should not be placed completely under the window sill – if it is too wide, the heating device should be pushed forward using special fasteners..
In case the heat is very strong, it is recommended to install a screen that distributes warm air.
In cottages or houses, batteries are most often placed in two versions – this is a one-pipe and two-pipe connection method. It is worth considering each of them in more detail in order to choose the most optimal one for yourself..
Methods for connecting heating radiators in a private house include the simplest one – this is a one-pipe method, according to which all batteries are connected in series using one pipe. It goes from the heating boiler to the first radiator, then to the second, third, and so on. There is another option for such a connection – a one-piece pipe, to which the radiators are connected using risers and return pipes (return pipes). In the first version of the circuit, one of the radiators cannot be blocked without stopping the supply of heat to the others. The advantage of the method is saving materials, minus – a big difference in heating the first radiator from the boiler and the radiator in the farthest room.
The way to connect heating radiators in a private house according to this scheme is somewhat more complicated. The system consists of several radiators, which are connected to each other in a parallel way. In this case, the supply of hot water is carried out through one pipe, and the return flow through the other. This method is most suitable for heating a private house or cottage, since the degree of heating in this case is almost identical in all rooms, it can be adjusted using a convenient thermostat.
When placing radiators, one should take into account how the heating system was designed, in particular, if the movement of the coolant is provided by the pump, there are much fewer problems in this case, but there is a dependence on energy carriers.
Natural circulation is much more common, that is, a hot coolant, most often it is water, rising upwards, pushes out the cold one with its mass. In this case, the heating system does not depend on energy carriers, but it is only necessary to design such a scheme for specialists who will study the total length of pipes, the specifics, the number of heating elements, as well as the number of sections in radiators..
In a word, if the goal is to ensure high-quality heating of the house, it is necessary to take into account all the features of a particular object, and entrust the process to professionals.
Choosing a place and method for installing a radiator
The options for connecting heating radiators depend on the general heating scheme in the house, the design features of the heating devices and the method of pipe laying. The following methods of connecting heating radiators are common:
- Lateral (one-sided). The supply and return pipes are connected on the same side, with the supply located at the top. The standard method for multi-storey buildings, when the supply is carried out from the riser pipe. In terms of efficiency, this method is not inferior to the diagonal.
- Lower. In this way, bimetallic radiators with a bottom connection or a steel radiator with a bottom connection are connected. The supply and return pipes are supplied from the bottom in the left or right side of the device and are connected through the lower connection of the radiator with union nuts and shut-off valves. The union nut is screwed onto the lower radiator pipe. The advantage of this method is the location of the main pipes hidden in the floor, and heating radiators with a lower connection harmoniously fit into the interior and can be installed in narrow niches.
- Diagonal. The coolant enters through the upper inlet, and the return flow is connected from the opposite side to the lower outlet. The optimal type of connection, which ensures uniform heating of the entire battery area. In this way, correctly connect the heating battery, the length of which is more than 1 meter. In this case, heat loss does not exceed 2%.
- Saddle. The supply and return are connected to the bottom holes located on opposite sides. It is mainly used in one-pipe systems when no other method is possible. Heat losses due to poor circulation of the coolant in the upper part of the device reach 15%.
When choosing a place for installation, several factors are taken into account that ensure the correct operation of heating devices. Installation is carried out in places least protected from cold air penetration, under window openings. It is recommended to install a battery under each window. The minimum distance from the wall is 3-5 cm, from the floor and windowsill – 10-15 cm.With smaller gaps, convection worsens and the power of the battery decreases.
Typical mistakes when choosing an installation site:
- The place for the installation of control valves is not taken into account.
- The small distance to the floor and window sill prevents full air circulation, as a result of which heat transfer decreases and the room does not warm up to the set temperature.
- Instead of several batteries located under each window and creating a heat curtain, choose one long radiator.
- Installation of decorative grilles, panels that prevent the normal spread of heat.
Coolant circulation methods
The circulation of the coolant through the pipelines occurs in a natural or forced way. The natural (gravitational) method does not involve the use of additional equipment. The heat carrier moves due to a change in the characteristics of the liquid as a result of heating. The hot coolant entering the battery, cooling down, acquires a greater density and mass, after which it goes down, and a hotter coolant enters its place. Cold water from the return flows by gravity into the boiler and displaces the already heated liquid. For normal operation, the pipeline is installed at a slope of at least 0.5 cm per one running meter.
Circulation diagram of the coolant in the system using pumping equipment
For the forced supply of the coolant, the installation of one or more circulation pumps is required. The pump is installed on the return pipe in front of the boiler. The operation of heating in this case depends on the electrical supply, but has significant advantages:
- Small diameter pipes are allowed.
- The line is installed in any position, vertically or horizontally.
- Less heating medium required.
Heat transfer efficiency – how best to connect heating radiators
Comfort, comfort and more comfort. This thought accompanies us all the time when it comes to living in a house. Agree – who doesn’t want the house to be always cozy and comfortable? There are no such people. And now the second question – what does the quality of accommodation depend on? There are many criteria, but one we are primarily interested in is the warmth in the house. It is provided by a well-designed heating system, where the connection of radiators plays an important role..
It is about this that the conversation will go further. First of all, let’s decide what types of heating are used today. There are two of them:
How do they differ from each other? The number of contours, and, accordingly, the volume of materials used.
The process of connecting a heating radiator diagonally
In order to realize all the advantages of diagonal connection of radiators, it is necessary to carry out the installation process correctly. To do this, you need to understand what tools you should have, how to apply the markup correctly and how the installation of certain elements occurs..
Preparation process for connection from the boiler
Preliminary work is very important before installing heating radiators:
- Inspection of the current harness. The study will create a similar system, which will have a positive impact on the operation.
