What should be the water pressure in the apartment?
To begin with, the water pressure is measured in bars or atmospheres. Since 1 bar is equal to 0, 99 atmospheres, these units of measurement are considered conditionally equal. 1 bar (1 atm.) Is able to create a column of water 10 m high.
There are documents that stipulate the minimum and maximum allowable pressure in the pipeline of an apartment building (SNiP 2.04.02-84, SNiP 2.04.01-85). Some of these standards relate to the pressure at the entrance to the building, others – at the entrance to a separate apartment, the latter stipulate the amount of pressure in the intra-apartment wiring near the plumbing fixtures. We will find out what value should be at each section of the water supply system.
- At the input of the water supply network to a one-story house, the pressure should be 10 m of water column or 1 atm. (1 bar). For each next floor, 4 m are added.Let’s make a calculation for a standard 9-storey building: 10 + (4 x 9) = 46 m.This means that the inlet pressure must correspond to 4.6 atm.
- The pressure in the water supply system at the entrance to the apartment will already be below this value, since the water rises to the higher floors through a complex pipe system. For cold water, the value should be in the range from 0.3 to 6 atm., For hot water – from 0.3 to 4.5 atm..
- The water pressure level of plumbing fixtures must correspond to the following values:
- for a mixer installed on a washbasin – not less than 0.2 atm;
- for a toilet bowl – from 0.2 atm.;
- for a mixer on a bath – from 0.3 atm .;
- for a shower stall mixer – not less than 0.3 atm.
What is it and the unit of measure for water pressure
Any liquid, having its own mass and being in an open tank, acts on its surface with the same force in all directions, in proportion to its weight and spreading area. This regularity in the properties of liquids was first noticed and analyzed empirically by Blaise Pascal in 1653, therefore the unit for measuring the pressure of a liquid column in a static (stationary state) at a conditional level also received a similar name Pascal.
Pascal is referred to the SI international system of measurements and is taken equal to the pressure exerted by a force of 1 Newton on a surface area of one square meter (1 Pa = 1N / m2).
Since Pascal by technical standards is too small a measuring unit (it creates a force on the surface equivalent to 1 kg of a substance scattered over an area of 1 square meter), then in state standards and technical documentation the user is more often faced with the following larger units of measurement:
Megapascal (MPa) is a popular engineering unit for measuring pressure, equal to 106 Pa, approximately equal to 100 m water column and related to the atmosphere in the following ratios: 1 atm. = 0.1 MPa or 1 MPa = 10 atm. Megapascal is widely used in regulatory documents (state standards, sanitary norms and rules) to indicate the technical characteristics of the working environment, pipes, fittings, equipment.
A meter of water column is a value four orders of magnitude greater than Pascal (1.0197⋅104 Pa), the most convenient from a practical point of view. It shows to what height water with a temperature of + 4 ° C can be raised when this force is applied. A meter of water column is an order of magnitude less than one atmosphere or bar, the indicator is often used in the technical characteristics of water pumping equipment (submersible borehole and well electric pumps, surface stations).
When purchasing an electric pump, if its pressure parameters are indicated in meters, the consumer immediately has a complete idea of the height to which the unit can raise water from a well or well. It is also very convenient to use the meters of the water column when calculating the length of the water supply lines, leaving the length of the vertical sections unchanged and converting the distances of the horizontal sections into the standard ratio of 1 to 10 with a pipe inner diameter of 1 inch.
In technical documentation, the unit of hydrostatic pressure is sometimes indicated in millimeters of water column mm. water Art., rarely used in the practical fields of hydraulic engineering.
Atmosphere. The technical (10.197⋅104 Pa) or physical (9.8692⋅104 Pa) atmosphere shows the force of the effect of 1 kg of water (kgf) on an area measuring a square centimeter. The atmosphere is used in almost all technical areas: regulatory documents, physical characteristics of hydraulic equipment, valves, working environment.
A bar is a measuring unit, exactly 5 orders of magnitude less than Pascal, together with the atmosphere are widely used to indicate the hydraulic characteristics of pumping, water heating equipment, various types of valves and automation devices.
Kilogram-force per square centimeter (kgf / cm²) is a measuring unit that is present in almost all sanitary norms and rules, as well as in state standards, more often than others it is put down in tables.
From the given values of the measuring units, we can conclude that three of them are bars, atmospheres, and kilogram force per square meter. see approximately equal to each other. In almost any simplified household calculations, a slight difference in the readings of the given units can be ignored..
The height of the water column is about 10 times less than the previous listed measuring units, and one megapascal, on the contrary, is about 10 times more.
The necessary level of pressure for everyday needs
An important nuance is the fact that building codes indicate the extreme permissible limits, and one cannot help but notice that the gap is very large. The minimum allowable pressure is not able to ensure comfortable use of water in the apartment and the normal operation of household appliances.
The optimal pressure in the intra-apartment part of the cold water supply system is 4 atm. In everyday life, this indicator usually fluctuates between 2.5-7 atm..
Designation of the head in the pipeline
Traditionally, pressure is measured in Pascals (Pa), however, other conventions are adopted in the water supply sector, and they differ in different countries:
- In Russia, pressure is usually measured in kgf / cm². 100 kgf / cm² identical to 980.67 Pa.
- In European countries, another conventional unit is used – a bar, which is equal to 10⁵ Pa.
- In England and the USA, the designation psi is used, which corresponds to 6.87 kPa.
Also, pressure is measured in technical atmospheres and millimeters of mercury..
For your information. A water pressure of 1 bar corresponds to 1.02 atmospheres and is equivalent to 10 meters of water column.
The ratio of the values of the different designations is shown in the following table:
The dependence of the speed on the head
In water supply, there is one very important relationship – the dependence of pressure on the speed of water in the pipeline. This property is described in detail in the physical Bernoulli’s law. We will not consider it in detail, but we will only point out its essence – with an increase in the speed of water flow, its pressure in the pipe decreases.
It so happened that not all plumbing fixtures are designed for operation at high pressure, in most cases they are limited to 5-6 atmospheres, otherwise increased wear and tear and premature failure.
In central highways, this figure is much higher – it can reach 15 atmospheres, and therefore to reduce it when connecting internal systems, pipes of a smaller diameter are used.
Important. With a decrease in the cross-section of the pipe, the water flow rate increases, but its pressure decreases. Therefore, with a chronically low head in an apartment, consider the possibility of increasing the diameter of the internal pipeline.
What is the water pressure in the plumbing of an apartment building
In the government decree of the Russian Federation of May 6, 2011 No. 354, which regulates the procedure for the provision of public services to citizens living in apartment blocks or using premises in them for various purposes, the maximum and minimum pressure in the hot (DHW) and cold (cold) water supply lines is stipulated.
The generally accepted pressure of cold water at the point of water intake is from 0.03 MPa (0.3 kgf / cm2, atm., Bar) to 0.6 MPa (6 kgf / cm2, atm. Bar).
For water dispensers, which can be used by residents in the absence of plumbing, a minimum pressure of 0.1 MPa (1 kgf / cm2) is set.
For hot water supply, the existing standards at the draw-off point just below the cold water supply and are in the range from 0.03 MPa (0.3 kgf / cm2) to 0.45 MPa (4.5 kgf / cm2).
The above standards apply to the hours of maximum intake in the morning from 7.00 to 9.00 and in the evening from 19.00 to 22.00, that is, at the time when the volumes of consumption from the highway have the highest indicator.
It is clear that the pressure in the internal apartment water supply system of high-rise buildings is directly related to its parameters at the entrance, SNiP 2.04.02-84 regulates its values in external aquifers, the main points of the document:
- According to the standards, the pressure in the city water supply system of settlements, taking into account the maximum consumption for household and drinking needs at the entrance to buildings, is taken at least 10 m (1 atm.). When calculating the required pressure at the entrance of high-rise buildings, 4 m are added to each floor.
- If it is possible to adjust the pressure in the main network at the entrance to the building, then it is permissible to add it to each floor of 3 m.In this case, the buildings should be equipped with tanks for storing water supplies.
- If buildings of different heights or built on heights are connected to external water supply networks, it is permissible to install local pumping equipment to increase the pressure in high-rise buildings and structures erected at heights.
- Since the standpipes are connected to external aquifers and are located at the height of the house inputs located at ground level, the minimum pressure in them is taken to be 10 m.
- The limiting indicator of the inlet pressure into buildings for water supply networks for household and drinking purposes should not be higher than 60 m.
- If individual buildings or areas are connected to an external water supply network with a pressure in pipes of 60 m, regulators are used to compensate for the excess pressure or the water supply system is divided into zones.
- In addition to water supply networks for household needs and drinking purposes, low and high pressure fire lines are laid in settlements.
- For low-pressure fire-fighting pipelines, a head of at least 10 m is taken.If the branches of household and drinking and fire-fighting purposes are combined, the maximum head level should not be higher than 60 m.
What water pressure in the water supply is considered low
To start assuming something, you need to find out if your water supply is really low. If the indicator is higher than the established standards, the Criminal Code and communal services have the right not to take any action.
Optimal indicators of water pressure in the pipelines are sampled in the official normative documents – SNiP 2.04.01-85 and SNiP 2.04.02-84. According to them, in a house with a height of up to 10 meters, the normal value is considered to be 1 atmosphere. If the height of the house exceeds 10 meters, the pressure should not be less than 2 atmosphere.
Precise pressure standards:
- 0.3–6.5 atmosphere for cold water;
- 0.3–4.5 atmosphere for hot water.
If the indicators in your quarter go beyond these ranges, this is a reason to contact the management company or higher institutions with a complaint. All that within this range is the norm. And no matter how you want, I will not correct
Reasons for poor water pressure in the tap
The flat water pressure in the tap can be due to several reasons. Sometimes – due to the complexity of several reasons for the time. They can be different:
For cold water
Bad air. Even in good water, mechanical particles can be present – for example, dust particles, copins, particles of rust. Aerop – part of the mixer in the form of a grid, which holds these particles. If the water is of good quality, the air will not overflow. If the water quality is not very high, mechanical particles are retained in the water supply and reduce the output. When the aerator is running, the water pressure drops, because the openings in the grid are less,.
Mixer strip. In the mixer there are many functional points that affect the pressure. It can be reduced by any reason – for example, an extract, using a mixer, crane, exiting from the stacks, other parts. Rinsing can cause leakage: for example, a tap starts to drip.
Padded bubble filter. Before taking into account the consumption of peptides, install the so-called main filter. It is also called a filter or mud. Before we enter the apartment, water flows through it. The filter performs the functions of an aerator – it retains rust, sand and other mechanical impurities. If the filter is blocked, the water flows slowly through it. This causes a low water pressure.
Faulty pump station. In the apartment buildings, pump stations are installed. They provide a normal water pressure in the upper floors. In most cases, such stations are equipped with an automatic system and are turned on only when it is not necessary – for example, if in some of these windows there are If the automatics goes out of the system, the pumping station will not work. If the equipment itself goes out of order, the water supply will be ineffective, but it will also be reduced.
Acceptance of pipes. One of the main reasons for poor water pressure is the intake of a piping. Smell, lime deposits, rust particles and other chemical compounds, mechanical particles precipitate on the pipe walls. Co time they turn into a thick layer. Because of this, the diameter of the tube is reduced, a, therefore, and its rapidity. Boda stays in a smaller volume, therefore, the pressure decreases.
Worn out tubing. The old water supply is usually characterized by a low head, because the pipes in it can no longer transport water in a quality manner. Some of this is related to the acquisition. Also, in the pipes there may appear some small holes – they are not sufficient for a powerful break, but some of the water is consumed, therefore, at the bottom of the pressure. If we compare new and old pipelines, in most cases, it will be lower in the last time, even with a quality, timely service.
Incorrect water circuit. When errors are allowed during the operation of a private house or multi-apartment building, the water does not flow properly in some of the Due to improper displacement, the head pressure in some cranks is reduced or absent in general, if certain power points are used.
For hot water
All of the above reasons. In order for the water to become hot, it is also supplied by magistral water supply, then it is heated, and it passes through, sprinkle it. Therefore, the weak pressure of the hot water can cause all the above reasons -.
Equipment strip. In every large apartment house there are facilities that provide heating and hot water supply to the apartment. If they are out of order or if they are in disarray, this will affect the water pressure. For example, if the heating device is thinned, you can get cold water instead of hot water..
Rinse breaker. In private houses and in some apartments, in which hot water is not supplied, spill pipes or water heaters are installed. They can only heat water in cranes or are also used to heat the house. Any strip of such equipment will also affect the pressure. For example, if some of the heating elements are out of the system, the unit will heat the water slowly. If you are at the correct temperature, the water will flow slower. If not, its temperature will be lower than usual.
The pressure of the water in the tap has dropped – how to improve the flow?
At the inlet to each section there is a mesh that protects from mechanical impurities and collects them. It is enough to pull out the mesh and rinse thoroughly. Usually, it collects all the main debris, scale, and mechanical impurities, which worsen the water pressure.
The water pressure in the tap dropped:
- If the sieve is clean enough, you need to remove the valve and see what is under them. Remove the valves, look inside. If you see that there is dross, remove it. It often happens that there are large lumps that interfere with normal pressure.
- After removing them and installing the valves in place, the pressure is normalized. However, it often happens that when the mixer is disassembled and the scale is removed, the situation does not return to normal, and the water continues to flow in a very thin stream..
- Perhaps the pipe is clogged somewhere on the supply line to your apartment, or directly in it. Experienced locksmiths recommend using a special thin cable. It is led into a pipe from which the mixer is previously removed and cleaned. Thus, as a result of using a cable, all scale is removed from the pipe surface..
How to solve the problem that has arisen
When the pressure in the hot water supply system weakens in a residential area, you can use several methods to eliminate this malfunction..
The appropriate method is determined depending on the reason for the weakening of the jet:
- If there are problems with the operation of the system, you need to replace the defective elements or clean them when it is not possible to purchase new ones..
- If the pressure weakens due to a clogged aerator, you will also have to clean it using the blowing technique or a regular needle..
