Why you might need a replacement
Often, the replacement of the heating system in apartment buildings is carried out when:
- violation of sealing in a pipeline or battery;
- deterioration of heat transfer;
- blockage of the system;
- changes in the interior of the room.
The heating system with each component belongs to the housing and communal services, therefore, without the permission of the law, it is illegal to make changes to the dwelling.
Important! An employee of the ZhEK will give an assessment of the condition of the old heating system and permission to install a new one. Only after approval of dismantling and drawing up an installation diagram is it possible to change the battery in the house.
Reasons for replacement
There are a number of reasons why heating appliances in an apartment building have to be changed. These include:
- Physical wear and tear of equipment. Old batteries collapse, lose their tightness and during pressure testing of the system after emergency or seasonal maintenance work, or simply during operation, they leak.
- Insufficient heating efficiency. The old radiator differs from the new one in a thick layer of deposits inside the case, which is why the coolant cannot fully give off heat to the room.
- Insufficient power. In multi-apartment panel buildings, convectors can be installed, the power of which is not enough for full heating of large rooms.
- Unattractive appearance. Battery replacement can be done for aesthetic reasons – modern models have attractive stylish designs.
After deciding to install new heating devices instead of physically or morally obsolete ones, it is necessary to determine who will finance and carry out the work – the management company or the owner of the apartment.
Things to think about in advance?
If the decision to perform this type of repair is made, you should find answers to a number of questions:
- When exactly and by whom the work will be carried out?
- What type of radiators should you use?
- Is it necessary to replace the pipes leading from the battery to the riser?
- How many sections are needed for each room?
It is best to carry out such a redesign in the summer, because to start work, you must obtain permission from the local housing office. In winter, officials are extremely reluctant to give such permits, because they will have to block the common riser and leave other apartments without heating for some time..
But even outside the heating season, it can be difficult to obtain a permit. Those who have already solved similar problems talk about the need to wait for several days, attempts to get an appointment with the right employees, etc. Some faced pressure: they were recommended to hire plumbers from the housing office to carry out all the work.
There are no restrictions on this issue. The main thing is that the replacement of the heating batteries is carried out by an experienced plumber with the appropriate qualifications. It is possible to identify all the flaws made during inept installation only during operation.
Over time, old radiators get dirty inside and out, cleaning does not always help to solve the problem of insufficient heating, replacing is a more efficient option
It is best to go to the housing office in the summer, and not in the fall, which is the peak of the queues. At this point, all the necessary materials need to be purchased, preliminary assembly of the radiators should be carried out, the tool should be prepared, and the team should be negotiated, if necessary..
If the house is connected to a central heating system, you should contact the maintenance service to agree on the conversion. Here they can perform the necessary calculations in order to accurately name the number of radiator sections, as well as clarify other technical issues..
You can calculate the required number of heating radiators yourself. We have described in detail how to do this in this article..
Shut-off valves, which are installed on the “supply” and “return”, are necessary so that at any time you can turn off the water, and remove the battery for repair or replacement
Lack of correct calculations can lead to an imbalance in the home heating system..
Previously, for calculations, you will need the information that is in the DEZ:
- type of boiler room (it can be central or individual for a particular house);
- type of system: two- or one-pipe;
- parameters of existing supply pipes;
- coolant characteristics: temperature, pressure, pH, etc..
Most often, old batteries are replaced with new modern models, usually aluminum or bimetallic. Although there are also cast iron, copper and steel products on sale. The type of radiator is needed when performing calculations.
When choosing a suitable radiator for a house or apartment, you need to focus on its main characteristics, which are detailed in the technical data sheet of the product.
You will need such indicators as the pressure that the device can withstand, the maximum temperature of the coolant, heat transfer and other data. They can usually be found in the technical data sheet..
If not only the radiators are to be replaced, but also the pipes leading to them, the appropriate material should be selected. Usually it is steel, metal-plastic or polypropylene. Some masters strongly recommend using only steel communications for centralized systems..
Depending on the type of pipes you choose, you will need the appropriate equipment to weld them. MP and PP pipes are easier to mount than steel. To work with metal, you need not only a welding machine, but also a thread cutting device. Therefore, if the old pipes are clean enough, it is recommended to leave them, and replace only the battery..
Old cast-iron radiators retain heat well, but they give it away slowly, in addition, they are heavy, which complicates installation, therefore bimetallic and aluminum models are more popular
The weak point of metal-plastic structures is the connection. They need to be done very carefully, installation errors often lead to leaks. The popularity of MP pipes is explained by their relatively low price. Plastic is more expensive, but more reliable, if the welding is done correctly, the tightness of the joints will be very high.
For the selected radiator, you need to choose the right fasteners. In this case, it is necessary to take into account both the type of radiator and the material of the wall on which the installation will be performed: brick, concrete, etc. Batteries are usually supplied with the correct type of brackets.
To install one radiator, two brackets are usually used at the top and one at the bottom. Their position is carefully checked with a level in order to exclude the possibility of skewing during the installation of the battery. However, some models are installed with a slight slope to ensure the removal of air that has entered the system. If the number of sections is more than twelve, an additional top bracket may be needed..
What time are such works carried out
All work associated with the heating system must be carried out in the off-season, with the exception of emergencies. It is required to take into account that privatized dwellings are maintained only at the expense of the owner. You won’t be able to replace the batteries for free..