- Checking components for the radiator. The set must contain: Mayevsky crane, shut-off valves, brackets.
Some models include adapters and gaskets, sometimes you need to buy them. When replacing manually, you will need tools – keys that are suitable in size. And you also need to purchase a sealant.
- Check the pipes for compatibility with the new battery. The outer layer of the bimetallic device is made of aluminum, which is not compatible with soft materials. For example, copper piping or taps will need to be replaced. Otherwise, the system is threatened with imminent destruction..
- Selection of the location of the battery. This is especially true for mounts if an old device is being replaced..
- Examination of the radiator for visible damage, surface integrity, coating.
- With full compliance of the components, they proceed to replacement. At the preparatory stage, water is drained from old batteries.
After completing the preparation, they proceed to the choice of the connection scheme. The first paragraph indicates that you should choose an option similar to the old one. This will allow not to rebuild the entire system and maintain the current efficiency. The work process is quite simple and is described below..
Important! At the end, a set of tests is carried out, known as crimping. It includes checks with water, heat and pneumatics
A set of necessary elements for diagonal mounting of radiators:
- several brackets for device installation;
- transition nuts;
- the required number of plugs;
- air vent (Mayevsky crane);
- quick disconnect couplings of the “American” type;
- shut-off valves.
All of the above parts can be purchased either as a kit or separately. To work with these products, you need the following tools:
- pipe cutters;
- press tongs;
- ring and adjustable wrenches;
- pipe benders.
In the case when pipes and radiators are made of different materials, adapters and special technical means for their connection may be needed..
In order to correctly install the battery, you must follow certain rules and regulations..
It is far from always possible to remember them in the process of work..
That is why you should first apply the appropriate markings on the wall, according to which actions will be performed..
In this regard, experts identify the following three important points:
- The distance from the bottom of the window sill to the top edge of the battery should be 5 to 10 centimeters. This is necessary in order to allow the heated air to circulate in a normal way around the room. This placement of the radiator affects the level of heat transfer..
- There should be at least 8-12 centimeters between the floor covering and the bottom of the battery. This condition is associated with convection currents of heated air..
- The last rule concerns the gap between the radiator sections and the wall itself. Normally, it should vary from 2 to 5 centimeters..
Attention! In accordance with all of the above norms, it is necessary to make notes on the wall using an ordinary pencil. This will greatly help to simplify the work and prevent the risk of possible errors..
Such an indispensable element of the heating system as the Mayevsky crane is a special product used to remove air locks from the heating network. It can be opened with a key or a screwdriver..
The accumulated air in the batteries can not only paralyze the circulation of hot water, but also trigger the corrosion process. Due to the fact that the product is designed to remove air masses from radiators, it is installed mainly in places where this problem most often occurs. To do this, it is enough just to unscrew the side plug of the section, and then screw the tap into its place..
Installation of “American women”
It is imperative to attach special metal couplings to the branch pipes to which the water supply and drainage pipelines are connected. Most often they are called “American women”.
In order to install them, you need to use a special key. It is inserted into the lumen of the Mayevsky crane, after which the “American” is put on top. The main thing is to choose the right key, as it can be of various diameters and configurations. In some cases, conventional adjustable wrenches and pliers can be used..
Screwing the valves
As a result, cut-off valves are attached to the soldering of the “American women”. One element must be installed on each branch pipe.
This, in which case, will allow you to cut off a specific radiator from the general heating system. At the same time, the entire heating network of the room will remain operating as usual..
The valves are also installed by screwing. It is made between the radiator and a special jumper, which diverts water from the lower pipe to the upper one if the tap is closed..
Pros and cons of diagonal connection of heating radiators
A distinctive feature of the diagonal scheme is the supply of the pipeline to the radiators. In order for heating to be as efficient as possible, you need to familiarize yourself with the positive and negative sides of such a connection..
The diagonal scheme is distinguished by a special pipeline supply to the radiators
- The scheme is highly efficient, it is considered the best choice for a private house. Heating efficiency exceeds 90%.
- With a diagonal connection method, a large number of sections can be installed on a heating device – optimally up to 24 pieces.
- During the circulation of the coolant through the sections, a gradient contour is formed.
- Heating efficiency is achieved when the diagonal connection is made in a two-pipe system. For a one-pipe scheme, this option is poorly suited.
- The supply of two pipes to the heating device from different sides does not look aesthetically pleasing inside the room.
- With a diagonal scheme, the nozzles are supplied to the heating device from both sides. In the future, if it is necessary to add or reduce the number of sections, the pipeline will have to be cut.
- For apartments, the diagonal scheme is rarely used, and in some cases it is not available at all.
- Diagonal installation of the heating circuit is costly, as it requires more materials and work.
To have a clear idea of the diagonal connection method, you need to understand its features and nuances..
Several useful recommendations will help you more accurately determine the choice of the scheme:
- for apartments, diagonal connection is beneficial if the heating device has 12 or more sections;
- it is optimal to give preference to the diagonal if the wiring is two-pipe;
- you should always try to supply the supply to the upper collector, and the return to the lower.
In heating with forced circulation, you can give preference to the diagonal with a one-pipe system, and supply the supply pipe to the lower collector. However, the heating efficiency decreases.
Rules for connecting heating radiators
Regardless of the type of radiators chosen and the connection diagram suitable for them, it is important to correctly calculate and mount everything.
In each specific case, its own system will be optimal. For expensive houses of a large area, it is advisable to contact specialists who can offer the best project. This is not a question to economize on..
In order to correctly install and connect heating devices in a complex design scheme, it is better to use the services of professionals
For small residential houses, you can independently choose a suitable scheme and install heating devices. It is imperative to take into account the peculiarities of your home, the rules for installing batteries and the advisability of using a particular scheme.