- If it is necessary to replace pipes, it will be necessary to attract qualified specialists. The owner will only be required to purchase all materials and pay for the work. It must be understood that the replacement of the riser must be carried out completely, because due to the formation of joints, the pressure will again begin to significantly weaken over time..
- It will be possible to solve this malfunction, thanks to the pump, which increases the pressure in the system. It will be necessary to install such a device on a riser only in a situation where complaints to the housing office did not lead to real results. A riser pump is considered expensive, so you will have to chip in with your neighbors to purchase it..
If there are problems with the circuit, the sequence of connecting devices to the water supply system changes.
Gas water heater problems
Let’s consider several main reasons for a decrease in column pressure readings:
- Weak power. In order for the water pressure in the geyser to be good enough, its power must be high enough. If the power of the device is less than 8 kV, the pressure in the system may be too low. It is preferable to buy a water heater with a power indicator in the range of 8-10 kV.
- The appearance of blockages. A variety of pipes are susceptible to blockages. Installed dispensers often experience malfunctions in the strainers. When water passes too badly through this filter, the pressure will decrease..
- Scale. Scale often forms in mechanical containers specially equipped for boiling liquids. In a gas column, a heat exchanger is responsible for such functions. A layer of scale builds up on the walls of this fixture if the water in the tap is too hard. After a certain period, scale can accumulate in the heat exchanger, which regularly makes its way into the tubes. For this reason, the pressure of hot water is significantly weakened..
- Poor maintenance. This factor is due to scale deposited in the inside of the heat exchanger. Water hammer occurs in a situation when water in the pipes is shut off, and then its flow into the system abruptly resumes. As a result, a blockage may form in some parts of the mixer..
- The column requires compulsory care, various preventive measures.
Installation of high-quality gas water heaters
Poor pressure of hot water in a gas column is the main reason for poor quality equipment. Modern boilers are compact devices that are responsible for heating running water. They are used in houses to which a gas pipeline is connected and there is no centralized hot water supply system..
The operated equipment is subdivided into flow-through and storage types. Some heat the water as it moves through the system, while others accumulate a certain volume of water in the tank, where its constantly high temperature is maintained..
According to their performance characteristics, heaters can be divided into the following subcategories:
- Low-power – heating about 10 liters of water per minute – from 9 to 16 kW.
- Average rate from 16 to 23 kW gives about 15 liters per minute.
- High-power appliances can raise the temperature of 20 liters of water in one minute (over 24 kW).
The performance indicators of low-power devices are enough to wash dishes in the kitchen. Medium power devices are more suitable for two-room apartments. The most powerful boilers can be installed in apartments of 3 rooms or more.
Weak pressure of hot water – on video:
How to understand the reason
If you have a weak hot water pressure or a low cold water pressure in your apartment, first try to find out what is the reason. Check all the cranes – in the kitchen and in the canopy. If the pressure is low only in one, the reason is in the mixer. Check the aerator and the mixer. Also, the reason may be in the flexible suspension – it has less line in comparison with the pipe and can be driven into the connection. That is, if the pressure is weak only in one tap, the reason is precisely not in the flat work of the management company or comminers. A to clear the problem, it is sufficient to clean the filling or replace the out-of-order mixer.
If all the cranes in the apartment give a good head, talk to the neighbors. If they are all good, the reason is in the piping itself in the apartment. For example, you can store a filter with a large cleaning system or with a pipe itself. Or something in the wrong scheme. For example, if you cannot wash the hands when the washing machine is in operation, or if the head pressure drops sharply in the tap when the dishwasher is turned on,.
If there are also problems with water supply, it means that it is in the piping or in the equipment of the whole house. You may have stored a stand or removed the pipes. If the water pressure is weak only in the apartment on the upper floors, the necessary equipment is inappropriate. In any case, it is necessary to solve the TCZh or the Criminal Code – those who are responsible for managing the house and who signed the contract with the suppliers of the service providers.
If the Criminal Code or TCJ say that everything is in order for them, but the problem does not disappear, go to the middle houses. If their tenants also complain about a weak head, the problem lies in the main pipeline. You need to take it into the water. If everything is okay in the middle house, we will problem it all in your house: get a repair from the management.
How to find a problem?
Start troubleshooting by calling the appropriate services. This will determine if there is a problem with the trunk. If they are not there, then it is worth moving on:
- Talk with the tenants of the house to see if they have similar difficulties. If the low pressure worries other people, then immediately contact the service. Sometimes this happens when there is a serious accident on the highway..
- Talk to the neighbors on the riser. Malfunctions can occur in individual residents of the house, which are connected to a single riser. In the case of a new building, it is worth contacting the developer. It is likely that the riser is incorrectly designed.
- If the previous methods did not give a positive result and the malfunction is single, then the problem lies in the apartment. If the laying is incorrect, it will be necessary to redevelop the pipeline..
The simplest is a blockage in the mixer. In this case, you will have to clean or completely replace. The drain can also be cleaned. This stage is very important, since further actions will depend on it. Some repair work requires considerable material and time investments..
The video tells what to do if the water pressure in the apartment is poor and how to find the reason:
Sometimes the problem is hidden in the water supply to the house. The line wears out over time, and becomes clogged due to hard water.
If the pipes have not been changed for a long time, this will lead to an accident. The problem will be solved by replacing the entire section of the line with new pipes.
If the tenants of one house regularly experience pressure problems, this is a reason to sound the alarm..
Poor condition of pipes in the apartment
When laying pipes, plumbing may not close the joints well enough, and lime plugs form in these places, which impede the flow of water.
To diagnose this cause, the water in the apartment is shut off, and then all connections are sequentially opened. If the pipes are polypropylene, they can be easily cleaned of sediment manually..
Coarse filter clogged
Such a filter periodically fails, since its job is to capture large suspensions that fall into the water..
Usually it is installed on the water supply to the house, and after it other filters can already come. It often clogs up so it is recommended that you periodically check it and clean it or replace it..
The problem in the mixer is determined quite simply: there will be a weak head only in one tap.
Usually a weak stream indicates that the crane-box could fail (it supplies water in taps with two handles) or a cartridge (supplies water in a tap with a lifting regulator).
Most often it is also associated with hard water. For repairs, you need to disassemble the crane and inspect all the parts. Sometimes it is also enough to clean them of lime and adjust the pressure.
Invalid plumbing scheme
If the plumbing scheme is to blame, you will have to contact a specialist. Usually this problem is associated with improper design of the location and connection of pipes..
If, while one of the family members washes in the bathroom and the pressure is good, then the pressure in the kitchen is weak. It is not enough for washing dishes.
In this case, the reason is probably hidden in the wrong scheme..
It will have to be recreated and pipes laid out in a new way.
What to do, to increase the water pressure in the apartment: where to go
Suppose you found out why the water pressure in the tap is weak. What to do, that the pressure recovers? This will depend on the cause of the problem..
If the reason lies in your quarters, you need to manage yourself. The Criminal Code, TCZh and Vodokan are not obliged to eliminate errors in personal equipment. Such faults include:
storage of a filter of a large cleaning;
strip of tap, mixer, including the use of the aerator;
Incorrect circuit, if you made changes to it – for example, installed the dishwasher, adding one more power point;
burying or wearing out pipes in a quarter.
Change the tap, clean the filter and replace the pipework yourself. The only exclusion from the rules – if you bought a new home with the wrong wiring diagram, that is, if the applicant made a mistake, and you cannot turn on the user In this case, you need to contact the customer through the UK or TCJ – possibly, he will go to the right and remove the error.
There is a nuance: when you bought, you signed up the act of transfer of housing. If it indicates that you looked at the apartment, did not find the problem and accept it, you will not get a repair. It is necessary to assign the scheme at your own expense.
If the reason is in the breakdown of the general equipment, contact the UK or TCJ – to the one who manages the house and concludes the agreement with the suppliers of the cyclists. Write an application to the name of the presenter of the TCJ or UK in two instances. In the application, indicate the reason for the call – low water pressure, as well as the current address of the apartment and the need to remove the reason for the bad name, surname and surname. Do not forget to send the date and sign with the decoding. Please refer the application to the TCJ or the Criminal Code and ask to send us a note of acceptance with the exact date on your sample..
If you have a TCL, initiate a regular call and raise a firm pressure on it. Provide options for solving the problem, use the support and adjust the timing of the removal of the strips.
Within 10 days after the acceptance of the statement, the TCJ or the Criminal Code are obliged to send a specialist to measure the water pressure. If it is normal, no measure will be taken. If the indicators are low, within 45 days after the measurement of the UK or TCL, you must remove the cause of the problem.
If the UK or TCJ does not accept any action, it refuses to accept the declaration or invariably drags out the repair of the general information, please refer to the request. Submit your application to the office, Office of Consumer Surveillance and State Housing Inspection. You can file a law – it will tell you how to act correctly.
A complaint to the control authorities will be more effective if you write it with a team. Collective statements work even better if you attach proof to them: for example, an act on the pressure of water pipes, from a tree.
If the reason is in the magistral pipe, it can only be influenced by water. First, you need to refer to it through the TCZh or the UK: explain about your problem and ask to forward the complaint to the organization, which starts working. If there are no results, write the statement personally: also in two instances, with the requirement to remove the reason for the low pressure. If there is no action from the side of the water channel, contact the Office of Supervision and Cleaning. Additionally you can publish repeated complaints.
Bazhno: if ye ppichina ploxogo napopa in polomke obschedomovogo obopydovaniya or magictpalnogo tpyboppovoda you imeete ppavo tpebovat pepepacchet cymmy kommynalnyx platezhey from behind okazaniya yclygi nenadlezhaschego kachectva.
If the water pressure in the apartment is stably weak – what to do
Let’s take a look at the situation, in which the water pressure is not too large, but it does not go beyond the limits of the norms allowed in the SNiPax. Formally, the UK or TCJ are not obliged to take any measures to increase the water pressure. Especially if the problem is detected only in you. How to increase the water pressure in the apartment in this case? Contact a specialist.
The technician will first check the consumption and sewer points, check the connection diagram and correct it if it is not correct. You can also recommend:
install another water heater or a water heater that heats the water if you need a flat head of hot water only;
replace the piping in the apartment, if it is old or on the walls of the pipes it is prone to a large number of raids;
install a pipe with a larger diameter of pipes, if you are stuck with a constant low pressure of cold water;
use small household pumps: for example, install them after the fan or before the wash.
How to check the water pressure when buying a home
So as not to waste your nerves and time on increasing the water pressure, it is better to check it at once. You gotta do it right.
Often, when looking at housing in the main market or in a new construction, the customer subsequently opens a few cranes and evaluates the pressure in them. But if the wrong connection diagram has been implemented, you will not notice it. It will be correct to turn on all the taps at the same time, and ideally – also start the washing machine or another appliance that consumes water. If the head on all the edges has not changed or has become weak it is not meaningful, everything is in order.
If the water pressure has become significantly weaker, please refer to the documentation. Or specify in the act of transferring the problem, as well as the obligation of the seller to delete it at a certain time. If you sign the transfer certificate, then you will have to make changes to the scheme at your own expense. If the reason for the weak head is in the cranny in the common equipment or the power supply, you should appreciate all the clues: you may not be able to find the best.
Is it possible to cope on your own?
The problem is solved on its own when it is localized directly in the apartment or private house of the resident and is associated with the failure of plumbing or a blockage.
If a person did not have experience before, it is recommended to call a specialist, since improper actions with pipes can lead to flooding of neighbors and damage to property.
For information on what to do if the water pressure is weak in the apartment, see the video:
Briefly about important
First, look for a problem in your apartment, then – in the house or in the municipality.
If the pressure indicators are normal according to SNiPs, nothing will change.
Correctly file appeals to the Criminal Code or TCJ, so that then it was possible to prove their failure.
The water pressure in the tap began to walk
Finally, in the middle of the week, you realize that the water pressure is so weak that you cannot continue living this way, and on the weekend you promise yourself that you will deal with it. But when you come home in the evening after work, you find on yourself the displeased look of the whole family, that you can’t wash at all today, and that it looks like you won’t have to wait for the weekend, but you need to do something right here and now. Who has not faced a similar situation?
And of course, someone starts talking about how a pipe burst somewhere far away, or there was an accident at a thermal power plant, or pipes are being changed and that, probably, this is so, and nothing can be done about it.. "Calming down" with such an explanation of yourself and everyone at home, you can calmly lie on the sofa and watch your favorite show.
Getting to know the water supply system
So, let’s start checking. We go into the bathroom and turn on the tap:
Cold water flows in a thin stream, and hot water gushes with might and main. Now we begin to remember the background. The cold water did not immediately disappear. Its passage has worsened over and over again lately. And this may indicate the most probable reason – your water filters are clogged!
In this case, we need to go to our water supply system in the apartment and take a close look at it:
Of course, everyone has their own layout. Someone’s pipes are hidden and you can’t get close to them, which is not good. But the first thing to do is to define the hot and cold water circuits in your system..
Let’s take a closer look at the cold water circuit. Immediately striking is the arrow on the pressure gauge showing zero. Indeed, there is no cold water pressure in the system, and therefore the water from the tap barely comes out.
Now let’s find where the filters are located:
In the picture you can see two filters that have the correct names:
- self-cleaning filter with pressure gauge;
- coarse filter, straight.
Variations are of course possible here. For example, someone will definitely have not a direct, but an oblique coarse filter, but this does not change the essence of the matter. These are the filters and they will need to be dealt with..
What do we have to do? In fact, we have to unscrew 2 large nuts and see what happens inside our filters. So, from the tools we need Swedes, an adjustable wrench and a screwdriver:
We overlap the riser, drain the remaining water
First, you need to turn off the cold water. To do this, close the ball valve on the cold water riser. How to do this is described in detail in the article: Disconnecting risers in an apartment is easy. And here I will give only a picture:
Cold water is cut off. Now you need to drain the remaining water in the pipes. There is a drain cock directly under the self-cleaning filter. Someone has a hose removed from him that goes directly into the fan pipe, someone just has a tap:
If there is a hose, then just open the tap and drain the rest of the water. If there is no hose, then you need to find a bucket or basin and put it under the tap, then open the tap and drain the remaining water.