Important! In the non-heating season, the radiators are cold, there is water in them. If it is not there, the radiators will begin to grow rusty..
Radiator placement rules
Batteries are most often placed under a window to compensate for heat loss when cold air enters through the opening.
In this case, the following distances must be maintained:
- from the wall – 20 mm;
- from the floor – 120 mm;
- from the windowsill – 100 mm or more.
It is advisable that the window sill does not overlap the radiator too much for effective air circulation in the room. These figures are only recommendations, they can be more or less, although noticeable changes may affect the heat transfer of the structure..
The heat dissipation of the battery may vary depending on the installation method. If the distances are correct, the device will give off more heat.
To improve the situation, it is recommended to cover the wall behind the radiator with a reflective material such as foam foam. Although some masters consider this measure useless. But a beautiful decorative screen will become an obstacle for warm air, it is better to refuse it. Modern batteries look quite attractive, it makes no sense to hide them.
First, it is worth discussing a couple of points that are not related to the technical side of the problem..
Often in print media and on legal forums the question sounds: “Who is changing the heating radiators in the apartment?”.
We hasten to answer it
- If the apartment is in municipal ownership, all responsibility for the condition of the heating system (including intra-apartment appliances) rests with the managing organization. At the same time, she has the right to independently decide on the degree of wear of the device and the need to replace it..
Useful: as a rule, replacement of batteries is carried out during a major overhaul of a house in all apartments at once.
Minor malfunctions are eliminated without replacement: intersectional leaks are treated by replacing the gaskets; cold sections become hot after rinsing the heater.
Routine replacement of exhausted batteries is carried out during overhaul.
- In a privatized apartment, the owner is responsible for the condition of all its property. In an emergency, the team (local housing organization or city emergency service) will eliminate the leak by plugging the connections, but will not engage in device replacement or repair.
Can the owner change the heating radiators on his own without coordinating the replacement with the managing organization? Yes, there are no restrictions here..
This work can be performed by a hired team or by the owner himself – with two caveats:
- Responsibility for the damage caused to neighbors when their apartments are flooded also completely falls on the homeowner. That is why, after any operations related to the violation of the tightness of the heating system, pressure testing is required..
- The power of the new heating device cannot exceed the power provided for by the project by more than 15%. Otherwise, your apartment will be heated at the expense of neighbors: the heat flow passed by the riser is limited.
Excessive power from your battery will leave neighbors without heat.
Whose responsibility is it to replace heating radiators in an apartment??
Let’s figure out who should change the batteries in a privatized apartment. In accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 491 (entered into force in August 2006), the entire heating system in an apartment building belongs to common property. It includes (according to clause No. 6 of the Rules) heating network equipment, risers, fittings (shut-off and for regulation), general house heat meters, as well as heating devices (radiators).
Accordingly, in case of physical wear and tear of batteries, leaks or overgrowth from the inside, the replacement of heating radiators in the apartment is performed by the management company (ZhEK), to whose account residents’ deductions for major repairs are received monthly. It is the management company that is responsible for the maintenance and maintenance of the common property, part of which are the heating batteries in the apartments..
In practice, it is easier to achieve free replacement of emergency heating devices in a municipal apartment. Housing office workers often force residents of privatized apartments to independently purchase a battery, pay for dismantling and installation work. But in accordance with current legislation, the purchase of a heating device and all work on its installation must be paid for from the money collected for the overhaul of the housing stock, regardless of whether the apartment is privatized or not..
In an effort to save money, management companies prefer to repair old batteries until they start to crumble. Therefore, it can take a lot of effort to get new radiators installed free of charge to replace emergency ones..
Emergency heating radiator
If the tenants decide to install a new, modern heating device instead of an obsolete but serviceable one, they will have to solve this issue on their own by paying for the purchase and installation.
Who should change and install batteries in the apartment
The home owner chooses 1 of 3 options:
- Replace batteries yourself.
- Contact specialists.
- Call the master from the service company.
Is it possible to do it yourself
Some residents are dismantling and replacing heating radiators in the apartment with their own hands, which in the future can provoke a thermal imbalance in the home, create emergency situations.
It will not be possible to increase the coverage or the number of heating devices without the official permission of the service company. The organization can impose a ban on the installation of radiators in a home if the installed devices do not match. Therefore, before replacing the batteries, residents agree on the installation with the housing office.
Do I need to agree with the housing office to replace batteries
Initially, before replacing batteries, it is worth obtaining permission from the relevant services. As a prerequisite for replacing the radiator, the approval of such a procedure in government agencies will become. When the owner misses this stage, he will receive heavy fines. The owner of the dwelling agrees:
- replacement of the initial batteries with new ones;
- replacement of heating devices with batteries of a different type, with a possible change in configuration;
- transfer of radiators.
In the first situation of replacing devices with similar ones, you just need to notify the management company about the upcoming installation. In the rest, you need to seek help from an expert who determines the option of installing new devices. The examination is paid by the owner of the dwelling.
Important! To select and replace heating devices in a room, you need to disassemble the main stages of work, the probable difficulties that may appear during installation.
Replacing heating devices through the housing office
So, the replacement of heating devices is carried out through the housing office only in those situations when the established operational life of the radiators is exceeded, they are in an emergency condition and cannot be repaired. In other cases, minor repairs are made if batteries are leaking..