When installing radiators, one must not forget that the type of material for the battery itself and the pipes must be the same. Plastic pipes connected to cast iron heating devices will bring a lot of problems, ruining the heating system.
Being engaged in self-installation of heating batteries, one should not forget from the installation of ball valves for bleeding air and a regulator at the inlet
What is needed for installation
- Connecting elements
- Soldering iron for pipes
- Laser level
The radiator should not only give off heat, but also protect from drafts, and also harmoniously fit into the interior. Before installation, draw up a plan for integrating the radiators into the heating system in advance. The best option is placement under a windowsill. In this way, the flow of warm air from the radiator will reduce the effect of cold air from the window. For correct installation, the following dimensions must be taken into account:
- 100 mm – distance to the radiator from the bottom of the window sill;
- 120 mm – distance from the device body to the floor;
- 20 mm – distance to wall.
Tip: if you plan to install two radiators in the same room, do not place them close to each other. Otherwise, the density of the heated air flow will decrease, which means that the thermal efficiency will decrease..
Consider the heat output of the radiators when placing them, focus on the area of the room. It is generally accepted that 10 sq. m accounts for 1 kW of thermal power.
It is equally important to choose the right radiator connection diagram. It depends on the number of storeys of the house, the type of heating system – autonomous or central, as well as on the method of circulation of the coolant – forced or natural. We will help you figure out the basic schemes. Which one will be the best for you?
First, let’s talk about which radiator connection schemes are good for systems with forced circulation. In them, water moves through pipes due to the work of the circulation pump. Below are the most common side diagrams for connecting radiators – fig. 1.
- One-way connection implies the placement of the supply pipe in the upper part of the body, and the outlet pipe on the same side at the bottom. In this case, water passes through the entire height of the radiator, evenly heating all its sections. However, such a scheme will not be very effective for long radiators – from 10 sections. The part of the case that is far from the pipes will heat up worse.
- The bottom connection is usually used for systems in which the pipeline is laid under the floor, for example, it is a branch from the water system “warm floor”. Both the supply and the outlet pipes are connected to the lower radiator pipes. This is convenient and is basically the only solution when laying pipes under the floor. However, such a system has a drawback – significant heat loss, which can reach 15%. The upper part of the case warms up worse than the lower.
- The diagonal connection consists in the upper position of the supply pipe and the lower position of the outlet pipe on the other side of the radiator. In this case, the coolant fills the radiator evenly, which contributes to improved heat transfer and reduces heat loss by 2%. You can use a diagonal arrangement with long heatsinks. However, it is necessary to install a plug and a Mayevsky crane.
Mayevsky crane or automatic air vent
This is a small venting device for air that can collect in the radiator. Placed on a free top outlet (collector). Must be on every heating device when installing aluminum and bimetallic radiators. The size of this device is much less than the diameter of the collector, so an adapter is also required, but Mayevsky taps usually come with adapters, you just need to know the diameter of the collector (connection dimensions).
In addition to the Mayevsky crane, there are also automatic air vents. They can also be placed on radiators, but they are slightly larger and for some reason are only available in a brass or nickel-plated case. No in white enamel. In general, the picture turns out to be unattractive and, although they deflate automatically, they are rarely placed..
The radiator has four outputs with side connection. Two of them are occupied by the supply and return pipelines, on the third they are installing a Mayevsky crane. The fourth entrance is closed with a plug. She, like most modern batteries, is most often painted with white enamel and does not spoil the appearance at all.
You will need two more ball valves or shut-off valves with the ability to adjust. They are placed on each input and output battery. If these are ordinary ball valves, they are needed so that, if necessary, you can turn off the radiator and remove it (emergency repair, replacement during the heating season). In this case, even if something happened to the radiator, you cut it off, and the rest of the system will work. The advantage of this solution is the low price of ball valves, the disadvantage is the impossibility of adjusting heat transfer.
Almost the same tasks, but with the ability to change the intensity of the coolant flow, are performed by shut-off control valves. They are more expensive, but they also allow you to adjust the heat transfer (make it less), and they look better outwardly, they are available in a straight and angular design, so the strapping itself is more accurate.
If desired, you can put a thermostat on the coolant supply after the ball valve. This is a relatively small device that allows you to change the heat transfer of the heater. If the radiator does not heat well, you cannot put them on – it will be even worse, since they can only make less flow. There are different thermostats for batteries – automatic electronic, but more often they use the simplest – mechanical.
Related materials and tools
You will also need hooks or brackets for hanging on walls. Their number depends on the size of the batteries:
- if the sections are no more than 8 or the length of the radiator is no more than 1.2 m, two attachment points at the top and one at the bottom are sufficient;
- for every next 50 cm or 5-6 sections add one fastener at the top and bottom.
So you need fum tape or linen roll, plumbing paste to seal the joints. You will also need a drill with drills, a level (a level is better, but a regular bubble level is also suitable), a certain number of dowels. You will also need equipment for connecting pipes and fittings, but it depends on the type of pipes. That’s all.
Tying with polypropylene pipes instruction
The piping of radiators can be carried out using a wide variety of pipes, but experts recommend using polypropylene pipes. Ball valves for strapping are also bought polypropylene, they can be straight and angled, this option is the simplest and most inexpensive. Brass fittings are more expensive and more difficult to install.
Polypropylene strapping is performed as follows:
- a sleeve with a union nut is inserted into a multiflex, which easily connects to any outlet;
- the pipes themselves are attached to the walls at a convenient height, they should not fit snugly to the surface, it is better to leave a gap of 2-3 cm.The pipes are fastened with special brackets, which are fixed to the wall with nails or self-tapping screws.
To radiators, polypropylene strapping can be carried out when pipes are laid into the wall, in which case they come to the surface only at the connection points.