We change the coarse filter
Now you can deal with filters.
First, we will see the state of the coarse filter:
It is required to unscrew one nut. We need Swedes for this procedure. Before that, take care of the container where you will need to drain the remaining water from the filter. The container needs to be taken such that it can be substituted directly under the filter (Ideally, a cut plastic bottle is suitable, which you will see just below).
So, we take the Swedes and unscrew the nut:
We turn it counterclockwise, as shown in the figure. You won’t have to work as Swedes for long. Next, the nut must be carefully unscrewed by hand, substituting a container for draining the water:
Then, for some time, the water will continue to drain and you need to wait. It is even recommended to fix the container for draining, as it may take a few minutes.
But finally, the water stopped flowing and you can examine the filter from the inside:
We see a not very good picture with you. First, there is solid rust inside. Secondly, there is a removable mesh in the filter. It must be removed:
What to do next?
In an amicable way, it is better to replace the mesh (buy a new one). Rust inside the filter must be washed off. If there is a lot of rust, then it is worth replacing the filter itself. You ask how to wash if the water is shut off? That’s right, you need to stock up on cold water in advance and dilute with hot water, which you have not turned off. In general, handle it.
And this is how a brand new mesh for a coarse filter looks like:
We change the self-cleaning filter with a pressure gauge
Now is the time to start with a self-cleaning filter with a pressure gauge. In the figure you can see where you need to unscrew the filter. But this cannot be done immediately, since a drain hose is attached to the bottom of the filter, and first you need to remove the clamp and release the hose:
It is for these purposes that we need a screwdriver. So, we turn off the clamp:
We remove the hose. The water has already been drained, but small residues may still be:
Next, we take an adjustable wrench and unscrew the filter:
As in the case of the coarse filter, for this filter you first unscrew it with a wrench, and then by hand. Prepare a container to drain the water. The same plastic bottle will come in handy:
It is advisable to fix the bottle so that the water flows off by itself, and you do not have to hold the bottle with your hands.
When the water stops flowing, you need to look at the filter itself..
Before us is a depressing picture:
The filter screen is completely clogged. How to deal with this? I recommend installing a new mesh:
The filter itself is also dirty and it is a good idea to clean the rust. If there is too much of it, then I recommend replacing the filter itself and installing a new mesh there..
We put the filter back in place and check the water:
As you can see, everything is in order! Try it, take another look at the cold water gauge. Now he will definitely not show you exactly zero. You breathed a sigh of relief, because now the water pressure in your water supply system is back to normal!
Recommendations for the future
Here are some useful recommendations from my own experience:
- In order not to bring the situation when the filters are completely clogged, it is necessary to drain cold and hot water at least once every 3 weeks for 3 minutes. The descent is done by opening the taps located directly under the self-cleaning filters. That is why it is useful to have not just taps, but hoses screwed to them on clamps that go directly into the fan pipe..
- You need to spend a little time to: unscrew your hot and cold water filters, temporarily shut off the water, go to a professional plumbing store, show your filter nets to the seller and buy them home in advance. They are not so cheap, but this must be done, because in a critical situation, you simply replace the nets. Otherwise, you will have to first turn off the water, then disassemble the entire system, and then run around the shops in search of the desired mesh. It is not a fact that you will find them immediately, while the family will be left without water, and the water supply system itself will be in a semi-disassembled state (checked on yourself).
- Never turn on water without installed filters, even temporarily for 1 day! This particular day can be unfortunate. If dirt flies into the pipe, a little larger than the allowable size, then, for example, it will clog your meters, and then you really will have a lot of fuss.
- Imported mixers also fail. For example, the interior of the mixer becomes unusable, which it is better not to disassemble yourself (if you are not a professional in this matter). That is, when the mixer is removed, the water gushes in a powerful stream, and when the mixer is installed in hot water, the pressure is much stronger than in cold water, or vice versa. Here you also need to look and analyze. Sometimes a simple mixer change, which I have a separate article about, also works..
Where to go
If, after an initial inspection, it is established that the cause of the weak pressure is the faucet or pipes inside the apartment, then its owner should fix the problem. He can do it himself or call a plumber. If there are no plumbers you know, then you can contact the UK for help.
When the problem is not inside the apartment or its owner does not know what the reason is, then you should contact the Criminal Code or HOA. It is better to submit the application in writing in duplicate. The second, after putting a mark on the acceptance of the document, should be taken for yourself.
The MC or HOA must accept the application from the consumer and send their specialist to conduct an inspection. After identifying the cause of the poor pressure, the specialist can eliminate it. If the solution to the problem is beyond his competence, then the issue of troubleshooting is resolved with authorized persons.
In the absence of a response from the Criminal Code or refusal to do anything, you can complain to the housing inspectorate or other supervisory authority. It is also possible to compel these organizations to fulfill their obligations through the courts. Complaints can be both individual and collective..
In a new building
As a rule, the situation in new buildings may differ in its variety. Basically, the water supply is guaranteed by the developer. Therefore, it is necessary to contact him. If there is a management company, a complaint should be filed in its name.
In a privatized apartment
In this case, the complaint is submitted to the HOA, where it is considered within 10 days, and the person receives an official response. If a violation is detected, it is eliminated within 30 days. If the appeal is ignored, it is necessary to contact the housing inspectorate and argue for the failure to fulfill their obligations by the HOA.
In case of violation of the rights and interests of citizens, an application must be submitted to the appropriate structure. In any service department, upon official application, they must provide a sample application. It states:
- the person to whom the appeal is directed;
- personal data, home address and contact numbers of the applicant;
- the reason for the request is described in detail.
This document is subject to mandatory registration. At the time established by law, the applicant must receive an official response.
Step-by-step instructions for drawing up a complaint about a weak water pressure in an apartment
In the event that you are faced with the problem of a weak pressure of hot or cold water in an apartment, you should not let the situation take its course and wait for it to resolve itself. First of all, you should walk through the neighbors and find out how their issue is with pressure. Practice shows that collective complaints have a much greater effect than individual complaints..
The procedure for filing a complaint with the Management Company is as follows:
- Submission of a written application for measuring the pressure in the pipeline. Within ten days from the moment of filing the application, a specialist must come up to the address indicated in the application and measure the weak water pressure in the system.
- After receiving the measurement results, the management company must investigate the cause of the problem and eliminate it within 30 days..
- If all the deadlines have passed, and the water pressure is still depressing and significantly reduces the quality of life in your own apartment, you should act more decisively and proceed to writing a complaint.
- The complaint is submitted to the head of the management company, who must satisfy or refuse to satisfy it within 30 days.
Possible consequences of the complaint
The consequences of dealing with a complaint can be different, depending on where it is filed..
Based on the results of consideration of the complaint, the management company must eliminate the problem of low water pressure as soon as possible and recalculate the payment for utilities at the request of the owner of the apartment.
If a complaint about the actions or omissions of public utilities was filed with the prosecutor’s office, then one can expect that the management of the Criminal Code will be fined. In addition, the prosecutor will write the housing department an order to eliminate the problem within a specific time frame..
When filing a complaint with the State Housing Inspectorate, you will also have to wait for a response within thirty days. As practice shows, most of the inspection specialists take the side of the apartment owners. The supervisor can also punish public utilities with a ruble, issue an order or apply more stringent measures, after which the housing department will no longer be able to provide services to the population.
Is it possible to do everything with your own hands?
In some cases, you can cope with the problem yourself. First of all, this applies to malfunctions that are hidden in the system inside an apartment or house, especially a blockage or malfunction of the mixer. You can easily eliminate such shortcomings with your own hands. At the same time, it is worth considering options with a possible modernization of the water supply system. So, some mixers, due to their design, automatically increase the water pressure..
If you have not previously encountered a solution to such problems, then it is better to seek help from a specialist. This will prevent new faults from occurring. This is especially true for the maintenance of complex equipment. Modern companies offer an extensive list of services and solve any problem.
To prevent the problem of insufficient water pressure from arising, it is necessary to take preventive measures..
It is good practice to install pressure gauges along the entire length of the pipeline – near the entrance of the pipeline into the house, near forks and near consumer devices.
This will allow you to timely identify a decrease in pressure and quickly find out the cause of the problem. Also, you should regularly check the filters for contamination and, if necessary, clean them..
Pressure in the water supply system of a private house
Country houses of cottage type can be connected both to centralized highways for supplying hot and cold water, and to an autonomous water supply line.
Usually reservoirs for water intake of household drinking water with individual water supply are well and borehole sources, from which water resources are sent to the house.
The most common water supply scheme is implemented using submersible electric pumps or surface pumping stations, which send water from a well or borehole source through HDPE pipes to buildings. In this case, water is constantly in the internal water supply, and the pump is automatically turned off if water resources are not used and turns on when water is consumed.
Sometimes, with autonomous water supply, situations arise when the flow rate of a borehole or well source is small and it cannot provide water intake in the required volumes for a long time. In this situation, the way out is to use a storage tank, which is installed as high as possible (on the top floor or attic of the building) and filled with water using an electric pump.
Basic equipment for autonomous water supply
A standard autonomous water supply system includes a water supply unit (submersible or surface electric pump), a pressure switch and, if necessary, dry running, a hydraulic accumulator, and a pressure gauge. At water intake, the pump fills the internal pipeline and the expansion tank with water, and the hydraulic relay in the water supply network is the main automation device. It cuts off the power supply to the pumping unit when a certain pressure is reached in the line..
The upper and lower limits for turning on and off the electric pump are set manually when setting the relay, each of the devices offered on the market has its own range and limit values of pressure.
Distinctive features of an autonomous water supply system
The network that functions from a well or a channel contains a number of features that relate to the water pressure created in it:
- There is an urgent need to raise water from the well.
- Adequate pressure must be ensured at points that are at varying degrees of distance from the catchment.
Autonomous water pipelines have two problems, completely opposite to each other..
Unfortunately, the water reserve in a well or a stream is not enough to maintain the pressure always in a normal state..
For a family of 4 – 5 people, it is simply not enough. As a result, the pumps first pump liquid into the system equipped with an additional boiler (read how it works for hot water here), thereby creating a good head, but over time it becomes weaker.
There is much more water in a well or in an art well than the owners are able to use. Pumps, pumping water constantly, can create too high a pressure in the system (6 bar and more).
And this undesirable phenomenon will lead to leaks and rapid wear of all elements of the water supply network..
The second problem is easy to solve..
When buying equipment, do not forget that the power of the device must correspond to the daily rate of water consumption by your family..
And to increase the pressure in the line, you have to work a little..
There are several ways to increase the water pressure.
Installing a pump that will force water to circulate through the pipes.
There are devices that work in manual and automatic mode (about the sanitary equipment of buildings and structures, it is written in this article).
It makes sense to install the device only when it is required to increase the pressure to the minimum, that is, 1.5 atmospheres.
And if the pressure needs to be raised to large values, a pumping station is installed (it works only in automatic mode).
Since it contains a storage tank, the equipment is mounted only in a warm room..
In this case, use a conventional pump with a flow-through water filter (written here) and a container that is set at the highest level – this is necessary to create additional natural pressure.
Summing up the above, I would like to touch upon one more question..
In a detached mansion, the use of the boiler for heating must be carried out in strict accordance with the instructions that are attached to it..
Quite, often, the following situation may arise:
- for a heater, it is quite enough, the pressure in the set of water lines is 2.3 – 2.5 atmospheres.
But for the inclusion of other household appliances, this is not enough. How to deal with this situation?
The boiler must be equipped with an individual water supply circuit, with a pressure that meets all the requirements.
Always listen to the opinion of experts or sales consultants when choosing a pump for a private house or apartment (you can find approximate prices here).
Knowledgeable people say that it makes no sense to install too powerful equipment. It is better to install a low-power apparatus near each device that consumes water.
See how the homeowner solved the problem of low water pressure in the pipeline.
Optimum pressure for a typical water supply scheme
The standard relay for operation in the water supply system of a one-story house is designed for an operating pressure in the water supply network of approximately 1.5 to 3 bar (in popular models of the relay, the factory setting of the operating range from 1.4 to 2.8 bar is included). It should be noted that the indicator of 3 bars is approximately equal to the average value between the established standards for apartment buildings of indicators from 0.3 to 6 atm..
If an individual house has a height of two or more floors, by analogy with the pressure indicators of a multi-storey building, 0.5 bar is added to each floor. Given that the internal water supply of an individual residential building has a much greater length than in city apartments, and, accordingly, there is a higher water loss in it, the indicator of 0.5 bar is sometimes increased to 1.
That is, at the inlet of the internal cold water supply pipeline to a private house at the most common height of two to three floors, a relay with a response threshold of about 3.5 to 5 bar may well be installed and, accordingly, the pressure at the external input can reach 50 m.
Pressure rate when using the storage tank The storage tank, located on the top floor or attic of a country house, creates a pressure equal to the height of its location above ground level. The water volume for filling the tank is provided by a submersible electric pump or a pumping station with a fence from a well or well.
If in a two-story house the distance between the basement and the attic can reach 10 m, which is equivalent to a pressure of 1 bar and is quite enough for the operation of a gravity heating system, then in the case of water consumption by plumbing fixtures and water heating equipment, this value may not be enough for their normal functioning. The owner will have to take measures to increase the hydraulic head, usually for these purposes a special booster electric pump is built into the pipeline circuit.
Varieties of pipeline pressures
Any user who is independently engaged in water supply often comes across various terms that determine the pressure in the water supply system, the main ones (according to GOST 356-80 (ST SEV 253-76):
Nominal PN. When purchasing pipes for the installation of a water supply system on the construction market, they are often faced with an indication of their service life, for products made of various materials it is different and ranges from 20 years for steel and 50 years for polymers.
The user should be aware that the PN indicator means that the pipe with a given maximum excess head can function for the specified operational period under the only condition – the temperature of the working medium should not exceed the threshold of + 20 ° С.
Working Rr. It is known that with an increase in the temperature of the transported medium, the operational life of any pipelines decreases. In the heating circuit, the temperature of the coolant usually does not go beyond the range of 50 – 70 ° С for radiators and 35 – 50 ° С for underfloor heating, that is, the nominal PN for these pipes is not relevant.