According to current standards, the service life of a cast-iron radiator is 15-30 years when operating in an open system and 30-40 years in a closed one. But, even if we are talking about an apartment building where the batteries were installed more than 40 years ago, the operating company is often limited only to repairing the radiator, since the replacement is included in the list of capital repairs, the timing of which may not yet be determined..
Replacing the battery using gas welding
For free replacement of emergency batteries, residents are required to contact the housing office with a corresponding statement. It is recommended to prepare two copies of the application and put on both the marks of acceptance by the responsible person of the housing office. The application and its copy are marked with the number, date and legible signature of the person in charge.
Duplicating the document will help if in the future there are problems associated with the reluctance of the management company to change the emergency batteries at the expense of the overhaul budget. But tenants must defend their rights, since they paid for the replacement of old radiators at the expense of monthly payments for housing, maintenance and overhaul of the common property of the house..
Coordination of replacement of system elements
Replacing the heating system in an apartment requires approval from the utility company. It is necessary to obtain permission by contacting the administration of the operating organization serving the house..
Even at the design stage of an apartment building, the heating system is calculated – the number and power of heating devices, their location, volume and temperature of the coolant, etc. are determined. Replacing radiators with models with different performance characteristics may result in a deterioration in the operation of the heating system in the house. If the unauthorizedly replaced heating batteries do not correspond to the calculated parameters, this provokes an emergency situation.
Removing the battery from the brackets
If you plan to change the heating radiators in the apartment on your own – at your own expense, a number of documents are required for consideration:
- Application with attached technical passport for the apartment.
- Document confirming the ownership of the apartment.
- Examination-approved thermal calculation for new heating devices.
- Certificates of conformity for all components (radiators, fittings, pipes, fittings, etc.).
Note! If the radiator is changed to a similar heating device, a permit is not required. In this case, the management company is only warned about the work..
Examination of thermal calculation is required if it is planned to:
- change heating batteries by installing devices of a different type, with different technical characteristics;
- increase the power of the existing radiator by adding links;
- move the heating device to another part of the room.
The expert must check whether the modernization of the heating system will violate the thermal balance of the house. Expertise is a paid service and is carried out at the expense of the owner of the apartment.
It can take up to 2 months from the date of submission of documents to the management organization to the issuance of a permit. After obtaining permission, it is necessary to issue an application for disconnecting the riser and draining the coolant from the corresponding section of the system.
After replacing the heating batteries in the apartment, an application for technical expertise is submitted – specialists and representatives of the management company check the correct installation and compliance of the heating devices with those that were approved for installation.
Convenient time for work
The time interval when it is better to change radiators is the period between the end of one heating period and the beginning of another. In the inter-heating interval, hydraulic tests of the system can be carried out. It is important to get information from the management company about the timing of the tests in advance in order to plan for replacing the batteries on other days..
It is better to change radiators in the summer.
Due to an emergency, it may be necessary to quickly change heating devices. For a privatized apartment, emergency replacement of radiators is a paid service, since the owner of the apartment must monitor their performance and promptly notify the operating company about leaks or physical wear and tear of old batteries that have served their life..
How to properly replace heating batteries in an apartment
Before replacing heating devices in a home, you need to remember that, according to the law, additional installation of batteries must be agreed with the operating company..
After that, it is required to strictly adhere to the technology..
Dismantling old radiators
To dismantle old radiators, you need to reach an agreement with neighbors to replace.
Replacing old heating devices should start with draining. This is done by the housing office workers, since a pump will be needed for the final pumping out of the heat carrier, then the water is shut off at the level of the batteries to be dismantled. It is required to cut off old pipes and weld new ones.
When replacing radiators in a dwelling on their own, then you need to first prepare additional elements that are not included in the package:
- blind and two pass-through plugs;
- crane, with the help of it shutdown and subsequent preventive work are carried out;
- PPR pipe (2 cm) to connect to the neighbors system.
When the cut-off section of old radiators is marked with the help of a level, it is possible to start dismantling them. Leave at least 10 mm of thread to connect new batteries. Only having outlined the areas where the new heating devices will be located, it is possible to begin their installation.
Installing new batteries
Replacing radiators in the house begins with the removal of old fasteners, since they do not always fit the models of new heating systems. Marks are made on the wall in advance, new fasteners are installed on which the batteries are hung. Be sure to check them horizontally by means of a level.
Then, with the help of special metal-plastic pipes, it is possible to connect the radiator to a new riser. When a 1-pipe wiring is used in the system, a bypass is installed between the connections.
When there were no jumpers in the old system, it is recommended to put them on the new one. Convectors in modern radiators have certain differences from Soviet ones, have a higher resistance, in this regard, a bypass is necessary.
When replacing heating devices in a room in winter, the following must be taken into account:
- it is necessary to disconnect the riser after agreement with the housing office (optimally, they should carry out the work);
- only after pumping out the heat carrier is it possible to replace old batteries and install new ones;
- all work will take about 3-4 hours, since the entire riser will remain without heat.
Important! Installation in the heating season is carried out only when the temperature of the outside air is not less than -10 degrees. Otherwise, residents will be forced to sit in anticipation of more comfortable conditions..