Radiator strapping can be performed using a wide variety of pipes, but experts recommend using polypropylene.
Fasteners for batteries can be very different, most often it is a pin connection that is fixed to the surface of the wall. Corner brackets can also be used, which also allow the radiators to be suspended at the required height. For panel batteries, fasteners are supplied in the kit, for sectional batteries, they must be purchased separately. Usually two brackets or pins are enough for one section..
The taps are connected in this way:
- the crane is disassembled, a fitting and a union nut are screwed into the radiator;
- the nut is tightly tightened with a special wrench.
As you can see, this process is extremely simple. To do such a job, you just need to purchase a special plumbing wrench for American women, without which it is unlikely that you can simply install a tap..
The following materials and tools are required to install and strap batteries:
- a set of special keys;
- seals for threaded connections;
- tow and thread paste;
- threads for carving.
What can be a strapping of polypropylene pipes
The piping for a home heating system can be very different. The thing is that the consumer is always trying to reduce the amount of consumables, while simultaneously trying to equip radiators in all heated rooms..
It should be said right away that these are relics of the past. Unlike expensive metal pipes, polypropylene consumables are much cheaper and easier to install. therefore, it is not worth saving on the length of the pipeline. Choose the type of strapping that will bring the most benefit in your case. The only reasons that can influence the choice of the type of strapping are the following factors:
- what heating circuit is used (one-pipe system or two-pipe system);
- what type of radiator connection did you choose (diagonal, side or bottom).
As a rule, when using any heating scheme: one-pipe or two-pipe, you can use any type of connection for heating batteries.
according to experts, the laying of the pipeline must be minimized the number of bends. A smooth line remains resistant to hydrodynamic loads. The number of zones in which air can accumulate will decrease in the pipeline.
For strapping a single-circuit and double-circuit heating system using polypropylene pipes, there are some peculiarities.
- usually in such a system, a serial connection of radiators is used;
- a bypass is always installed in front of the battery, connecting the supply pipe and the return. During normal heating system operation, the bypass is not activated. When carrying out maintenance work or in case of an emergency, the water supply to the radiator is stopped. The heating medium circulates freely through the bypass.
- both parallel and serial connection of batteries is used;
- both radiator pipes are connected to different pipes. The upper one is connected to the supply pipe, the lower branch pipe is connected to the return. Typically, in two pipe systems, radiators are connected in parallel, so no bypass is required.
The strapping of polypropylene pipes with the participation of radiators is carried out in two ways: by soldering and using fittings. Installation of radiators and their connection is carried out using a soldering iron and plumbing keys for an American.
Other types of connection
There are more profitable options than the bottom connection, which provide a decrease in heat loss:
- Diagonal. All experts have long come to the conclusion that this type of connection is ideal, regardless of which piping scheme it is used in. The only system where it is not possible to use this type is the horizontal lower one-pipe system. That is, the same Leningrad woman. What is the essence of the diagonal connection? The coolant moves diagonally inside the radiator – from the upper branch pipe to the lower one. It turns out that hot water is evenly distributed throughout the entire internal volume of the device, descending from top to bottom, that is, in a natural way. And since the speed of water movement is not very high during natural circulation, the heat transfer will be high. Heat loss in this case is only 2%..
- Lateral, or one-sided. This type is very often used in apartment buildings. The connection is made to the side connections on one side. Experts believe that this type is one of the most effective, but only if the circulation of the coolant under pressure is installed in the system. In city apartments, this is not a problem. And to provide it in a private house, you will have to install a circulation pump.
What is the advantage of one species over others? In fact, the correct connection is the key to effective heat transfer and reduced heat loss. But in order to properly connect the battery, you need to prioritize.
Take, for example, a two-story private house. What to prefer in this case? There are several options here:
Two and one pipe systems
- Install one pipe system with side connection.
- Install a two-pipe system with a diagonal connection.
- Use a one-pipe system with lower wiring on the first floor and top wiring on the second.
So you can always find connection diagram options. Of course, you will have to take into account some nuances, for example, the location of the premises, the presence of a basement or attic.
But in any case, it is important to correctly distribute the radiators among the rooms, taking into account the number of their sections. That is, the power of the heating system will have to be taken into account without fail even with such a question as the correct connection of radiators
In a one-story private house, it will not be very difficult to correctly connect the battery, given the length of the heating circuit. If this is a one-pipe Leningrad circuit, then only the bottom connection is possible. If there is a two-pipe scheme, then you can use a collector system or a solar one. Both options are based on the principle of connecting one radiator to two circuits – coolant supply and return. In this case, the top piping is most often used, where the distribution along the contours is carried out in the attic..
By the way, this option is considered optimal both in terms of operation and during the repair process. Each circuit can be disconnected from the system without shutting down the latter. To do this, a shut-off valve is installed at the pipe branch point. Exactly the same is mounted after the radiator on the return pipe. One has only to close both valves to cut off the circuit. After draining the coolant, you can safely engage in repairs. In this case, all other circuits will operate normally..
Gravity heating system and a scheme for its implementation
Until a certain time, a gravity heating system in private houses was the only possible one. Probably, it was its wide distribution that created the myth about the simplicity and cheapness of gravity heating. In fact, it is the heating scheme based on the natural movement of the coolant that is the most difficult to implement and material-intensive..
Moreover, gravity heating works effectively only in one-story houses. In two-story buildings, overheating of the second floor inevitably occurs, to eliminate which it is necessary to install additional bypasses, which will also lead to an increase in the cost of the heating system.
In buildings with a higher number of storeys, the gravity heating system is not used..
Another important condition for the successful implementation of a gravity heating system is the presence of an attic, where a heating expansion tank should be installed and supply collectors (shoulders) should be laid.