Therefore, for pipelines, the operating pressure in the water supply system is additionally set, equal to the highest excess pressure, at which the pipe can function for its assigned service life in a given operating mode. Usually PP is calculated when the working medium is supplied at a certain temperature (usually above + 20 ° C) or its physicochemical characteristics differ from neutral water.
Trial Rpr. Indicates the excess standard pressure, which is set during hydraulic tests of pipelines and fittings for strength and tightness of joints in a standardized temperature range from + 5 to + 70 ° С.
If the pressure is low, then problems can arise even with such an elementary procedure as taking a shower. If the pressure is insufficient, appliances such as a washing machine, dishwasher, shower cabin and jacuzzi will not function.
What pressure will allow you to use the water supply with comfort?
Just 2 bar is enough for everyday needs such as:
- washing and showering;
- washing dishes by hand or using a household appliance;
- washing in a washing machine.
Some plumbing fixtures require a higher water pressure of 4 atm. Among them:
- jacuzzi bath;
- shower cabin with hydromassage function.
Varieties and design features
Compact electrical installations are often considered as booster units. The characteristics of the most commonly used are presented below..
The main difference between the self-priming and centrifugal models is that the inlet pipe of the first unit can suck in water without filling the bottom valve, so no more water is needed later on. The body is much larger and has a self-priming time control function, while the centrifugal design is always under pressure.
With a low water level in the tank, the required performance of such a unit can only be ensured by installing a lower valve on the suction port of the inlet pipe. This is necessary to fill the inner cavity. This feature eliminates the reverse infiltration of water into the tank if the equipment is turned off..
Vortex models (equipped with a submersible impeller) operate on the principle of creating a vortex flow away from the fluid path. This creates its circular movement with simultaneous rotation around the axis, as a result, conditions are created for effective suction of the flow into the volute with subsequent discharge. The pressure drop is not a prerequisite for the operation of such structures, therefore, they can function reliably at any relative position of the tank and the main water main.
The advantage of vortex designs is that they do not clog up during operation, although they have a relatively low efficiency (about 50%). But they practically do not vibrate, and wear less.
Minimum and maximum rates
According to building codes, the minimum for hot water is 0.3 bar and the maximum is 4.5 bar.
In a private house with autonomous water supply, the minimum and maximum can be increased to a range of 2.5-7.5 bar.
The minimum value is also 0.3 bar (in a private house it can rise to 1.4 bar), the maximum is 6 bar. In some cases, the maximum value can increase to 7.5-10 bar, due to the characteristics of the equipment used.
This must be consistent with other parameters of the system, and also justified by the specific operating conditions of the water supply system. For example, if you want to water a large area.
Why is it important to respect the parameters?
Compliance with standards plays a very important role, since only in this case is the normal functioning of household appliances connected to the water supply system possible. Many of them, for example, washing machines and dishwashers, as well as whirlpool baths, simply will not work when the pressure is reduced to a minimum..
An increase in water pressure also negatively affects the operation of household appliances and plumbing equipment. Only in this case the load increases too much.
And as a result, the equipment will fail faster, as well as especially sensitive elements of the water supply system. In addition, leaks are possible in this case..
What is the formula for determining the water pressure in the house?
There is a formula for the required head, it is calculated as H = 10 + 4 (n-1). In this formula, “n” refers to the number of floors in the house. The indicator of the required pressure takes into account the location of the water intake points at different heights.
How to determine yourself?
To measure the water pressure in the system, a special device is used – a pressure gauge.
Some household appliances, such as heating boilers, are already equipped with built-in pressure gauges. But you can buy and install such a device yourself..
It is installed where the water pipe is entered into the house and a water meter is installed. The pressure gauge measures the actual pressure, and the user himself compares these values with those established by building codes.
The pressure gauge should be checked regularly. Moreover, their sharp decrease or increase may indicate that there are some problems in the network..
Most gauges are rated for a maximum of 7 atmospheres, so care should be taken when approaching the limit value..
Reasons for weak and excessive pressure
Most often, a decrease in water pressure occurs due to the natural wear and tear of the pipeline. In addition, if metal pipes were used for its laying, then over time the pressure will decrease due to corrosion.
There may also be a problem with limescale deposits on the pipe walls. It appears due to too hard water.
The reasons for a weak pressure are also:
The pressure plant does not correspond to the parameters of the system. Very often, in autonomous water supply systems, water has to be raised from deep enough aquifers.
Then it will be delivered to consumers located at a great distance from the station, and even at different heights. If the pump capacity is not suitable for this situation, the head will be weak.
- Low resource of the well itself, from which water is taken. Even if initially everything was normal, the source gradually empties, and the pressure decreases..
- The emergence of new points of water intake that can work at the same time – for example, they also acquire a dishwasher or a hydromassage bath. If their appearance was not taken into account in the project, then now you will have to redo it, perhaps buy additional equipment.
In the case of excessive water pressure, two options are possible – either the equipment was selected with too much power reserve, or there is an airlock inside the system.
How is blood pressure measured?
Limit value in water pressure gauge – 6-7 bar
A pressure gauge is used to measure in the water supply system. It is installed next to the water meter at the point where the water pipe enters the building. Heating boilers are also equipped with a built-in device. The pressure gauge allows you to independently measure the actual values and compare them with those that correspond to technological standards and GOSTs.
It is required to monitor the performance of this device regularly. Indeed, at low values, the water jet at water consumers will be extremely weak.
Exceeding the standards poses a danger to plumbing and household appliances. The water supply pressure gauge is equipped with a measuring scale with a maximum of seven atmospheres: when the pressure rises above this indicator, major malfunctions are formed in the network. Leaks occur at the joints of the pipe sections, the sensitive elements break.
The consequences of high blood pressure
If the pressure is too high – from 6.5 bar – fittings and connections in pipes suffer, at 10 bar they can easily not withstand and burst. Only welded joints and industrial fittings can withstand this high pressure. A pressure of 6-7 bar can also lead to disruptions in the operation of highly sensitive plumbing, damage to ceramic valves.
Tip: when choosing mixers, taps, pumps and pipes, you should consider the possibility of sudden pressure surges in the network, called water hammer. To avoid unpleasant situations in the form of accidents and flooding, it is necessary to purchase devices and elements for installation in a system with an increased safety margin: in normal operation they must withstand 6 atm., But be designed for a short-term increase in pressure up to 10 atm.
Causes of low blood pressure
Clogging of pipes with small debris and deposits on the inner surface, reducing the bore diameter. To eliminate this problem, it will be necessary to replace the risers and intra-apartment wiring..
- The coarse filter is clogged or the inlet valve is not fully open. In this case it is necessary to check the valve and filters. It may be enough just to replace the mesh on the filter so that the water flows out as usual..
- Breakthrough of the city water pipe. In this case, the tenants of the apartments cannot do anything, they just have to wait for the city services to restore the integrity of the water supply network..
- Increased water intake by residents of the house – usually observed in the evening and morning hours, when the water supply system is especially actively used.
- Pump malfunctions at the distribution station or poor supply of electricity to it.
In the event that you are no longer satisfied with the water pressure, try first of all to determine the reason for its decrease..
- Ask the neighbors on the staircase if they have problems with pressure. If everything is in order with them, then the reason is not in violation of the general water supply.
- Simplify the riser neighbors who live on the floor above and below. This will tell you if the problem is with a separate riser. In the event that there are no complaints from neighbors, the reason should be sought in the wiring inside your apartment.
- Compare the pressure in different areas of the apartment – in the kitchen and in the bathroom, see if there is a difference between a stream of cold and hot water. Perhaps the problem is local in nature, and a certain section of the pipe is clogged..
Reasons for promotion and demotion
Most often, a low head occurs due to wear and tear of water pipes – if they are rusted or clogged with limescale. The latter happens not only over time, but also because of too hard water. In such a situation, the pipeline requires replacement, there is no other solution to the problem of reduced pressure..
For other reasons that there is no normal pressure in the water supply system in a private house, include:
- Weak pressure plant. In non-centralized highways, water must be lifted from the aquifer and brought to all water consumers located at different distances from the pumping device and located at different heights.
- Low well production rate. While the mine is filled with water, the pressure in the water supply system will not drop, but as the source is empty, the pressure will decrease, and then the liquid will stop flowing into the pipeline.
- Opening all consumers at the same time. This becomes the reason for a decrease in the pressure in the line. Therefore, when performing design work, the total number of water consumers that can be opened immediately is taken into account..
As for excessively high pressure, it arises both due to improperly selected pressure equipment – too powerful, and due to the formation of air locks in the water supply pipeline.
Pressure regulation methods
Pressure switch setting
Adjusting the pressure switch helps to reduce the pressure. A decrease of less than 1.5 atmospheres is not allowed, the optimal value is 3-4 bar. Ideally, it is worth installing an automatic system that will control the operation of the equipment without human intervention..
Pressure switch cost
Also, safety valves are used to reduce the pressure. If this value is exceeded, the compensator releases excess water into the sewer system..
Safety valve cost
You can increase the pressure by setting:
- booster pumping device;
- a hydroaccumulator with a membrane;
- storage capacity.
It is also possible to replace the installed pumping equipment with a more powerful one..
It is rational to include a booster in the wiring for a forced increase in pressure when there is a sufficient volume of liquid in the source, but it comes to remote or located at a height of consumption points with a large loss of head. For example, if the building has more than one floor. Management is possible both manually and automatically. The second option has a significant plus – the control of the start and stop of the pump, when necessary, is carried out by the automation independently.
If the flow rate is insufficient, the use of a booster pump will only aggravate the problem..
In such a situation, only the installation of a membrane accumulator will help. A rubber diaphragm divides the tank into two compartments – air and water. The space between the diaphragm surface and the body of the hydraulic accumulator is filled with high pressure air. Due to this, the water flow under the required pressure is supplied to each consumer. Such a scheme allows you to exclude pressure drops and water shocks, to ensure the uninterrupted operation of all elements of the line.
Another method is to use a large storage tank. If you install it in the highest place of the house, it will be filled through the main pump, and flow to the user by gravity. But it is unlikely that it will be possible to achieve a decent pressure in such a situation. It is better to purchase an additional pump for pumping liquid from the reservoir. Then the tank can be placed anywhere, even in the basement..
Before choosing a method that allows you to increase the pressure in the water supply network, it is worth calling a specialist. He will check the condition of the filter element, shut-off valves, and also take correct pressure measurements.
How to increase blood pressure
If all measures to stabilize the constant low pressure, such as contacting the housing office or replacing the intra-apartment wiring and filters, do not yield results, you can resort to installing special equipment. There are two ways to increase the head:
- Connection of a circulation pump that increases the pressure by drawing in water. This is a great solution for an apartment: the device is small in size, it can be installed in the water supply system in front of the water access points.
- Installation of a pumping station. Despite the advantage of such equipment in terms of power, this option has serious disadvantages: the station requires special coordination and takes up a lot of space..
You can reduce the constant high pressure by installing a special reducer at the inlet of the water supply to the apartment, which will help regulate the water pressure. In order to monitor the pressure value, a water pressure gauge must be installed near the gearbox..
How to measure?
In order to choose the optimal way to regulate the pressure in the water supply system, it is necessary to accurately set its value. For these purposes, a water pressure gauge is used, installed on the pipe section near the entrance of the water supply system to the apartment..
To measure the pressure in plumbing fixtures, you will need:
- pressure gauge;
- thread extension;
- 1/2 “adapter;
- fum tape.
Put all the parts together, unscrew the shower head from the shower hose and screw in the advanced pressure gauge. Open the water, wait for the air to come out of the hose and observe the readings of the device.
Important! When measuring pressure, it is necessary to take into account the fact that at different times of the day, due to changes in the intensity of water intake, the pressure may be different. Take readings 4 times a day for a week, only in this way the data obtained will show a more or less accurate picture.
Pressure standards for the work of plumbing and equipment and how to determine it
It is worth noting that the lower threshold of water pressure in pipelines of 0.3 bar was not chosen by chance – the vast majority of plumbing fixtures function normally with these parameters.
If water heating equipment is installed (electric boilers, gas water heaters, boilers for various types of fuel), the working pressure standards at their inlet are much higher than the established minimum limit of 0.3 bar, the indicator can go up to 1 bar.
For water heating units placed in individual houses, this does not play a big role – the required pressure is set independently on the pressure switch. When using water heating equipment in apartments, you should be careful and study the technical specifications regarding the working water pressure at the inlet of the device before installation..
When measuring the pressure in the mains, a pressure gauge is usually used, but not every user has a device and special fittings are required for its correct connection to the pipeline, some consumers try to determine the working pressure in the water supply pipes by other methods.
The easiest and most well-known way to find out what the pressure in the water supply is to calculate the time it takes to fill a three-liter jar with water. From the table in Fig. 12 it can be seen that if the time interval for filling a three-liter can exceeds 8 seconds, then in the water supply the pressure is less than the lower threshold of 0.3 bar.
It should be noted that this method of measurements (mostly incorrect data from the given table) is absolutely biased, since the pressure itself does not have a linear relationship with the flow rate. If you fill the can from the mixer, it has a narrow passage channel and the experiment with the can will show a reduced pressure value according to the table..
The given tabular data should be increased by about 10 times – in fact, when measuring by specialists of the ZhES at the outlet of the riser, the manometer readings of 1.3 bar correspond to filling the can in 20 seconds.
Based on the sanitary consumption rates given in the table in Fig. 13, a three-liter can from a tap should be filled in 30 seconds at a system pressure of 0.2 bar and a minimum inner diameter of the supply line of 10 mm. This value is 3 times higher than the tabular data from Fig. 12, but also not correct.
So the most objective way to determine the pressure in an apartment is to measure it using a pressure gauge on the inlet valve from the risers of hot or cold water supply.
How the regulated values according to GOST 2021 are displayed
Regulatory documents during the period of state control over compliance with the quality of the provision of housing and communal services to the population, construction and development of settlements on an industrial scale were developed on the basis of practical experience and scientific research.