Tools and materials required for replacement
From the toolkit you need to have at hand:
- electric drill;
- adjustable wrench;
- soldering iron.
Batteries can be made from the following types of materials:
- Bimetallic with steel core and aluminum fins. They have the following properties: increased strength, chemical stability of the core forms a galvanic pair with copper pipes, proper efficiency, bright appearance.
- Cast iron. Such heating devices are distinguished by their durability. The positive qualities include resistance to corrosion and possible water hammer. The main disadvantage will be the significant weight and limited design. For a surcharge, designers decorate the batteries with decorative elements that match the interior.
- Steel. They are sectional or panel. The first ones are outwardly similar to cast iron ones. Steel devices can withstand a pressure of 16 atm and have a long service life. The main disadvantage will be the likelihood of damage from water hammer or external mechanical action..
- Aluminum. They are distinguished by an insignificant weight, therefore one person can be engaged in the installation of radiators. The advantages of batteries include a large number of types of devices that differ in functionality and shape, instant response to changes in water temperature. The disadvantages include the need for air removal and the inadmissibility of contacting the heat carrier with other metals. Failure to comply with this requirement, the battery will collapse under chemical exposure..
Is it possible to replace without disconnecting the riser
It is impossible to replace the batteries without disconnecting the riser, since malfunctions may occur during the dismantling of devices in 1 apartment. Disconnecting the riser must be agreed with the housing office. In some cases, a prohibition is imposed:
- the installation company does not have a certificate of joining an SRO – such a requirement can be established by the management organization;
- when during this period they carry out preventive work in the heating system;
- at the beginning of the heating season, if test runs are carried out.
Since the procedure for releasing the riser from water is paid, representatives of housing and communal services will satisfy the request of the owner.
The choice of heating batteries for an apartment and a private house
The construction market offers a large selection of heating devices, which differ in the way of connection, size, design, material of execution. When choosing devices, first of all, you should be guided by the type of heating system.
Central heating has its own characteristics:
- Heat is supplied to the apartment building through the main lines from the central heating unit. The movement of the coolant inside the closed system is provided by circulation pumps. Depending on the power, they are able to create pressure in the system up to 18 atmospheres.
- The coolant in pipes and risers does not move at a constant speed. Pressure drops result in water hammer, which reduces heating efficiency and reduces battery life.
- Most heating devices are not designed for the quality of the coolant that circulates in the mains. Hard water with a large amount of impurities, lime and rust at high internal pressure contributes to the rapid wear of pipes and radiators.
- The coolant temperature is also not constant. The water in the radiators is either slightly warm or turns into boiling water. Therefore, the material must be resistant to temperature extremes..
Autonomous heating allows you to accurately control pressure and temperature, monitor the quality of the coolant. Therefore, softer requirements are imposed on heating devices for private houses, which significantly expands the choice.
Stages of replacement and installation of heating radiators in an apartment
Installation of heating devices is carried out in several stages..
The main ones are:
- Drawing up a project of a piping scheme. Technically complex calculations must be performed by a heating engineer.
- Selection of components. It is recommended to use metal pipes and valves and fittings for the central heating system. The use of steel pipes will prevent the connections from breaking off when the pressure in the system rises. For autonomous heating, the right choice would be the purchase of plastic and metal-plastic pipes.
- Draining the coolant. If it is required to supply or replace one radiator, the pipes are closed behind and in front of it. If the heating devices are installed all at once the system is shut off, the water is completely drained.
- Preparation. The surface of the walls is marked, holes are punched, dowels, hooks and brackets are installed.
- Installation of radiators. Heating devices are hung on the walls or mounted on the floor. When installing, be sure to use a level.
- Assembly. Ball valves, air vents, plugs, thermostats are mounted on radiators. After that, pipes are mounted to the heating devices according to the selected scheme.
- Hydraulic testing. The system is started up, the tightness of the connections is checked. Without professional skills, it is impossible to perform a technically complex job with high quality. It is better to invite a specialist for the installation of heating.
Permits are required to replace heating devices with new ones and change the circuit configuration in apartments with central heating. To change batteries in a private house, permits are not needed.
The most common ones are:
- after repair, old batteries do not fit into the new interior;
- new autonomous heating with different parameters was installed;
- due to lime deposits, the heat transfer of the device has deteriorated;
- radiators deformed due to a strong water hammer;
- batteries are corroded and leaking.
The order of work
To properly replace heating radiators in an apartment, you must:
- Coordinate the alteration with the maintenance service.
- Purchase the necessary materials.
- Pre-assemble assemblies.
- Prepare tools.
- Agree with the team (if you do not plan to do the work yourself).
- Checkout the alteration in the housing office, determine the date of the work.
- Dismantle old radiators.
- Install brackets.
- Attach new batteries.
- Connect to heating pipes.
- Check system operation.
During the preliminary assembly of units, all the necessary elements are installed: plugs, gaskets, Mayevsky taps, etc. In addition, you can mark in advance in those places where the pipes will be cut. In this case, a plumb line and a level should be used so that the new radiator becomes even.
If the supply pipes also require replacement, these elements must also be prepared: cut off pieces of suitable length, attach tees, etc. All this is done in order to quickly complete the installation after draining the water from the heating system. Such a measure will be more than relevant if the need to change old batteries arose during the heating season..