If there is no attic, but a house with an attic, the expansion tank must be installed in the living room, connecting it to the sewage system to discharge excess coolant if necessary. It should be remembered that in a gravity system, the expansion tank is open and its location inside the house is possible only when water is used as a heat carrier. If antifreeze is poured into the heating system, the vapors of which are dangerous to humans, an open expansion tank cannot be installed in the room..
Another condition for the normal operation of gravity heating is the installation of the boiler below the return level, for which the boiler is placed in a special recess or in the basement. And finally, the installation of pipes of such a system should be performed with a slope, which ensures free directed movement of the coolant to the boiler..
As you can see, the scheme of a gravity heating system cannot be called simple. She has too many shortcomings, and only one advantage – uninterrupted operation of the heating system in the absence of electricity.
Diy diagrams for connecting heating a private house with your own hands
In the case of the installation of a parapet gas boiler, which can also be double-circuit, you will need to separately install a circulation pump located on the return pipe, as well as an expansion tank and other additional piping. Even today, there are supporters of this method of wiring communications for heating a room..
The absence of taps and fittings makes such a system also the most practical because it minimizes the risk of water leaks or breakthroughs. And nothing else
It is allowed to install the unit on its own, but it is important to comply with all electrical safety rules.
Moreover, such equipment has virtually no drawbacks, except for the high fire hazard, which is inherent in all boilers. One-pipe wiring is the cheapest option
An elementary type of heating for installation and operation.
One pipe leaves the water heating boiler and, successively bypassing all the radiators, comes back. You can increase or decrease the temperature in each room as needed. When arranging an asbestos-cement chimney, you will need to subsequently insulate it with mineral wool with foil.
Summing up The above is a diagram of the installation of a gas unit, which can be of either a single-circuit or a double-circuit type. In this case, the temperature of all radiators in all rooms will be approximately the same. In the open version, a pressure gauge is not required at all. Such boilers are distinguished by a fairly high efficiency, but at the same time they need regular cleaning from combustion products at least once a week, installation of a chimney, organization of exhaust ventilation and the presence of a separate room.
Factors to Consider
At the design stage of the heating system, the thermal calculation of the house as a whole and of each heated room separately is performed. This allows you to install a boiler of the required power and select a heating device for each room, the heat transfer of which is sufficient for high-quality heating even on frosty days. It doesn’t matter what material the radiator is made of – it can be steel, cast iron, aluminum or bimetallic.
However, the type of battery affects the ease of use of the heating system – cast iron radiators cool and heat up for a long time, not allowing flexible regulation of the indoor climate
It is also worth paying attention to the presence of panel-type steel radiators with bottom connection – they are connected to the pipeline in the only possible way
In order for the heating system to provide the house with heat, operating in optimal mode, without unnecessary fuel consumption, it is necessary to take into account:
- type of heating system;
- the location of the batteries (the place of installation affects their heat transfer – protruding structures and decorative screens reduce the performance by 3–20%);
- length and specificity of the heating main.
In the absence of special instructions when installing the boiler, the following rules are used: The width of the passage on the front side of the boiler must be at least 1m. In small private houses, the following types of two-pipe heating systems are used: dead-end; collector beam. The main disadvantage of such a wiring is a slight increase in the footage of pipes. In this case, hot water coming from the boiler enters the radiators through one pipe, and the already cooled coolant is removed through the other. Considered one of the most durable and economical boilers.
Oscillations are recorded by sensors, and, if necessary, the system brings them to normal parameters. Such a pump belongs to the category of emergency equipment and runs on a rechargeable battery. The main task of the pump is to supply cooled water to the boiler to heat it and distribute the already heated coolant through the system. In addition, the use of such a scheme for heating with an electric boiler implies a complex balancing process. The equipment must come with a box with C16 circuit breakers, which are mounted at home next to the unit..
A prerequisite for the correct circulation of water in a gravity system is the installation of pipes at a small – to – angle. Even when using a multi-tariff system, the cost of heating a house in this way will be an order of magnitude higher than in the case of a wood-burning heater. All solid fuel boilers are based on the Kolpakov principle, when the boiler first heats up, and then the temperature is maintained at a certain level in order to ensure the stability of heating the coolant. In order to achieve a good effect in using the received energy, it is necessary to install a heat accumulator. After all, the batteries will go along the inner perimeter, along the load-bearing walls, and even the last radiator should be located a little higher than the boiler.
- dismantle the old radiator;
- an air vent is mounted, plugs are screwed into the open holes of the collectors. For different pipe diameters, adapters are used. For the installation of shut-off and control valves, ball valves are initially fixed at the inlets and outlets;
Reference! At this stage, thermostats can be installed as an additional element, allowing you to control the flow of the coolant..
If until now everything has been done by hand, at this stage it is better to invite a locksmith of the housing department. By shutting off the “American” taps, you can open the connecting tap. It is better to entrust the opening of the return pipe to a locksmith..
If there is no leakage at the joints, it will be possible to open the tap on the batteries and close the bypass tap. The coolant will begin to flow into the heating system. To bleed the air, you should use the Mayevsky crane.
As soon as the heating circuit in all rooms warms up, the locksmith will open a straight pipe. This will restore pressure to the system. The proof test can be considered completed. If the installation was done correctly, the apartment will be comfortable at minimal cost.
Hanging the radiator and fixing it to the wall
Next, you need to figure out how to hang a heating radiator and how to fix it to the walls. The process itself is simple, but even before you hang the battery, you should make sure that the wall surface behind it is even..
Further on the wall, 10-12 centimeters below the window sill, a horizontal line is drawn, which serves as a location reference for the upper edge of the radiator. After that, in accordance with the intended position of the heating device, the fasteners are installed.