In this regard, the following should be noted:
- The rate of water pressure in the tap for apartment buildings is designed mainly for the most common type at that time – a five-story building. For multi-storey buildings, the pressure is calculated individually, when creating a project, taking into account the type of installation that meets the needs of residents in water. However, compliance with SNiP 2.04.02-84, entitled “Water supply to external networks”, is a prerequisite, and not only in Moscow.
- The maximum and minimum pressure values, the norm of water pressure in the water supply system can be measured in bars or in atmospheres. These are not identical concepts, since the unit of the standard of measurement, accepted in physics, is actually equal to 1.02 atmospheres. A common practice in pressure calculations is to round 1.02 to one to facilitate regulatory compliance. Since we are talking about a digit after the zero behind the decimal point, and the maximum pressure in propylene pipes does not exceed 10, the standard error is considered not very significant.
- The water pressure in the tap depends on many conditions – the quality of the equipment from the supplier, the distance to which it is supplied, the height or number of storeys of the building, the serviceability of all components of the system in a single dwelling.
Water meter unit for an apartment building
Hot water pressure standards differ in magnitude from the standard requirements for cold water. Because the pipes are influenced not only by the compression of the water flow, but also by the temperature indicators..
The service life of the water supply system is reduced if the pipes are installed without preliminary calculations of the standard pressure and temperature.
Usually, when laying a pipeline in an apartment or in a private house, a double margin of safety is laid in relation to that specified in the nomenclature.
Cold water pressure in the apartment: standard
SNiP 2.04.02-84, which regulates water pressure standards, was supplemented a year later. Since then, the situation has been as follows:
- the design of the water supply system must be fully coordinated and installed according to existing requirements;
- all components are taken into account – the connection to the building, its distribution network, any points of water intake, in modern conditions these are most often mixers;
- for a standard five-story building, the water pressure is calculated according to the formula: 1 bar on the first floor + 0.4 bar for each of the built ones – 0.4 x 5 = 2 bars;
- so it is quite easy to determine the normal pressure of cold water for five floors, which is equal to three bars;
- you can roughly navigate how the water supply corresponds to the norm by filling a liter can: if water is supplied under a pressure of 2.44 atmospheres, then it is filled in 1 second;
- usually the data indicate for a can with a capacity of 3 liters – it is filled with a normal water pressure in the tap in 3 seconds.
Hot water pressure in the apartment: standard
Experts advise not to focus on the data of the joint venture or SNiP. Especially when it comes to the supply of water in a newly designed private house with an individual type of water supply. It is believed that the norms that were relevant 35 years ago and defined in 1984, far from modern realities, need to be increased for individual construction.
Hence such a demand for pumps with a step-up function. Another tip for those who are uncomfortable with too little or too much pressure in the pipes. You should not check the operation of the local water utility from time to time, but install a water pressure gauge in an apartment or house.
Its presence on the mixer makes it possible to continuously monitor the supplier’s compliance with the regulations. This is especially true for measuring the pressure of hot water, since the pressure of cold water is always higher.
Table of minimum and maximum indicators of hot water pressure according to SNiP (SP).
|Type of supplied water||Minimum||Maximum|
|Hot||0.3 atmospheres||4.5 atmospheres|
Values for pressure measurement
In order to correctly understand the norms indicated in the documents, prescribing with what pressure water should be supplied to the water supply system of an apartment building, it is necessary to understand the relationship of these values.
In short, water pressure characterizes the force acting on an obstacle in the flow path. Thus, pressure has potential energy.
In a moving fluid, there is no pressure, but the pressure, comparable to kinetic energy and representing a linear unit, is maximum.
The free head indicator found in regulatory documents means the lowest height to which the water must be raised, taking into account the losses to overcome the resistance of the pipes, above the ground level to reach the draw-off point.
Both of these quantities can transform into each other..
For example, a pumping station in an apartment building, which raises water to a height of forty meters, creates a water column pressure at the outlet of 4 atm or 4 bars.
Water pressure can be measured in various units. Since 1 bar ≈ 0.99 physical atmosphere (atm), then conventionally these values are equated. 1 atm or 1 kg / cm of technical atmosphere (at) corresponds to the pressure created by a 10 meter water column.
In the metric system, Pascal is taken as the basic unit for measuring pressure. For water, the measurement is carried out in megapascals (MPa). Non-system units include: bars, atmospheres, kgf / cm2.
Pressure standards in the centralized water supply
You can determine the tap pressure at the outlet by connecting a conventional water pressure gauge to the mixer tap using a rubber hose.
The indicators of the water pressure of the central water supply system are regulated by construction and operational standards.
Pressure can be measured in three units:
- Kgf / cm2
These units correlate with each other approximately as follows: 10 bar = 9.8 atm. = 1 MPa = 1Kgf / sq. Cm. A pressure of 10 bar is equivalent to the pressure of a 10 m high water column.
Standard pressure indicators in pipelines
The main regulatory documents that determine the water pressure values guaranteed by the water supply organization in the engineering communications of an apartment building are:
- The set of rules of the joint venture 30.13330.2016.
- Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of May 6, 2011 No. 354.
The first document established the water pressure norm at the level of the lowest sanitary equipment in the house..
Resolution No. 354 regulates the requirements for the quality of the supplied utilities, including the definition of pressure standards in residential buildings for cold water and hot water supply at the points of intake.
However, in order to find answers to questions about what the pressure and pressure of water in the water supply system in an apartment should be, it will not be enough to be guided only by these documents, especially when carrying out calculations for installing a pressure-intensifying pump in an apartment..
To do this, you need to use the following techniques:
- SNiP 2.04.02-84 – determines the norms of water pressure at the entrance to the house;
- SNiP 2.04.01-85 – normalizes the pressure on the water intake in the apartment.
By coordinating all these documents with each other, it is possible to derive the main standard values for water pressure.
At the input of a one-story building, the value of the smallest water pressure should be at least 10 m.In an apartment building, 4 m is added to each floor
For example, for a house with 8 floors, the input water pressure, according to calculations, should be at least: 10 m + (4 m × 7 floors) = 38 m or 3.8 atm (kg / cm2).
The pressure at the point of draw-off at the inlet to the apartment of the house must be ensured:
- Cold water mixture in the range from 0.03 MPa (0.3 atm) to 0.6 MPa (6.0 atm);
- DHW – from 0.03 MPa (0.3 atm.) To 0.45 MPa (4.5 atm).
At least what value should be the free water pressure in the apartment for specific plumbing fixtures with mixers, is also regulated by SNiP:
- washbasin – 0.2 at;
- bath – 0.3 at;
- shower cabin – 0.3 at.
Taking into account the above indicators, when choosing a plumbing fixture, it is necessary to pay attention to the value of the minimum pressure for operation at which it is designed.
Some old gas water heaters can only work with a minimum water pressure of 0.9 atm, while the lower limit of the standard is 0.3 atm
Therefore, about devices in the characteristics of which the parameters below the standard are indicated, we can speak of them as not intended for installation on specific engineering networks and subject to replacement..
Such a nuance should also be taken into account – the given building codes determine the permissible minimum or maximum limits for water pressure, and this permitted range is large enough.
In practice, the optimal value of the water pressure in the intra-apartment network, which ensures its comfortable use and the correct operation of household appliances, is 4 atm..
If you live in a private house or use a summer cottage with an autonomous water supply, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the pressure standards in the private water supply system and ways to increase it.
What is the power in the DHW and cold water system?
Water pressure in multi-storey buildings connected to the central water supply network is not constant.
It depends on such factors as the number of storeys of the house or the time of the year – so in the summer season, especially in multi-storey buildings, the lack of cold water becomes especially noticeable, which at this time goes to irrigate the adjoining or personal plots.
In practice, municipal services try to keep the level at an average of 3-4 atmospheres, although not always successfully. The minimum indicators at which the pipeline of the house can function (for both cold water and hot water supply) is 0.3 bar per floor.
The value of the pressure of hot and cold water supply is slightly different in favor of the latter (a difference of up to 25% is allowed).
The explanation is simple – cold water is used more actively, since it is needed for the functioning of the sewage system. Therefore, the maximum indicators for cold water supply will be 6 atmospheres, and for hot water supply – 4.5 atmospheres.
What indicators are considered the norm (according to GOST, SNiP)?
Water supply is regulated by the following regulations:
- GOST 356-80;
- Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 354.
In accordance with these documents, the free pressure in the water supply network at the entrance to the building directly depends on its number of storeys – for one-story buildings this figure is equal to 1 atmosphere, which corresponds to 10 meters of water pressure.
In multi-storey buildings, this value increases by 4 meters for each floor of the building. At night, the incoming pressure can be reduced to 3 meters.
Cold water pressure should be in the range from 0.3 to 6 atmospheres, hot – from 0.3 to 4.5.
Attention. According to clause 2.28 of SNiP 2.04.02-84, the maximum pressure at the inlet to the water supply network of a multi-storey building cannot exceed 60 meters of water column (6 atmospheres). Otherwise, you should install pressure regulators or use the zoning of the water supply network..
Features of pressure for normal operation of household appliances
The quality of delivery and fluid consumption affects not only the convenience of using water intake and compliance with the sufficiency of consumption: excessive or underestimated pressure of hot or cold water directly affects the operation of household appliances and equipment connected to the water supply – a washing machine, dishwasher, heating boiler, shower stall, other equipment, for the operation of which you need to connect cold or hot water supply. So, the minimum allowable pressure in the water supply for faucets is 0.3 bar, for a sink and a bathroom – ≥ 0.2 bar, for a washing machine – ≥ 2 bar, for a bath or shower – ≥4 bar. Such pressure parameters must be maintained with the simultaneous operation of all units and devices that consume water..
How to find out the power: step by step instructions
The most accurate way to determine the pressure of the water supply system can be a built-in pressure gauge – it is installed at the entrance to the internal network immediately after the shut-off valves with a filter.
If such equipment is not installed, then you can make a portable analogue of it yourself..
To do this you will need:
- pressure gauge up to 6 atmospheres;
- threaded extension;
- adapter (if necessary);
- adjustable wrench.
- A threaded extension is attached to the manometer, to which the adapter is attached (if necessary). For the accuracy of the measurements, the fumlent is used to achieve tightness of the joints.
- A watering can is disconnected from the shower hose and a previously prepared pressure gauge is screwed on, – the connection is sealed with fumlent.
- Fully open the shower tap-box and take readings from the pressure gauge.
Reference. During the tests, for the accuracy of taking readings, you can not use other plumbing fixtures: washing machine, sink, toilet, etc..
This method is the most accurate, but if you urgently need to find out the pressure, and there is no manometer at hand, then you can apply another, albeit less accurate method: determining the pressure by the flow rate of water.
You will need:
- three-liter jar;
- A 3-liter container is placed under a tap previously opened at full power.
- At the same time, time is noted on the stopwatch and recorded: how much the container will fill.
- The resulting time is checked against the tabular data and the pressure is set.
Table: pressure versus water flow rate:
The video clearly shows how you can measure the water pressure yourself:
A little about consumer rights
At the very end of 2018, Federal Law No. 485 was adopted and in 2019 entered into force. The need to develop a new document with standards was dictated by the changed realities in the aspects of managing the operation of apartment buildings.
Calculation of pressure
The number of organizations that can take part in meeting the needs of people, compliance with standards and pressure requirements for residents of apartment houses has expanded.
This also required innovations in the field of legal regulation..
If earlier only strictly limited agents could deal with pressure and regulations, with the advent of MUP (not vested with the right of ownership of commercial municipal unitary enterprises), IPA (municipal legal acts, or local regulations), decisions of local authorities began to operate.
An ordinary consumer can find out about the established standards directly at the office of the company that deals with water supply. In particular, the pressure and temperature required by the regulations. Consumer rights are protected even under such conditions.
Can filling speed
The translation of the relationship between the consumer and the supplier who does not have ownership, transferred to a new legal plane, does not exclude the obligations that are assigned to him in the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation.
Water in the apartment, consumption and pressure standards, instructions for issuing invoices and even standards for the operation of gutters – all this can be found in Resolution No. 354, which has not lost its relevance in 2021, although it is dated May 2011.
Household losses in the apartment
In Appendix No. 2 to Resolution No. 354, the proper parameters of the quality of water supplies are indicated, which also include pressure standards. And this is no coincidence, since the document is called “On the provision of utilities to owners”.
Violation of any regulation, not just pressure, at the local level may be the basis for a revision of the manufacturer’s invoices. If the cold water pressure does not correspond to GOST and the non-observance of the pressure parameters is not caused by blockages or malfunctions, but in the house there is a central water supply, then the management company must address the existing problem.
In the water metering unit
Of course, suppliers are not always ready to admit their own shortcomings. Therefore, they will first send a company representative to check how normal the water supply level in the cold tap is, as well as the compliance of the pressure with the established standards. The level of pressure is considered unacceptable, which does not allow the connection of water-consuming appliances, household devices.
The minimum pressure indicator according to the standards is set for the consumption of the shower and bath, and it is 0.3 bar. For a washbasin and toilet, this pressure value is slightly less – 0.2 bar. It is unacceptable to consider the work of the company satisfactory, in which the population of the house should be limited to a thin stream from the wash tap and not be able to fully carry out hygiene procedures..
Residents of an apartment building should be aware that the current legislation of the Russian Federation provides them with the right to demand compliance with the standards specified in the joint venture (SNiP).
In the basement of the house
To change the negative situation, you need to make sure that the interruptions in water supply are not caused by malfunctions in the apartment, but by the incorrect activity of the utility provider. Having written a statement indicating the parameters and the requirement to eliminate the causes that are in his jurisdiction, you can add a clause on the need to reduce payments for low-quality services.
A correctly drawn up statement and documented violations of standards (at the entrance to an apartment building at least 4 bars) can become a good reason for contacting the courts, the prosecutor’s office or the city administration. This is the custom, for example, in St. Petersburg.
Things to Consider in the Private Sector
In a country house or in the suburbs of large cities, an option with an autonomous water supply from a source or well may be considered. This option is being studied differently from the situation in an apartment building with central water supply. Because it depends on the water pressure in the source or in the main water supply.