Welding is used to replace metal pipes. At the edges of the structures, you will need to cut threads in order to securely connect them to the radiator
The procedure for dismantling old batteries depends on whether the pipes need to be replaced. If the supply lines need to be preserved, you will have to carefully unscrew the old battery. At the same time, it is important to keep the squeegee – a sufficiently long thread at the edge of the pipe. The radiator is fixed with a nut and a sleeve, which will have to be unscrewed.
The procedure can be quite complicated. If the parts do not move, you can try to loosen the connection using anti-corrosion compounds. In the most extreme case, the radiator is simply cut off with a grinder. There should be at least 10 mm of thread remaining. Burrs should be removed from it..
If it is decided to leave the old steel pipes, then the dismantling of the radiator must be carried out carefully so that the thread on the squeegees remains intact.
If it was not possible to save the squeeze, you will have to build up the pipes, as well as cut new threads. The removed locknuts can be reused later when installing a new radiator. It is much easier to dismantle the radiator if the pipes will also be replaced. In this case, they are simply cut in a suitable place. Usually this is the place where the system turns to neighbors up and down.
Now you need to install the brackets, and then hang a new radiator on them. At this stage, it is sometimes necessary to adjust the length of the supply pipe. It remains to restore the threaded connection. It is very important to seal correctly. For this, flax or plumbing thread is usually used..
Some masters do not recommend using FUM tape on such connections. The seal is wound clockwise so that it forms a cone growing from the edge of the thread. Then the connecting nut is screwed on. It is normal for some of the seal to remain outside. But its layer shouldn’t be too thick.
Such work generates a lot of debris. They are best done during a major overhaul, after the windows have been installed.
To achieve maximum tightness, sometimes the seal is impregnated with paint, after which a lock nut is screwed on. Then the protruding insulation is also impregnated with paint. A water-based composition is not suitable for these purposes. After the paint has dried, it is very difficult to unscrew the connection..
At the end of the connection, remove the protective film from the radiator. It is also necessary to check the position of the air vent. Its hole should be facing up. To check the quality of work, you need to ask plumbers to pump water into the heating circuit under pressure.
It is better to remove the film in which the new radiator is packed after it is installed, so as not to accidentally damage the coating
This will allow you to identify and immediately repair leaks. During operation, it does not hurt to observe the radiator for the first time, as well as check the condition of the connections to make sure that they do not leak.
Installation and connection of heating radiators
In order for the heating system to work efficiently and correctly, it is necessary to seriously approach the installation of radiators. There are certain rules and regulations for the installation of heating devices..
Choosing the right location for the radiators reduces energy consumption and makes the system more productive.
There are several installation options:
- inside a niche;
- under the window;
- on the wall.
In apartment buildings, you can find special equipped niches for heating appliances. This method of installation shows low efficiency, but sometimes there are simply no other installation options. To improve heat transfer, the radiator should be placed in such a way that there is a distance between the device and the walls of the niche.
- at least 5 cm on the sides.
- at least 10 cm above and below.
Decorative grilles are used to “hide” the radiators, but such overlays should not interfere with the movement of air. The main heat loss occurs through the windows.
The main conditions for the installation of heating devices under the windows:
- It is recommended to place the radiator exactly in the middle of the window opening. So the warm air that rises up from the battery will cut off the cold streams coming from the glass.
- The optimal distance is considered to be the distance between the bottom of the radiator and the floor of 8-12 cm. If this gap is made larger, then a layer of cold air will form above the floor. Too small distance makes it difficult to clean the room.
- The distance between the wall surface and the back wall of the battery must be at least 5 cm.Otherwise, the radiator will heat up the wall of the house, not the room.
If, due to the insufficient distance between the window sill and the floor, it is impossible to comply with the rules, it is recommended to purchase a radiator suitable in height, but of greater length.
Sometimes radiators are installed on “blind” walls without windows. In this case, the installation of the heater is much easier. You only need to maintain a certain distance from the battery to the wall and to the floor.
Fastening heating radiators
Not every wall can support the weight of even a lightweight aluminum battery filled with water. If the walls are made of lightweight concrete or covered with plasterboard, the batteries should be installed on the floor. Some models of cast iron and steel radiators are sold immediately with legs.
For floor mounting of bimetallic and aluminum radiators, special brackets are also used. They are available in fixed or adjustable heights. With the help of nails or dowels, the brackets are fixed to the floor, then the heater is installed on them. Metal arcs are provided for fixing the radiator with the bracket.
If the walls in the house are monolithic or brick walls, then it is better to mount the radiators by the wall method. For the installation of batteries, metal brackets, plastic dowels and steel hooks are used. Lightweight fasteners are used for bimetallic and aluminum radiators. Cast iron battery hooks are thicker.
To mount the hooks, a hole is drilled in the wall into which a plastic dowel is inserted, and the hook is screwed into it. The distance between the wall and the radiator is adjusted by twisting and unscrewing the hook from the wall to the desired length. Installation of the lower brackets is carried out in the same way using dowels and screws.
The radiator must be installed exactly at right angles, both vertically and horizontally. Otherwise, air accumulates inside, at the top of the device, and the battery rusts. It must be borne in mind that the main load falls on the upper mounts. The lower ones only fix the radiator in a given position relative to the wall.
The same main selection criterion applies here – strength.
Paired with bimetallic batteries can be used:
- Welded black steel pipes.