The location of the radiator should be strictly horizontal for heating systems with forced (pump) circulation of the coolant. If the system works by means of natural circulation, then a minimum slope is provided for the battery – about 1-1.5 °. The reason is simple – at the end of the heating season, the operation of the radiator stops and the water is drained.
In this case, it is very important that the drain is complete, and the battery subsequently remains dry..
If the slope exceeds the recommended value of 1-1.5 °, then the stagnation arising during operation will interfere with the normal operation of the device. All these nuances should be foreseen and taken into account before you hang the heating battery and equip the heating system in the home..
To install the hooks, holes are drilled in the wall into which plastic dowels are mounted. Then the hooks are screwed into them enough to provide a distance of 3-5 centimeters between the radiator and the wall. Typically, the heating device is suspended so that the hooks are between the sections.
Another important point regarding how to hang radiators on the wall. Although, along with the upper ones, the lower fasteners are also installed, their role is rather auxiliary – they mainly serve to more securely fix the radiator in a given position, including during the installation process. The level of their installation should be 1-1.5 centimeters below the lower collector. Most of the weight load of the radiator falls on the upper fasteners.
Of course, the heavier the heating device, the greater the thickness and strength of the fasteners. For example, if the question is how to hang an aluminum radiator, you can get by with hooks that are not very thick. If a heavy cast-iron battery is suspended from the wall, the brackets and hooks should be much thicker and stronger..
Radiator integration point
Whether you have a series connection of heating batteries or a more complicated parallel connection, in any case, remember that heat supply is not the only function of these units. An additional bonus of such devices is that the radiators provide good protection against the “cold” intrusion of winds and drafts..
Series and parallel connection of heating radiators
Therefore, it is not surprising that it is under the windowsills that these saving devices find their refuge. Heating radiators are able to provide an excellent thermal curtain, especially in the localization of window openings.
Before using a specific type of connection, make a schematic plan, on which clearly and visually mark the locations of the devices, make the correct calculations of the installation distance.
The radiators are located correctly in the following cases:
- devices are located at a distance of 100 mm from the bottom line of the sill;
- distance to the floor – 120 mm;
- distance to walls – 20 mm.
Maintaining a high temperature of the water in the mains is not enough for the heating devices installed in the apartments to warm up well and give off the required amount of heat, maintaining a comfortable temperature. There are several ways how to properly connect the heating, which depend on the wiring diagram and the number of transit main pipes. But before choosing the most suitable one, you need to familiarize yourself with the rules for placing radiators..
Regardless of what material the batteries are made of (cast iron, aluminum alloy, bimetallic profile, etc.), they should be placed directly under the window openings, since this place is rightfully considered the weakest and most unprotected in the house, even when it comes to high quality multi-frame frames and triple glazing. This point must be taken into account by the owners of apartments with panoramic windows and loggias combined with the living area..
According to the data given in building codes and regulations, in order to calculate how to connect a heating battery in an apartment, the following recommendations must be observed:
- The distance from the battery to the windowsill should range from 5 to 10 centimeters.
- The minimum distance from the floor must be at least 6 centimeters.
- The distance from the heater to the wall is also of great importance, which should not go beyond the interval from 2 to 2.5 centimeters, excluding the materials used for finishing (aluminum screens, decorative facing stone or brick, tiles, etc.).
- In order to prevent condensation from forming on the windows in the cold season, it is necessary to ensure that the length of the radiator corresponds to 70 percent of the width of the window opening. Based on these recommendations, you can easily calculate how many sections the heating device should include in each room, not forgetting to take into account the quadrature of the room.
Installation requirements under the window
Batteries located under window openings are a typical and logical solution. Since this place is always the weakest link in the room, it is necessary to create a “thermal curtain” around it, which is done using these devices. Installation of radiators under the window requires compliance with several rules:
- The center of the instrument should be located in the center of the window. Possibly a slight offset to the left or right (20 mm).
- The length of the battery must be at least 75% of the length of the window. The distance from the window sill is at least 50 mm, from the floor – 60 mm. Optimal performance – 100-120 mm.
- The recommended distance from the battery to the wall is 30-50 mm. Such a space guarantees that the heated air masses will not encounter obstacles in the way, which means that the heating will work perfectly..
All radiators must be at the same level, their ribs must be located strictly vertically, therefore, during installation, it is mandatory to check with a level (plumb line). Ignoring these requirements can lead to ineffective operation of the heating system. The reason is its airing.
These are general guidelines that should be followed. However, for some models of devices there are “own” rules that are established by the manufacturer of a particular radiator. They can be found in the instruction manual.
- Pre-make all the necessary markings for mounting the brackets;
- Strengthen these devices to the walls.
- Install Mayevsky cranes on batteries.
- Install plugs and heat supply regulators, taps and valves.
- Align horizontally the battery placed on the brackets.
- Connect the battery to the common pipeline by means of adapters.
- Pressurize the heating system and pre-start the fluid.
Thus, the correct installation of heating radiators is a simple matter: you should not have any problems in the process of self-installation..
Differences Between Basic Battery Connections
All possible types of connection of heating radiators differ in the type of pipe routing. It can consist of one or two pipes. In turn, each of the options assumes division into systems with vertical risers or horizontal highways. Horizontal wiring of the heating system in an apartment building is often used, and it has proven itself well..
Based on which version of the piping to the radiators was chosen, the diagram of their connection will directly depend. In heating systems with one-pipe and two-pipe circuits, the lower, lateral and diagonal method of connecting radiators is used. Whichever option you choose, the main thing is that enough heat gets into the room for high-quality heating..
The described types of pipe routing are referred to as a tee connection system. However, there is another variety – this is a collector circuit, or beam wiring. When using it, the heating circuit is laid to each radiator separately. In this regard, collector types of battery connections have a higher cost, since a lot of pipes are required to implement such a connection. In addition, they will pass through the entire room. However, usually in such cases, the heating circuit is laid in the floor and does not spoil the interior of the room..