If the pressure is reduced in neighboring houses, you need to contact the organization or a private supplier who has taken over the supply responsibilities. If the problem is in a separate house, the problem may be in its own plumbing system..
This is both inconvenient and dangerous, because in the event of a fire, the fire engine will not be able to collect water for extinguishing..
The figure for the normal pressure of hot water ranges from 0.3 to 4.5 atmospheres. But in a private house with autonomous water supply, it is better to focus on the used heating source..
Measurement of normative indicators
Gas heating does not always imply the installation of an additional device. The column handles heat easily. Installation of a solid fuel boiler often requires pressure regulation using an additional device – a pump or a hydraulic accumulator.
Stabilization of water pressure in the system
In high-rise buildings, although less often, there is a problem of not only low, but also high water pressure.
Reducers are commercially available, equipped with pressure gauges to monitor the pressure in the system during water intake and allow precise adjustment of the water pressure
To stabilize it on intra-apartment water supply networks, protect the system itself with measuring devices and household appliances connected to it from increased pressure, and hydraulic shocks, pressure reducers / regulators are used.
It is recommended to install pressure reducers on pipelines immediately after the inlet shut-off device in front of water supply meters.
How to plug a pressurized water pipe?
Putting a plug on a pipe is not tricky if you do it without pressure.
But when the water cannot be shut off, many will think that it is impossible to do this. However, it is not.
It will not be possible to put an ordinary plug, since a strong pressure will not make it possible even to bait it on the thread.
But if you use an ordinary water tap instead, then everything will work out..
The method consists in the fact that the tap, which will drown out the pipe, is switched to open mode – the water will pass through it and thereby make it possible to bait it on the pipe thread. As soon as the plug valve is baited and screwed on a few turns, it can be closed..
Before work, you need to make sure that nothing interferes with the work, and also prepare a container for collecting water, a rag for cleaning (so as not to heat the neighbors).
This method can be used even if the pipe to be plugged is unthreaded – then a flexible hose must be put on the plug-in valve, which would fit over the pipe..
The crane, as in the first case, must be fully opened, and the hose must be put on the pipe – it must be fastened to one or two clamps. After that, you can finally turn off the water..
Important. Do not use this method to plug hot water pipelines without completely shutting off the system..
What to check first
If your home is equipped with a pumping station that regulates the operation of the entire plumbing system, you should check the pressure at the outlet from it. Checking the performance of the pumping station will not take much time – it is always supplied with a water pressure gauge to automatically adjust the on / off of the borehole pump.
- If the pressure at the pumping station is normal, we proceed to the next stage – checking the pressure at all points of the in-house water route. To do this, you should move along the pipeline, noting the pressure in its different sections. If your plumbing system is not equipped with instrumentation, then you should connect a portable pressure gauge at the points of water intake (mixers, drain taps). Having determined the segment where the pressure drop occurs, it is much easier to find out its cause. This is either clogging of pipes, or their overgrowth with sediments, or a malfunction of the water shut-off valves. A similar malfunction is eliminated by special cleaning of the pipe or by replacing the section of the water supply system, plumbing equipment.
- If coarse or fine filters are installed in the house system, be sure to check them for patency. Clogged with fine mechanical debris and suspensions, the filters stop letting water in the required volume. To do this, coarse filters are removed, washed, cleaned of accumulated dirt and installed in place. The condition of the fine filter must be monitored if the model installed in your house does not have a self-cleaning function..
- It is advisable to revise the mixers. Very often, due to the increased mineralization of water in the system, taps and shower heads from the inside are overgrown with mineral deposits. The internal mechanisms of water taps are often exposed to the same misfortune. Such plumbing fixtures should be thoroughly cleaned or replaced altogether..
Causes of reduced water jet
To find out the source of a weak water jet, first of all, you should walk through the neighbors who live on the lower and upper floors and find out the situation. The information will make it clear the situation regarding the overall pipeline system.
If it turns out that the water flows weakly only in one of the riser apartments, then it is there that you need to look for the reason. To do this, you should completely inspect the entire water supply system running in the apartment..
The reasons for low head can be divided into two large groups.
- 1. There is enough water in the water supply system, but its pressure is objectively low
This often happens when the water tower was built on the basis of the flat position of buildings, and then the development of the village expanded to higher places. And there is, of course, no pressure. The same picture is observed with faulty, worn out pumps of the water supply center..
When feeding from a well, the reason may be a large depth of the aquifer and, at the same time, an insignificant diameter of the supply pipeline. It would seem that submersible pumps according to the passport should give a rise of 50-70 meters, which means that at the entrance to the pipeline they give a pressure of 5-7 atmospheres.
But the trick is that this pressure goes not only to the rise of water, but also to overcome the hydraulic resistance of the pipeline. Even a simple straight pipe with a length of 50 meters and an inner diameter of 20 mm with a submersible pump capacity of 1000 l / h “steals” 0.33 atmospheres of pressure.
And taking into account the fact that the pipelines are not straight, that there are valves, taps, T-shaped joints, local narrowings and expansions – the remainder of the pressure at the point of water consumption can be low.
- 2. There is little water in the water supply source
This happens when the public water supply is long, but insufficient in diameter. This happens if the main part was built with the expectation of a small settlement, and then it expanded significantly.
The operating time of the line also affects. Old pipes are overgrown with mineral deposits from the inside, so the actual cross-section for water passage may be insignificant, despite the external solidity of the pipeline.
Oblique filter clogged
Usually it is installed in front of a calculating device (meter) of consumed water. People call this device for water filtration “mud collector”. Sand, rust particles and other debris can get into it. Sometimes it needs to be cleaned of clogging and rinsed under water..
A highly specialized device is mounted in the drain – a filter mesh. If it is clogged with debris, then this is also an important reason why the stream of water at the tap is significantly reduced. To correct the situation, it is enough to unscrew the mesh, clean it from debris.
If all neighbors living on one riser of a high-rise building have a weak stream of water, while others do not have such a problem, then the source lies in the common water supply system.
The power supplied at the service pumping mini-station is also important. The power of the pressure supplied to the pipeline of houses depends on it..
What can cause a drop in pressure?
Before proceeding with further actions, it is necessary to establish the source of the problems, since it will not work to create water pressure in a private house without determining the reasons for such an unpleasant phenomenon. The work may not bring results at all. Most often, a drop in pressure is provoked:
- Blockages. This happens if the pumping station is underground. Such systems are often clogged with clay, silt, sand, etc. The pump becomes ineffective as it is difficult for it to pump a large volume of liquid. The result is a decrease in pressure. Suspensions in the liquid itself are also unsafe: sooner or later they clog the cleaning filters.
- Equipment breakdown. If it is used for a long time, then the failure of some parts, components of the system, problems with joints are only a matter of time. Hydraulic loss causes damage to the rubber piston, impeller. When the system becomes dirty, it can automatically switch from high pressure to low pressure..
- Potential leaks. Deep water pipes can be easily damaged for several reasons. This is depressurization, corrosive processes that are almost inevitable for metal products in daily contact with liquid and soil. An elementary pipe break is possible (for example, plastic).
- Changing the quality of the source. Each well or well has its own service life. The source, located on the sand, is threatened with siltation. If the owners did not take the necessary cleaning measures in time, the pump has to pump large volumes of water, but due to equipment blockages, the pressure constantly drops.
- Insufficient voltage in the mains. If it does not correspond to the parameter specified in the pump passport, the unit will not be able to guarantee the necessary head for ideal system operation. In this case, a voltage regulator is needed. Another option is to purchase more powerful equipment.
The fault may lie on faulty valves. Deposits inside pipes, hoses, mixers are another cause of pressure drop. The clearance decreases over time, and such a water supply system is no longer able to guarantee the normal pressure of the liquid.
How to correctly diagnose?
The answer to the question of how to create water pressure in a private house will depend on the source of the problem. However, the main difficulty lies in the fact that you need to know exactly what caused the pressure problems. Since all systems have a pressure gauge, a malfunction is indicated by a change in its readings..
In country houses where a pumping station operates, the most common cause is clogged filters. Therefore, the first necessary step is checking the operation of the pumping station, cleaning or replacing the filtration system. Inspection of additional filters installed on all devices associated with the pipeline is also included in this initial test..
Sometimes such large-scale works can be avoided. If the owners noticed insufficient pressure only on some specific device, and there are no problems with other equipment, then the reason lies in the filters that are installed at the outlet. Elements for fine cleaning are rinsed under a tap. Filters for coarse are disassembled, then the cartridge is changed. Another common cause of head drop is local leakage..
If no malfunctions were found in the operation of the station, and the filters are clean, then the water supply itself, the state of its elements, may be suspect. To quickly find a problem area, it is better to install pressure gauges in each of its areas inside the house. In this case, it will be easy and quick to find the source of the malfunction. The alternative is a portable device that allows you to easily test all pipe attachment points.
Why the pumping station often turns on and off?
Every owner of a private suburban home should know how the water supply system to his house works in general. This is especially true for those who use equipment for the forced supply of water to the home from the well. During the operation of the equipment, it happens that the pumping station is often turned on and off, and therefore you need to know the reasons for this, as well as how to eliminate them..
How to choose a pumping station?
When choosing the best option for the unit, you should pay attention to the following criteria:
- The volume in the accumulator must meet the stated requirements.
- The material from which the case is made must be strong and reliable.
- The pump power must provide a good water pressure in the water supply system.
What does the pumping station consist of??
An important element for the normal functioning of any pumping station is pressure. Before you find out what are the reasons that affect the pressure, it is worth figuring out which elements the apparatus consists of:
- Pressure switch.
- Pressure gauge.
Automation and safety equipment
To understand how to quickly diagnose and eliminate malfunctions, you need to know about the pumping station controls and how it works..
- The reasons for pump failure include dirt and mechanical suspensions. Therefore, a coarse filter must be installed on the supply pipe..
- To avoid a problem when the station does not pump water, it is necessary to mount a return valve on the supply pipe. It will prevent water from going back into the well and will prevent air from entering the working circuit..
- The pressure gauge is the main device for monitoring the operation of the station and the state of the water supply network. Installed on the outlet pipe, it displays pressure and allows instant evaluation.
- The pressure parameters are adjusted by the corresponding relay. It is included in the list of components of the accumulator and is responsible for turning on and off the supercharger engine.
Everything works quite simply. At the initial start-up, the pump pumps water into the accumulator. Inside it is a membrane, a rubber bulb. Filling with water and expanding, it compresses the air in the container. The sensor monitors the rising pressure. When the set level is reached, the relay switches off the pump. At the same time, the pressure gauge shows the pressure that has been reached in the water supply system. When a faucet is opened inside the house, water enters the network, being taken from the accumulator pear. When the pressure drops below the set limit, the relay activates the pump and the cycle repeats.
Unit operation for fluid supply
Why does the pump pump turn on often? The most common reason is that the appliance is not supplied with enough electricity. It is for this reason that he cannot gain enough pressure, and therefore will always turn on / off..
With regard to mechanics, it is worth noting that all parts can wear out over time, and therefore will require replacement. Also, the unit can be started without automation, and then look at the pressure of the liquid stream visually. If this does not work out, then the pressure is measured already in the system itself when it is forcibly turned on using a pressure gauge. It must be remembered that all working units cannot be repaired, and therefore, if they fail, they will require replacement..
In the mechanical part of the water supply equipment, there are nozzles for the supply and intake of liquid. If they are used for a long time in a dirty environment, they can become clogged with dirt. In this case, you will need to clean the pipes using handy tools. As a result, the fact that the pump often does not work will stop..
Electrical parts of the equipment should be checked and repaired without fail, as well as replace parts only when the power is off..
The main problem may be in the box where the terminals are located. After prolonged operation, the contacts there may become dirty, and therefore will not conduct electricity well enough through them. You will need to clean the contacts with a file or sandpaper. In this way, this malfunction can be eliminated.
It is also worth paying attention to the fact that if voltage drops in the network often occur in the house, then the pumping station will not work correctly. Such moments should be eliminated. To do this, you can, for example, connect a voltage stabilizer. This will help not only to establish the operation of the station, but also save other devices from voltage surges in the network..
Working with a pressure accumulator
When the pumping station is often turned on, the accumulator can wear out faster. As a result, pressure will drop in the system and water will leak. How can such an element be checked? This can be done without even disassembling the container itself. Here you need to press the nipple-valve, which is on the barrel itself, where the air damper is located. When, after pressing, air without moisture comes out from it, then everything is in order with the battery. When moisture begins to flow, then such a unit will need to be changed. Here, of course, you can only change the membrane itself, but experts say that it is worth replacing the entire tank.
The correct operation of the equipment itself and a good amount of atmospheres inside are considered inseparable. Sometimes the reason that the pump will often turn off / turn on is a regular fluid leak from the pipeline. This problem is often difficult to identify, but you can.
Here it will be necessary to divide the pipeline into certain parts, into each of which liquid is poured and checked for leaks. This must be done with the supply of a certain amount of air. When the atmosphere in the pipe section does not change for ten minutes and no leaks are visible, then this element of the pipeline is in order. Such manipulations will have to be carried out until the place of leakage from it is revealed..
How to change the membrane?
Of course, the first rule is to empty the containers (if any) next to the accumulator and shut off all inlets and outlets for water in the accumulator, having previously “bleed” the pressure to zero.
Then you need to press the spool at the back and release the air from the rear compartment of the tank.
Then the fun begins: it is necessary to unscrew the 6 bolts securing the flange to the accumulator. As a rule, access to one or more nuts is closed by a pressure gauge and a pressure switch. You can slightly turn the splitter by hand, which is attached directly to the tank flange, without unscrewing it entirely (otherwise you will have to rewind the FUM tape on the thread.
Usually, in the factory configuration of accumulators, the flange is made of galvanized iron and begins to corrode quite quickly. In this case, it is better to change the flange to a plastic one (these are often sold in hardware stores), so that you can then forget about it once and for all..
So, substituting the containers, we take out the old “pear” and empty it. If a gap is visible on it, then it is also worth draining the water that has got into the metal tank itself..
What pressure should be in the expansion tank of the pumping station?