Replacement of the radiator is made with black steel welded.
- Galvanized threaded pipes. In this case, welding is not used because it destroys the protective zinc coating in the seam area, destroying the main advantage of galvanizing – corrosion resistance.
- Corrugated corrugated pipes. Their advantages compared to competitors are extremely simple installation using cheap hand tools and flexibility, which makes it possible to get by with a very approximate size adjustment. Corrugated stainless steel bends with a turning radius equal to its diameter.
An important point: if you install a bimetallic radiator instead of a cast iron one, which has the same center-to-center distance between the collectors (500 mm), you do not need to change the connections. Of course, if they are not damaged by corrosion.
We change batteries on our own
Before replacing the heater with a new one, decide on the amount of work. If the battery is connected to horizontal pipes that protrude from the wall, only the heating device itself is changed. In other cases, it is advisable to replace the riser so as not to cut metal pipes.
To replace the riser, you will need to negotiate with the neighbors above and below the floor – in this case, the pipeline is connected to their heating devices. If the neighbors do not want to start repairs, it remains to choose one of three options:
- cut the riser from above and below, cut the external thread and mount a new pipeline from modern materials;
- cut the supply pipes next to the old radiator and connect the new heating device to the old pipeline;
- cut the supply pipes at the bend and connect new supply pipes with bypass to the vertical sections of the riser.
Replacing heating radiators using welding
Steel pipes require gas-welded installation, for which it is necessary to involve professionals with the appropriate equipment. Self-installing a heating battery, it is more convenient to use metal-plastic pipes (a prerequisite is press fittings, not threaded connections), galvanized steel log cabins with installation on squeegees, corrugated or ordinary stainless steel pipes.
Preparing for installation
At the stage of preparing the modernization of the heating system in an apartment with your own hands, you should develop a connection diagram, determine the length and diameter of all sections of the pipeline, the number and type of components. The list of materials to be used must be approved by the battery replacement technician. The scheme necessarily provides for the installation of shut-off valves on the supply line and bypass – a jumper that allows you to turn off the radiator without blocking the movement of the coolant in the house system.
The work on installing a new radiator begins after the location of the heating device has been determined:
- the gap between the floor and the lower edge of the radiator is at least 10-15 cm;
- the distance from the upper edge of the battery to the window sill is from 15 cm;
- a gap of 3-4 cm is left between the wall and the body of the heating device (adjustable when mounting brackets).
Pipes, taps, fittings for battery installation
Note! Failure to comply with the recommended distances impairs the circulation of heated air, reduces the heat efficiency of the radiator.
Installing a new battery
If the riser of the heating system has been dismantled, first of all, an external thread is cut on the protruding parts of the old pipes for fastening steel or metal-plastic pipes using appropriate fittings. A bypass jumper is installed between the supply and return pipes using tees. After the bypass, a ball valve with an American valve is mounted on each of the horizontal pipes.
Threaded joints are sealed with a linen strand with silicone sealant (or oil paint). This type of seal is allowed for connecting cast iron radiators, unlike FUM tape or thread, the seal is not squeezed out or torn. Non-drying sealants tend to squeeze out, and hardening ones dry out, which is why the battery leaks.
To connect the heating device to the system yourself, you must adhere to a certain work technology:
- Assemble the radiator. The lower unused hole is closed with a standard plug, a Mayevsky tap is mounted on the upper pipe (the drainer will help remove the airlock when filling a new heating device).
- On the inlet holes of the radiator, lock nuts with right and left threads are installed, using paronite seals for sealing (rubber under the influence of high temperatures can dry out and crack).
- The radiator is installed on a stand of a suitable height so that the adapter nuts can be connected to the American ball valves.
- After trying on the wall, a marking is made for the installation of brackets, holes are drilled and all four fasteners are mounted. To ensure that the battery is secured correctly, check with the level of the brackets – it must be horizontal.
- The radiator is connected to the supply pipes (it is important to properly seal all connections) and hung on the brackets.
At the end of the work, representatives of the management organization fill the system with a coolant – at this stage, the tightness of the joints and the heating device itself is checked. Using the Mayevsky valve, bleed air from the battery when filling the system. For this, a special element is turned with a special key or screwdriver. When a stream of water pours out of the hole, the tap is closed..
Note! To replace radiators in the entire apartment, it is required to turn off each involved riser one by one, and it is required to warn the management company about it.
Site preparation and selection of tools
The best way to replace radiators is to agree with the neighbors from below and from above to completely change the heating pipes. The optimal solution would be to obtain an agreement to insert the pipe from the radiator outlet from the top to the radiator inlet from the bottom. This will allow neighbors to update part of the pipe at your expense, and you can quickly replace the heating radiator without additional cutting of the pipe..
If the neighbors still refuse this option, it is necessary to cut the pipe in the apartment from ceiling to floor and cut with a polypropylene reinforced pipe. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that polypropylene, metal-plastic, as well as metal pipes are used, welded on squeegees. The most popular is the metal-plastic construction. It is easy to install and has a longer service life..
Before replacing the heating radiator, it is necessary to shut off the water supply to the system. Next, the maximum possible volume of water is pumped out and the pipe is closed at the radiator itself. It is necessary to prepare containers so that the remaining liquid in the process of dismantling the old battery is drained there..