Despite the fact that the described collector connection scheme assumes the presence of a large number of pipes, it is increasingly used during the design of heating systems. In particular, this type of radiator connection is used to create a water “warm floor”. It is used as an additional source of heat, or as the main one – it all depends on the project.
Video – Connecting a membrane expansion tank to polypropylene
Installation of the security unit. It is installed only for closed-type heating systems in an accessible place, in most cases near the boiler. The control and safety unit consists of a pressure gauge (shows the actual pressure in the system), an air release valve and a safety valve. The safety valve automatically opens when the maximum permissible pressure values are exceeded.
Video – Security Group
Pumps are sold together with boilers, in all modern gas and electric boilers they are mounted in the body, no additional action is needed. If the installed model does not have a built-in pump or you have a solid fuel boiler, you will have to purchase it separately. Installed in any convenient place at the cold water inlet from the heating system to the boiler.
What you need for efficient battery performance
An efficient heating system can save money on fuel costs. Therefore, when designing it, you should make a balanced decision. After all, sometimes the advice of a neighbor in the country or a friend who recommends such a system as his is not at all suitable.
It happens that there is no time to deal with these issues yourself. In this case, it is better to contact professionals who have been working in this field for 5 years and older and who have grateful reviews..
Correct connection is guaranteed to ensure a comfortable stay in the house of all family members. Indeed, when choosing a scheme, you need to take into account a number of features of your home
Having decided to independently engage in the connection of heating radiators, you need to take into account that the following indicators have a direct effect on their efficiency:
- size and heat output of heating devices;
- their location in the room;
- connection method.
The choice of heating devices amazes the imagination of the inexperienced consumer. Among the offers are wall-mounted radiators made of various materials, floor and baseboard convectors. They all have a different shape, size, level of heat transfer, type of connection. These characteristics must be taken into account when installing heaters in the system..
Among the models of heating devices on the market, it is better to choose, focusing on the material and thermal power specified by the manufacturer.
For each room, the number of radiators and their size will be different. It all depends on the area of the room, the level of insulation of the external walls of the building, the connection diagram, the thermal power specified by the manufacturer in the product passport.
The locations of the batteries are under the window, between the windows located at a rather long distance from each other, along a blank wall or in the corner of the room, in the hallway, pantry, bathroom, in the entrances of apartment buildings.
Depending on the place and method of installation of the heater, there will be different heat losses. The worst option is a radiator completely covered by a screen
It is recommended to install a heat-reflecting screen between the wall and the heater. It can be made by hand using one of the materials that reflect heat – penofol, isospan or another foil analogue. Also, you should adhere to the following basic rules for installing the battery under the window:
- all radiators in one room are located on the same level;
- convector ribs in vertical position;
- the center of the heating equipment coincides with the center of the window or is located 2 cm to the right (to the left);
- the length of the battery is not less than 75% of the length of the window itself;
- the distance to the windowsill is not less than 5 cm, to the floor – not less than 6 cm.The optimal distance is 10-12 cm.
The level of heat transfer of devices and heat loss depends on the correct connection of radiators to the heating system in the house..
Having adhered to the basic norms for the placement of radiators, it is possible to prevent the penetration of cold into the room through the window as much as possible.
It happens that the owner of the home is guided by the advice of a friend, but the result is not at all the same as expected. Everything is done as he does, but the batteries do not want to warm up. This means that the selected connection scheme did not fit specifically for this house, the area of the premises, the thermal power of the heating devices were not taken into account, or annoying mistakes were made during installation.
For your information, industrial heating projects for commissioning provide up to 10% of the total budget. This means that commissioning is very important and complex. To insure you against making mistakes, here are some practical tips..
Open all valves and air vents before filling the system with water.
Please note – not after filling, but before. Let the water spill a little on the floor, it’s okay
Video – Starting and filling the heating system with a coolant
It is advisable to install a single-pipe heating system with lower wiring in small buildings, the farther the battery is from the boiler, the lower its heating temperature. If permanent residence is not planned in the country house, then in winter, during the absence, the water must be drained and refilled upon arrival. Not everyone wants to do such things. The way out is to use antifreeze as a coolant, but this is expensive.
If desired, you can mount a one-pipe heating system in the bath. But why? The steam room does not need to be heated, the batteries are installed only in the dressing room. One or two radiators are enough for this room. The system will be used for several hours a week. Is it worth it to waste so much time and money? Perhaps, for a small bath, it is worth purchasing an ordinary air heater. It is expedient and economically viable to install a heating system in a large bath complex or a bathhouse combined with a residential building.
Approximate calculation of equipment for the heating system of a house with an area of 100 m2.
|Shut-off and connecting fittings||1||2.000|
|Boiler room piping equipment||1||2.000|
|Radiator 10 section||6||36.000|
|Radiator mounting kit||6||1.800|
|Pipe (polypropylene)||60 m||10.000|
The cost of installation work by a master will cost approximately 50,000 – 60,000 rubles.
There are two types of bimetallic radiators: partially or completely bimetallic
In the first case, aluminum is used for the manufacture of vertical collectors, which requires special care during installation .. There are the following requirements on how to properly connect a bimetallic battery:
There are the following requirements on how to properly connect a bimetallic battery:
When connecting fittings and manifolds, one should refrain from excessive forces. As a rule, the accompanying documentation contains detailed installation instructions.
A torque wrench is very convenient in this respect, allowing you to control the applied force.
When using linen roll, it is important not to overdo it with the amount. Otherwise, part of the effort will go to it, which ultimately will lead to the appearance of microcracks.
After the coolant enters them, the process of peeling off the paint will start. As a result, sooner or later, a leak will appear. It is best to apply a sealant and some flax. It is better to refuse the use of paint in systems where antifreeze acts as a heat carrier. This will quickly erode the seal and cause leakage..