The pressure in the receiver must not be greater than the upper limit of the liquid pressure level. Otherwise, the receiver will cease to fulfill its direct duty, namely, to fill with water and mitigate water hammer. The recommended pressure level for the expansion tank is 1.7 atmospheres.
Reasons for the lack of pressure in the pumping station
The private sector is characterized by the presence of individual sources of water supply, which means that a pumping station is a mandatory attribute in this communication. The equipment is designed for high-quality lifting of water from a well and transporting it through water supply pipes. But what if the pumping station does not build up pressure and does not supply water to the pipeline? You will have to figure it out step by step in order to find out what are the reasons for such a failure (why this is happening) and eliminate them.
Clogged inlet filter
The water of the autonomous water supply system contains a huge amount of mechanical particles (sand, silt, clay), the presence of which will lead to wear of the pump station parts. A special filter installed on the supply pipe collects all this debris, which ultimately increases the life of the system.
The constant operation of the pumping station can be associated with a break in the supply pipeline or clogging of the filter with small particles of debris. In this case, the liquid will not flow in the required volume to the pump. All that needs to be done is to clean the filter or eliminate other malfunctions, add water through a special plug, and start the pump back.
Air in the pump or air leaks
The water level can also drop in the pumping station itself. In this case, the liquid simply leaks at one of the critical points. Of course, it is difficult not to notice a puddle near a leaking tap, but water can come out of the system in other areas..
You need to be especially careful here. After examining the joints of the branch pipes near the pumping station, go to other places. Cracks found on the pipes are carefully sealed with special tape. This is only a temporary repair, in the future the damaged area will need to be replaced.
If a leak appears on the threaded connections, it is necessary to turn off the pump and add tow on the thread, if necessary, replace the rubber ring or gasket. This is especially true when using low-quality pipes, when the diameter of the rubber sealing ring is slightly larger than the diameter of the pipe. In some cases, water can flow out of the flange crack adjacent to the accumulator.
Then the part is removed, the hole is welded and installed back..
Note! It is recommended to seal threaded connections using a special thread called Tangit Unilok. Even a beginner can use such a sealant, because a small overdose of the thread will not lead to the destruction of the part when screwed onto the thread.
The cause of a leak can also be a check valve, which is installed on the supply pipeline. This attachment will not trap liquid through accumulated dirt. In this situation, the pumping station pumps water to the lower pressure level and turns on again. Constant operation of the pumping station is often observed at night, when no one was using taps or showers..
Preparing equipment for winter
The pumping station makes it possible to pump water from the well into the house. This is a collection of several devices combined into a single system. At the moment, the most popular are submersible pumps from the manufacturers Gileks and Pedrollo. They have established themselves as very high quality products. But even the devices of these companies can fail..
- Centrifugal pump. It can be both superficial and submersible. He pumps liquid into the water supply. Constantly maintains the same pressure.
- Check valve. Does not allow fluid to go back into the well if the pumping equipment is turned off.
- Storage tank. Needed to store a small amount of water in case the pump fails.
- Control block. This element regulates the pressure. Installed between the storage tank and the pump. Has a built-in pressure gauge.
The hydraulic system includes additional control devices. With their help, you can regulate the internal pressure. They allow you to fully manage the entire system. The pump is switched on and off thanks to the control unit.
The equipment must be preserved for the winter period. This will extend the service life. The whole procedure includes the following stages:
- The water station is disconnected from the electricity.
- Water is discharged from the system. It is necessary to open the shut-off valve located at the lowest point..
- Disconnect the hose intended for water intake.
- Disconnected pressure pipe.
- The air pressure in the storage tank is monitored. It must be at 1.5 bar or higher.
- The remaining water is drained from the system.
- If possible, it is necessary to drain all the remaining liquid from the pumping device..
- All components must be folded in a place where they will not freeze.
In the third stage, water can flow out of the device. The pumping system is assembled in the reverse order..
Ejector or gasket problems
While conventional suction pumps can draw water from a maximum depth of 8.9 meters, a pumping station with an external ejector serves to supply liquid from great depths (up to 45 meters). In this case, two pumps are used for water supply, while the efficiency of the pumping station increases by 30-35%.
Ejector malfunctions are considered a more serious problem than surface instrumentation failure. After replacing the failed parts and cleaning the ejector from sand and other harmful impurities, cleaning the nozzle from dirt, it is lowered back into the well.
If the electrics and hoses are working properly
Now let’s say that the hose system is not damaged and is working properly. But if the question of why the pump does not pump water from the well is still relevant for you, then this can only mean one thing: the reason must be looked for in the pump itself.
First check the filter and valve for clogging. The problem in most cases is in these places. It is enough to thoroughly clean the named elements or replace them with new ones, as the problem will be eliminated by itself. The second unit that needs to be checked is protection against “dry” operation.
The sensor could simply burn out, which caused the operation of the electric motor in an anhydrous environment. This mode of operation can lead to rapid overheating of the engine and its complete failure. It is better to replace the water level sensor and protection against “dry” operation; repairs are highly undesirable here..
Continuous pump operation is often caused by wear on parts. There is a special impeller inside the power unit, which can be destroyed under the influence of sand or other abrasive particles..
Note! In some pump models, the impeller is made of plastic, but it will be better if this part is made of metal.
As we have said, the material of the impeller is destroyed by the influence of sand. The penetration of abrasive particles into the system is the fault of the well driller, who incorrectly selected the mesh for capturing sand or the lack of a filter at the entrance to the pumping station. The fact is that abrasive particles have different sizes, some of them can be sucked from the water intake horizon together with the total fluid flow..
The composition of the pumping station equipment+
If you want to quickly determine the causes of possible malfunctions of pumping equipment, you need to know its design and principle of operation. So, the most widespread models of pumping stations consist of the following main components. And the ownership of its own water supply system imposes on the owner the obligation to maintain the equipment. If the pumping station does not work, the reasons may be different. So, any responsible homeowner must know how to repair a pumping station with his own hands..
Pumping device. It can operate on various principles (for example, vortex or centrifugal pumps), be located on the surface of the earth, or submerged directly into a well. Such pumps have different capacities, which should fully meet all the needs of the residents of the house. Such devices wear out from continuous operation, therefore, to maintain constant pressure in the water supply system, additional nodes and devices are used, described below..
The relay fitting is clogged
The pumping station motor may not be switched off through a malfunctioning relay. The initial settings of the automation may go astray after the water level in the well or well decreases, after which a certain volume of air will enter the suction line. In this case, it is necessary to move the suction pipe, slightly below the original level, pour water into the system and start the pump.
In addition, the relay itself may be the cause of the breakdown of the station. The motor will not turn on or will work constantly due to damage to the spring, which is used to regulate the operation of the groups of contacts that turn on and off the pump. The spring can rust and stop performing its functions, and the contacts can simply close. During the disassembly of the relay, provided it is correctly configured, it is necessary to clean the contacts, if necessary, replace the spring with a piece of hairpin.
The pressure is adjusted by turning the special nuts in the right direction. Excess or decrease in pressure is carried out according to the symbols on the device “+” or “-“. Clogged fitting also leads to incorrect operation of the relay. In the latter case, it is necessary to remove the device and thoroughly clean the inlet from accumulated dirt..
If the pumping station is often turned on or other unusual symptoms for the normal operation of the equipment are noticeable, you need to find and eliminate the cause of possible malfunctions. A timely corrected problem will prevent the occurrence of more serious breakdowns or a complete exit of the device from an operational state with the need to replace important components. In the article, we will consider the device of pumping stations, frequently occurring malfunctions and the best ways to eliminate them..
Failures in the heating module
Permanent shutdowns of the pumping station can sometimes be associated with insufficient power supply. Due to the reduced power, malfunctions begin in the electronics or in the mechanical parts. Identifying the problem:
- Blockages in the pipes. They can form in both the inlet and outlet. Eliminated by rough cleaning.
- Oxidation of terminal blocks. Stripping is required with preliminary disconnection of the equipment from the mains.
- Unstable voltage in the electrical network. Eliminated by connecting a stabilizer.
During a visual inspection, worn-out elements of the device may be found. Such parts and assemblies must be replaced. Also, a very common reason for turning off and turning on plumbing equipment is a malfunction of the storage tank..
The same occurs when the membrane or pear is worn out. If the problem is not corrected in time, the entire system may fail..
- It is necessary to press the valve. It is located in a storage tank.
- If the air discharge has begun, then this means that everything is in order with the tank. Water leakage indicates a violation of the integrity of the pear or membrane.
Such a breakdown belongs to the category of uncomplicated ones. It can be corrected by replacing the pear. If the damage is severe, you will have to completely replace the storage tank..
Other origin of breakdowns
If the problems in the operation of the device are in no way connected with the station itself, then it is necessary to carry out a thorough revision of the water supply system. It happens that the reason lies in it. Frequent activation of the pump can occur due to the following factors:
- Depressurization of the water supply system. This provokes the occurrence of leaks and a decrease in intrasystem pressure..
- Blockage. The throughput in this case is greatly reduced..
- Lowering the water level in the well.
Continuous pump starts can occur due to a blocked check valve or the presence of a foreign object in the pipe. In this situation, you will have to completely disassemble and flush the fittings of the water supply system. If the valve is out of order, then it must be replaced..
The importance of the pressure rating at the workstation
So, the main actor “person” in the work of the water supply station is the pump itself
For those who do not quite understand why it is so important that pump-type water equipment gains a certain pressure, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the principle of operation of the station and its structure. Thanks to this knowledge, it will be much easier to carry out repair work and eliminate the causes of possible breakdown on your own..
So, the main actor in the work of the water supply station is the pump itself. It is he who is designed to raise water and supply it to the system. But the pump is a powerful unit, but quite sensitive. Its operation is based on constant engine switching on / off, which can adversely affect the service life of the mechanism. That is, the pump will fail faster due to engine burnout. To prevent this from happening, a lot of people equip the pump with a hydraulic tank, and this is already a water station.
The hydraulic tank (also called a hydraulic accumulator) is already responsible for the pressure in the system, creates its specified limits and controls the operation of the pump. In addition, it acts as a storage tank for water. That is, first the pump pumps water into the tank. After that, water is supplied to the pipes when the taps are opened from the reservoir. The pump is resting at this time. As soon as the pressure in the tank drops (namely, the water runs out), the pressure switch is triggered, which activates the pump. Water is taken from the well until the accumulator is completely filled. The cycle repeats over and over again. And if the pump does not turn off, then there is no required pressure in the system. Need to find out why.
Reasons for station malfunction
But it happens that the water station for water supply does not turn off
But it so happens that the water station for water supply does not turn off. That is, water simply enters the tank, but there is no upper pressure. Accordingly, the pump does not turn off. It is not only possible to deal with such a situation with your own hands, but it is also necessary. And for this we will consider the main reasons for the breakdown (why this happens):
- Pump motor power too low. Here, either the required capacity of the equipment was initially incorrectly calculated, or during the operation of the water supply system, changes were made in communications. For example, a water mirror went down or the configuration of the pipeline at the site was changed.
Important: to determine the pump power, always before buying, you need to take into account the depth of the water mirror in the well, the diameter of the pipes, the number of people living in the house and the purpose for which the water will be consumed. When buying, it is advisable to choose pump models whose engine power slightly exceeds the required.
- Insufficient voltage in the network. This situation is especially common in villages far from the city. In this case, the pump simply cannot develop the pressure indicated in the passport. This means that the pressure in the system will not rise. That is, the unit seems to be working, it seems to pump water, but it does not turn off. It is worth checking the output voltage in the network and the engine power according to the passport. For example, the pump motor is designed for a voltage of 220, and only 205 watts are supplied to the network. Accordingly, the unit does not pump water at a given pressure and from this does not contribute to the rise in pressure in the system. Either installing a good stabilizer will help here, or changing the pump to a more powerful model.
- Incorrectly set pressure switch. This small element controls the operation of the water station, regulating the lower and upper pressure limits in the tank. Most likely, the upper limit is set incorrectly. In order to lower the P2 (upper pressure) threshold, you need to slightly unscrew the nut of the smaller spring. The indicator will decrease, and the station will turn off in time.
Important: the large spring nut simply lowers the reading of both pressure limits while maintaining the range between them..
- Perhaps. that the reason for the uninterrupted operation of the water supply station is the wear of the pump mechanism parts. This option is especially relevant for centrifugal pumps. Since the impeller of such units works at high speed, passing water through itself, then fine particles of sand and other inclusions in the water also pass through the impeller blades. At this point, they work on the principle of sandpaper, abrading the pump elements. Accordingly, the pumping mechanism of the water station gets loose and breaks down. That is, the pump works, but does not supply water in the specified volumes to the hydraulic tank. Accordingly, there is no upper pressure threshold in the accumulator. In this case, you will either have to replace the entire pressure wheel in the pump, or buy a new unit. And to prevent this from happening, it is better to buy pumping equipment with a special filter insert in the working chamber. Especially if the water contains sand or clay impurities.
- Leaking pipeline.
This reason for the malfunction of the water station is one of the most common. Moreover, the place is more often a latent leak. That is, the pump works, pumping water, and does not supply it to the hydraulic tank in full. Somewhere water is leaking from the system. It is from this that there is no required upper pressure limit in the hydraulic tank. To identify the problem, it is necessary to carefully inspect the water supply network, starting from the borehole water supply pipe to the hydraulic tank itself. If even the slightest drop is found, the section of the pipeline must be replaced. If a leak is found in the place of the threaded connection, it is necessary to strengthen the seal in this place. A good solution is the Tangit Unilok sanitary seal. Even in the case of “busting” of the material, it gives high-quality shrinkage and does not damage the thread.
- Leaking check valve. Here, the water simply flows back into the water supply system, preventing the pump from reaching the P2 mark. That is, there is no upper required pressure in the water supply system, and the pump does not turn off. A clear sign of such a malfunction is the spontaneous activation of the pump at night, when no one is using the water station. As a rule, a check valve fails due to dirt accumulated in it. You need to either clean (flush) the non-return valve, or completely replace it.