After removing the old battery, proceed to the next:
- We measure and fix the parameters of the pipe coming out of the radiators of the neighbors from above and below.
- We calculate the length of the pipe required to connect the apartment from above, while taking into account the thickness of the floors.
- Measure the distance to the neighbor’s radiator from below, taking into account the thickness of the floors.
- Measure the pipe that will pass in your apartment
- When choosing pipes, you need to choose a similar diameter, such as when connecting an old radiator in order to avoid water hammer with a difference in diameters.
Another thing to remember when installing new heating equipment is the fittings that need to be purchased for a complete installation:
- Four plugs are required – two deaf and two through, on one of which a Mayevsky crane is placed to release air.
- Gaskets to each of the radiator plugs
- Shut-off collapsible fittings, which will be required to shut off the radiator for the purpose of its subsequent replacement
- Polypropylene ball valve required to turn on the heating system without a dismantled radiator.
- End connections, for connection with neighbors’ radiators.
In order to replace the battery yourself, you need a certain set of tools. It includes:
- Pipe welding machine
- Adjustable and gas wrench
- Angle grinder with cutting disc for metal
- Roulette and pencil
- Drill with a drill used to make holes for mounting radiators.
If the heating radiator will be changed with a tie-in into the old pipe, you will need a tool for applying an external thread.
Removal of old heating equipment
Heating radiators are usually connected to heating pipes by means of squeegees. If necessary, a replacement is the most effective remedy. In order to remove the old heating radiator, the following algorithm of actions will be supported:
- Unscrew the locknut to the very end of the thread, both at the bottom and at the top, where the pipe connects to the radiator.
- We measure the cut point using a level. Leave 10mm of thread at least.
- The level is used to accurately cut the pipe horizontally. If the pipe is cut crookedly, this will significantly complicate the process of replacing the radiator..
- Cutting according to the given marks and removing from the mountings of the old radiator. After the battery is removed, the old fasteners are removed from the wall.
- If the new radiator differs in size from the previous one, the pipes should be cut according to the required parameters and the threads should be cut. If the system is already quite old, it will be more efficient to use welding, since threading can lead to deformation along the seam..
- In order to lengthen the pipe, special ecoplast inserts are used.
- Threaded connections are processed using angle grinders. To remove burrs, it is better to unscrew the lock nut..
Marking and installation of a new radiator
Fastening the radiator to the wall must be done at pre-marked points. In this case, the following main nuances are observed:
- The bottom of the radiator should be at a distance of 10 to 15 cm from the floor. If you replace the battery in violation of these parameters, hang it too low, this will complicate the passage of air and greatly complicate cleaning under the radiator..
- In order to ensure a normal convention, it is necessary to place the radiator at a distance of at least 15 cm from the window sill.
- If the battery is too pressed against the wall, it will interfere with its heat transfer, so it is necessary to adjust this distance. This can be done by screwing in the mounting brackets. The ideal parameters for the distance from the wall are considered to be from 30 to 40 mm..
When replacing a heating radiator, you must adhere to the following algorithm of actions:
- If the replacement is planned in the winter, you must first agree with the management company to disconnect the riser. In most cases, such permission is given only in the event of an emergency condition of the radiators or low temperatures in apartments where small children are..
- After the riser is turned off, the drain valve opens. After that, you can replace the heating radiator. Fittings are installed on the new heating battery, and the supply pipes are equipped with ball valves..
- When installing ball valves, a seal must be applied to the thread. The tow is the most effective. Previously, tow was used in conjunction with paint, but now special pastes are provided, which, together with a sealant, provide sufficient tightness of the joints. It is best to thread the sealant in the form of tow in a clockwise direction from the edge. After which the paste is applied and the connection occurs.
- Connect the tap so that the threads are completely hidden. After the paste dries on tow, the connection is tight and reliable.
- The battery is connected to the pipes with two internal threads, into which the fittings must first be screwed in. On one side, the nuts will be installed on the left-hand thread, and on the other, on the right-hand thread. Pass-through nuts are used, with the help of which the radiator is mounted in different positions. Fasteners are usually fastened using paronite or rubber seals.
- In those places where the radiators are connected, it is necessary to put the counterparts of the dismountable joints, after which a plug is screwed in at the lower inlet, and at the upper inlet – an air vent, a Mayevsky valve.
- Further, the radiator rises, and the taps are connected to the already installed American women. This will prevent the heatsink from falling down during assembly. You can put a cardboard sheet under the bottom.
- The radiator is mounted with special brackets. In order to properly install the fasteners, you need to mark with a level. Holes are made on the marks in the wall for the installation of hooks.
- After the four hooks are secured, the nuts are clamped with an adjustable wrench.
How much does it cost to change heating radiators in an apartment
The network now has a lot of offers of services of specialists engaged in the installation and replacement of heating radiators. The cost of services on the bulletin board usually ranges from 800-5000 rubles. At the same time, it is quite difficult to understand where the price is indicated specifically for the installation, and where for the entire complex of work performed. If we consider the proposals, then you can find those in which work is indicated only on replacing radiators without preliminary dismantling, as well as without installing brackets and connecting to the system. With this option, all the responsible work falls on the shoulders of the owner. The customer wants to receive the full cost of services for the whole range of works, which means the installation of radiators on a turnkey basis. The list of standard services includes dismantling of old heating equipment, installation of a new one without reconstruction of connection systems. Craftsman does not thread or transfer battery mounts.