- The battery must be installed in a strictly horizontal position. The exception is the cases of using an air vent, when, for greater efficiency of the gas release, some deviation of the angle forward along the circulation path is allowed. It is forbidden to make a slope in the opposite direction, because it disrupts circulation.
- When hanging the radiator, three brackets must be used: two at the top and one at the bottom. The upper elements take on all the load. Bottom fasteners set the desired direction.
- To ensure effective air exchange, the following parameters should be adhered to: distance to the floor – from 60 mm, to the window sill – from 100 mm.
In some cases, the manufacturer may recommend other distances, depending on the design features (the differences usually concern a few centimeters). However, the gap between the rear surface of the battery and the wall remains unchanged – 30-50 mm.
Errors arising during the installation of radiators
Often, when connecting heating radiators, the following errors occur:
Installation of the reverse circuit, i.e. the water supply is replaced by the return. This problem is identified and corrected during testing..
- When installing decorative screens, access to the thermostat is closed. The batteries begin to warm up very badly, as a result of which the valve turns off the heating. There is a general decrease in the efficiency of the unit up to 20%. In this case, the blank panel is replaced with a lattice structure..
- In the absence of air valves, it becomes difficult to uniform heating, as a result of which corrosion processes begin to develop.
- If the thermostat head is installed vertically, it will lead to unstable operation of the device. The fuser must be installed correctly.
Recommendations for equipment installation and connection of radiators
When installing a heating line with his own hands, the owner has to solve the problem of how to properly connect the radiators, and the following recommendations can help in this:
- If the house is large and it provides battery and collector heating with underfloor heating, it is better to contact a specialist to draw up a layout for the heating main, calculate heating radiators. Simple gravity systems are easy to design independently, paying special attention to slopes, radiator forced heating without underfloor heating also does not need complex calculations.
- For de-airing, a Mayevsky crane is placed in each radiator, which allows air to be released, ensuring that its internal space is completely filled with liquid.
- A plastic pipeline designed to work with modern aluminum or steel heat exchangers is not connected to morally obsolete cast-iron batteries.
- To simplify the maintenance and repair of the circulation electric pump, a bypass jumper should be installed in the heating system parallel to it..
- The standard place for installing heating radiators is under the windows, their recommended length is about 70% of the width of the window opening; to reduce heat loss, a foil reflector of infrared radiation is placed in the wall behind the heater.
- When placing batteries in relation to the space under the window sill, the following rules are followed: distance to the wall – 30 – 50 mm, distance from the floor and to the window sill – 100 – 120 mm.
The diagonal connection of radiators is used in two-pipe and one-pipe heating systems for private houses, while the circulation of the coolant through the pipes can be gravity or forced. The most optimal option for the effective connection of radiators, which does not require the use of thermostats on each heating device, is the Tichelman two-pipe associated circuit, in which the diagonal piping to the radiators is the most effective in terms of their heat transfer.
Video instruction with advice from a specialist
Hello! I have such problems with heat: 1) In a corner apartment in the children’s room there are two supply and return pipes. At the supply, the fiery pipe on the return line is times colder. Radiators are connected to the return line, is it correct or not. Can I, in addition to the supply, connect more radiators and run them along a cold street wall? 2) The toilet has no radiator and no pipes at all, although the wall is also cold (outside). 3) In the bedroom there is only a pipe (return), a radiator battery is connected to it, and through the wall in our kitchen there is a supply. It is possible to somehow combine two rooms and install in two rooms from a supply pipe?
In our 9-storey building, the heating system is built like this: one pipe on the supply pipe goes from bottom to top. Radiators are connected to it on all floors in parallel with jumpers. The coolant enters the radiator from below, and the upper outlet from the radiator is connected to the same pipe. Only part of the radiator gets warm. How to properly connect a radiator so that it warms up completely?
Good afternoon. The nine-storey building has a two-pipe heating system in each room. In one room, the heating pipe runs upstairs past all the radiators. Accordingly, all radiators from the ninth floor are connected to the return line, and my battery on the second floor is generally almost cold. Tell me whether such a connection is natural, or is it just a locksmith’s mistake?
Hello! Please tell me how correct your data is, in determining the effective method of connecting a radiator? And what sources can you refer to to obtain the above data? Thank you all in advance!
Embed the valve in the jumper (which is not entirely legal if there are valves on the radiator) or reconnect the radiator diagonally. On propylene it is elementary and fast, compact and quite aesthetically pleasing. The upper insert (outlet) is transferred instead of the upper plug opposite. Do not forget that the thread direction of the plugs is mutually opposite..
Obviously, you have a one-pipe heating system in your house, in which some rooms are connected to the pressure main, while other rooms sit on the back. This is a moronic Soviet system – the return water is already cooled down and cannot heat the room. But you can be fined for installing additional batteries. such reworking of the project is not allowed
Many people think that the option of connecting a radiator is not so important when it comes to heat dissipation. After all, a lot will depend on the type of heat source chosen. For example, bimetallic heating radiators have a higher heat transfer than cast iron ones. But imagine that cast-iron devices are installed according to the diagonal principle of the movement of the coolant, and bimetallic ones along the bottom. In the first case, heat loss is 2%, and in the second – 12%. The difference in losses is as much as 10%. For a heating system, this is a fairly high indicator that will affect not only the temperature regime inside the premises, but also the amount of fuel consumed. This is very important for private houses..
Today, experts give recommendations on how to increase the heat transfer of devices. To do this, a reflective panel can be installed on the wall behind the radiator, for example, a regular piece of fiberboard trimmed with aluminum foil. But keep in mind that the distance from the wall to the radiator in this case must be at least 1.5 cm.