Before replacing the radiator, it is necessary to calculate the full cost of this procedure. The first thing to look out for is the cost of the new radiator. The market now provides a huge selection of different batteries from different materials, so it is difficult to take this moment into account right away. After purchasing a radiator, it is necessary to close the riser and drain the fluid from the system. This work should only be performed by specialists from the operating office or management company. The procedure is approximately estimated at 500 rubles, but the human factor can make its own adjustments to this pricing.
All remaining expenses go mainly to the purchase of materials. In order to completely replace the heating radiator, it is necessary to purchase the following spare parts:
- Two demountable American type valves with thread diameter ¾.
- A set of futoroks with a Mayevsky tap for connecting the battery to pipes
- Brackets for hanging the radiator (quantity depends on the size of the radiator)
- Angles at 45 degrees
- Four adapters to polypropylene with female thread
- Two tees
- 2 meters of polypropylene pipe
At a cost, this is approximately 1,800 rubles. This amount is sufficient to purchase everything you need when replacing a heating radiator. However, it should be noted that this is a minimum calculation.
Next, you need to take into account the costs of the specialist’s work. The average price tag for this service starts at 2.5 thousand rubles. This amount is only for the work itself. The cost depending on the region can vary significantly. We will indicate all the approximate items of expenses that were named earlier:
– work of a specialist – 2500r
– materials for connection – 1800
– riser shutdown services – 500
What to do if the heating radiators are changed, but they do not heat
The most common mistake when installing a new radiator is the wrong connection. When liquid is supplied from below to the battery, heating is not carried out uniformly throughout the entire structure. To solve this problem, it is not always necessary to replace the radiator. To solve this problem, it is not necessary to change the radiator. To do this, it is enough to use a special duct extension. The specialist can correctly calculate and improve the system for sufficient heat transfer. In order for the efficiency of heating the premises to be at a high level, it is necessary to take into account the number of units. In a gravitational system, usually this number will be no more than 12, in a circulating system, the number of nodes reaches 24. An increase in the number of sections always leads to a decrease in the efficiency of heat transfer.
Another feature that affects the uniformity of heating the battery is the diameter of the pipes to be connected. The small diameter leads to a decrease in pressure, which leads to insufficient heating of the radiator. In order to eliminate this problem, old pipes are replaced with pipes of a larger cross-section..
Increased heat dissipation can be achieved by placing reflective material on the wall behind a new radiator or painting the battery dark. Maintaining the cleanliness of the heating system also affects the heating of the battery. The quality of the radiators can be improved by installing the latest thermostat systems. By agreement with the employees of the housing office or the management company, you can redo the system without the presence of a bypass pipe.
One of the most common reasons for poor heating of a radiator is a system that has been repaired. To understand what exactly happened, it is necessary to fully analyze all the changes and their impact on the heating system. If, in the process of mounting boxes and partitions made of drywall, which closed the communications, contact between drywall and a radiator was allowed, the heat transfer will decrease. In this case, part of the generated heat will go into the space between the drywall and the wall. In the case when, before the changes, the radiator did not completely give off heat, after such metamorphoses it will simply stop giving it off, since a foreign object will heat up. To eliminate this situation, the design is completely redone, then the battery’s efficiency in heating the given room is monitored again..
How to change a section on a heating radiator
To dismantle multiple battery sections, it is not necessary to disconnect each separately. The ability to remove the required number of sections is determined by the size of the handle of the radiator key. A detailed description of the radiator installation procedure can be found by watching the video:
Some interesting tips
If a decision is made to change the used batteries, it does not hurt to think about installing a tap, conventional or with a thermal head. In the first case, you can manually adjust the flow of the coolant, in the second, this will be done automatically. But if a thermostat is installed on the radiator, it does not need to be covered with a decorative screen..
The thermal head on the shut-off valve makes it possible to change the amount of coolant so that the temperature in the room is always high enough
This will distort the temperature measurement data. It should be noted that thermostats can only be installed with one-pipe systems. In any case, at least shut-off valves must be installed at the inlet and outlet of the radiator, if they are absent..
This will allow the radiator to be disconnected from the system to be cleaned or replaced, regardless of the season. The thermal power reflected in the battery data sheet does not always correspond to the declared one. If you make the number of sections 10% more, you can improve the situation..
Tips & Tricks
When the owner of the home decided to replace the old radiators, then before work it is required to read the recommendations:
- It is recommended to install a faucet, either conventional or with a thermal head. In the usual way, it is possible to independently adjust the flow of the heat carrier, in the second, such a function is performed automatically. However, when a thermostat is installed on the battery, it does not need to be covered with a decorative cover..
- Thermostats can only be installed with 1-pipe systems. In any situation, at the entrance and exit of the battery, it is required to put shut-off valves when they are not available.
- The heat output, which is reflected in the technical passport of the radiator, will not in all cases correspond to the declared indicators. When to make the number of sections by 10% more, it is possible to improve the situation..
When the cold is felt in the dwelling in winter, the heating devices may need to be replaced. Standard cast iron or steel radiators can become dirty over time. In this case, you should dismantle the old equipment and install a new one, however, for a proper result, you need to know how to carry out the work correctly..