- A burst of elastic element in the accumulator. That is, the rupture of the membrane responsible for filling the tank and adjusting the pressure in the water supply system. In this case, the pump works, almost reaching the upper pressure mark, and immediately turns off. But as soon as you open the water in the tap, the water supply station works again. In this case, it is necessary to check the spool through which air is supplied to the accumulator. It is enough to press on its pin and observe it. If water begins to come out through it, then the tank membrane is torn and you need to change it. Or change the entire accumulator. If it is dry near the spool when pressing the pin, you should pay attention to the air pressure in the tank. Its indicator should be below the P1 mark (lower pressure) by 10% (approximately 1.5 atm.). If the indicator is lower, then you can simply pump air using a simple pump..
Pressure in pumping stations – for an expansion tank – 1.7 At
A pumping station is a unit that supplies water to houses or dachas in an autonomous mode. Despite the fact that such units are rather complicated, their principle of operation is quite simple – the pump sucks in water from the source and pumps it into a specially designed reservoir. A sensor is installed in the tank that monitors the liquid level. If the level decreases, the sensor gives a signal and the station turns on. Otherwise, the pumping station must shut down..
Engine hums but pump won’t start
When the station is idle for a long time, its owner may face a situation when, when turned on, the pump hums, but does not pump. The reason is the sticking of the turbine impeller, its sticking to the casing. The problem is resolved as follows.
- The station is disconnected from the mains, it is necessary to shut off the inlet and outlet pipes.
- With the help of a drain, it is necessary to drain the water from the supply system..
- Partial disassembly of the pumping station.
- The impeller is manually rotated or removed.
- It is recommended to remove the impeller from the pumping station in order to thoroughly clean the inner surfaces of the housing and the part itself..
Advice! After a long downtime, they may lose their properties and other functional elements. If you have already had to disassemble the station, it is recommended to check if the oil seal, parts of the sealing system need to be replaced.
Low pump power
Before purchasing a water station, it is necessary to calculate the required pump power, taking into account the depth of the well, the volume of water used and the design features of the water supply system. But even this cannot save from the fact that one day the power of the unit will begin to decline..
Insufficient capacity of the pumping unit may be due to the following reasons:
- Wear of structural parts. The most common cause of the problem is the imbalance of parts: sand grains and small dirt accumulate between the pump shafts, which loosen the elements of the unit and prevent it from operating at full capacity. The simplest solution to the problem is to install purification filters at the water inlet. The second possible reason is the deformation of the rubber valve. In this case, it is recommended to completely replace the part, since even after repair, the valve will not allow the pump to develop the required power..
- Lowering the water level in the well. The most rational, albeit costly, way to solve the problem is to purchase a deep-well pump.
Advice. When buying a pump, choose a model with a power reserve in case you need to lay additional pipes or install new household appliances that use water during the operation of the water station.
The pumping station is jerky, does not hold pressure
With frequent turning on and off of the pump (it works in jerks), as well as when the station does not hold pressure, it is worth looking for the source of the problem in the accumulator unit and pipelines. There may be several reasons:
- violation of sealing;
- low air pressure in the accumulator housing;
- water leaving the system through a non-return valve;
- leaks when the rubber element is damaged.
The last problem on the list is the easiest to diagnose. If, when the spool or nipple outlet of the pressure control on the accumulator is weakened, water comes out of it, and not air, then it is necessary to change the bulb. With long-term operation, rubber (including due to the chemical composition of water and impurities in it) loses its flexibility and may crack
How exactly the replacement of a pear is done, it is worth learning from the documentation for a specific model of a hydraulic accumulator. Individual manufacturers can use different sealing systems, provide for a unique installation scheme of elements and membrane design..
Advice! Before such a repair, you need to purchase or order a pear for a specific model of a hydraulic tank..
Check valve malfunction
Another reason for the drop in pressure and the operation of the station in jerks is the violation of the functions of the check valve installed on the supply pipe. This unit needs to be cleaned, check its performance. If it is impossible to repair, you need to make a replacement, then re-carry out all the commissioning work for the station.
Leaks and leaks
The last reason for jerking is leaks and leaks. To make sure there are no water leaks, check all the connections of the inlet and outlet pipes. If no flaws are found, then the problem is in the accumulator and air leakage. Checking the tightness of the case is carried out as follows:
- a soap solution is diluted;
- a soap emulsion is applied to problematic points of the structure (welding lines of installation elements, to places with scuffs, traces of corrosion);
- leak points are determined.
Advice! It is recommended to eliminate leakage points with a welding machine. However, if we consider that such a do-it-yourself repair of a pumping station requires special equipment and skills, the holes found can be closed with a composition of the “cold welding” type.
The pump does not build up pressure or does not automatically shut off
Problems of pressure mismatch with the set parameters and the lack of shutdown are always associated with the operation of the hydraulic tank control relay. Salts are deposited on the elements of this node, its contact groups can oxidize over time.
If the pump does not gain pressure, but turns off automatically, the relay can be overridden without having the skills to disassemble and clean the contacts. This is done by enumerating the position of the regulator and monitoring the pressure indicators according to the pressure gauge installed at the outlet of the station. In the case when the blower does not turn off for a long time, it is recommended to replace the relay. If this is not possible, the station must be disconnected from the network, the control unit must be partially disassembled and all elements of the sensor structure must be thoroughly cleaned. It is recommended to pay particular attention to traces of corrosion. You can get rid of them with the help of special tools..
Important! It is highly undesirable to operate a station that does not turn off automatically. This can lead to a very early failure of its functional elements or rapid breakdown of the pump engine, turbine parts.
Ejector problems may be the reason why pressure drops or the pump is frequently turned on in surface-blower systems that raise water from deep within. This unit has a plastic diffuser, which is extremely negatively affected by impurities in the water. If it breaks down, the ejector does not pump water, and the pump cannot independently cope with the task. To check the condition of the diffuser and other elements, the entire assembly must be disassembled. Repair is limited to replacing broken parts or thorough cleaning and reassembly.
The station does not pump water
The reason that the station stopped pumping water may be its banal absence in the supply pipe. The first step is to check if the intake hose is immersed in the fluid source. The condition of the filter at its end is also assessed..
If everything is in order, check the condition of the check valve. Due to accumulated dirt, this unit may not open and block the access of water to the station system. The minimum repair of the check valve is to disassemble and thoroughly clean it. If individual structural elements are deformed or damaged, the unit must be replaced as a whole..
The most difficult and troublesome breakdown is pumping. The impeller and casing wear out during operation under the abrasive action of mechanical impurities in the water. At the same time, the maximum supply pressure drops, and at some critical wear indicators, the pump stops pumping water.
Inspect the impeller, measure the gap between it and the casing, assess the degree of wear only after disassembling the pump. If, during such an inspection, an excess of the permissible parameters (given in the passport to the device) is found, the damaged parts of the mechanism should be replaced..
In the most difficult cases, you will have to change the case, which, with certain pump designs, can be a big problem that requires skills, knowledge, and money to eliminate.
The problem of overpressure also occurs, but quite rarely. Most often it is not enough, and this issue is solved in several ways. Here are two of the most popular.
What are the failures
External malfunctions of the pump.
- A decrease in the liquid level in a hydraulic structure, in this case, the unit at first pumps water poorly, and soon ceases to perform its function, it runs idle. At the same time, the wear of the device increases, it quickly fails, since the possibility of dry operation is not provided.
- Insufficiently large depth of the hydraulic structure (up to 8 m), this becomes the cause of breakdown if the level of groundwater decreases. With small well sizes, such changes are more noticeable..
- If it is planned to install a pumping station on the site, it is possible to install a filter element. It is located at the inlet of the system – it is attached to the supply pipe at the bottom of the hydraulic structure and is constantly in contact with contaminants (sand, lime, substances contained in water). If you do not clean the filter, water will stop rising..
The power of the electric motor turned out to be insufficient
If the force of the created water pressure was initially small, it is highly likely that the technique was chosen incorrectly due to an erroneous calculation of its power. As a result, the pumping station becomes ineffective: water is often absent or is supplied intermittently.
When calculating the power of the device, a margin is always made (10-15%), which will compensate for errors and the impact of negative factors during operation. If these nuances have not been taken into account, the unit works at the limit of its capabilities: it often turns on and off or operates continuously, which leads to rapid wear and tear and malfunctions. In the best case, the device needs to be repaired, and in the worst case, it fails..
The power of the pump electric motor may be insufficient even if the unit is operated for a long time. This happens when the configuration of the pipeline changes: its length or diameter increases, the direction changes due to the transfer of some plumbing fixtures, the restructuring of the object and its redevelopment.
Another reason for the pressure drop against the background of the low power of the device is the increase in the depth of the well. Each type of pump is designed to operate under specified conditions. If the initial data changes, you should choose a different version of the unit.
The elements of the pump delivery mechanism are worn out
Depending on the type of device, different components may fail: the impeller, the diaphragm. These structural elements often operate at high speeds, which means they are exposed to high loads, which leads to rapid wear. If sandy water rises from the bottom of the well or other contaminants are present in it, this can accelerate the abrasion of parts..
With a weakening of the pressure force for no apparent reason (the water level in the well is normal, the power is sufficient, voltage drops in the network are not observed), it can be assumed that the pump will fail. If the pump is cheap, then it is often impractical to repair it, since its cost can be high.
When it is not possible to replace elements that have undergone wear, it is better to purchase a new unit.
The pipeline is leaking
The pipeline is leaking.
- communication defect;
- exceeding the permissible pressure in the pipes, for example, if they are of a small section, and the pump is powerful;
- if a leak has formed in the area of the threaded connection, it is possible that the reason is a lack of sealing material;
- check valve clogging preventing it from closing.
The elastic element in the accumulator burst, or the air pressure in it was too low
In this case, the accumulator does not provide a sufficient pressure level. The pump is turned on when the plumbing fixture is in use on site. If water appears when the hydraulic tank spool is pressed, it means that the membrane needs to be replaced. If this structural element is working properly, check the air pressure, it should be at least 1.5 atm. If necessary, the pressure is increased by means of a simple pump.
Classification of accumulators for water supply systems
The known designs of the considered devices are distinguished by the following indicators:
- By capacity.
Hydroaccumulators are produced in small (up to 40 … 50 liters), medium (up to 120 … 150 liters) and huge (up to 400 liters) volumes. Extreme in domestic water supply networks are rarely used;
- By layout. A distinction is made between devices installed vertically and horizontally. One layout has no obvious advantages over another. For example, vertical accumulators occupy less installation area, but they are somewhat more time consuming in the current routine maintenance;
- On the hull. Devices with a stainless steel body are produced, but there are also the cheapest designs, where the body is made of ordinary steel with the following enamel coating;
- By the method of bleeding air for repeated adjustments of pressure in the body: it can be a special valve, or an ordinary tap (the latter option is provided in accumulators that are designed for small volumes of water);
All components of the structure must have a certificate of hygienic compliance and have reliable corrosion protection.
When choosing the size of the accumulator, the following is taken into account:
- Maximum daily drinking water requirement.
Since this parameter is also influenced by the ability of the pump supplying water, it is purposeful to select these elements of the arrangement of the home water supply system at the same time.
- The desired water pressure in the network, on which the volume of the device will depend, as well as the strength properties of the case. For example, in cheap accumulators, they traditionally do not exceed 2 atm, which can be dangerous for some situations..
- From the type of pump – submersible or surface. In the first case, the accumulator must be installed specifically at the pump outlet in order to prevent it from being turned on / off unnecessarily. For surface pumps that pump water into the filling tank, the accumulator is mounted next to it.
Moreover, the higher the device is placed, the smallest volume it can be. For surface pumps, the volume of the tank can be taken as the smallest than for submersible.
- From the presence or absence of a check valve in the domestic water supply system. If there is no such valve, then the accumulator will have to be installed before the branching of the water supply circuit, and by all means be supplied with a pressure gauge.
- The highest permissible switching frequency (for submersible pumps), which does not have to be more than 25 … 30 per hour.
Accumulator installation process
Before installation, you should find out what pressure in the accumulator must be.
Typical manufacturing pressure is 1.5 bar. In personal variants (for example, in case of a leak), this parameter is miniaturized. To determine the pressure in the system, a pressure gauge and a spool are used..
Important! If the hydraulic tank is installed for domestic needs, a pressure of 1 atm will be completely normal. If the pressure gauge indicates a mark of 1.5 atm, this is also the norm.
It should be borne in mind that the larger the air supply, the less water.
It is not recommended to set the pressure below or above the critical values, since a very low pressure will lead to contact of the membrane with the walls, which will entail rapid wear, and the highest will become an obstacle to filling the pear with water in the required volume.
An example of setting up a pressure switch in the video:
Step by step actions
We offer instructions in pictures that will help you figure out how to set up a mechanical relay:
Note: The relay must be configured in a fully assembled and running system..
Having previously de-energized the device, and having unscrewed only one screw with a screwdriver, you need to remove the relay cover.
A large spring, by changing the pump activation pressure, is responsible for displacing the entire operating range. A small spring, by changing the shutdown pressure, changes the operating range up or down.
The factory setting of such a relay most often corresponds to 1.4 / 2.8 atm. Let’s say you need to shift the range upwards by setting 2/3 atm. To adjust the cut-in pressure, turn the nut on the large spring clockwise a couple of turns clockwise. Use a socket or open-end wrench.
Before carrying out this procedure, you must relieve the pressure in the system by unscrewing any valve and waiting for the pump to turn on. If at this moment the pressure gauge shows 2 atmospheres, it means that you have succeeded.
If the figure on the pressure gauge display is less than necessary, you will have to tighten the nut of the large spring a little more. At a higher value, the nuts must be slightly loosened. After each displacement of the nut, the entire pressure release procedure must be repeated..
The switch-on pressure is set. Now our task is to reduce the difference between it and the upper limit, since in the factory setting of the device it was 1.5 atm., And we need to make it so that it was 1 atm. To achieve this, it is necessary to loosen the nut on the small spring. Start with one full turn.
To make sure that the setting is correct, perform the same manipulation with the opening of the tap. Only now the pressure gauge should be taken not at the moment the pump is turned on, but at the moment it is turned off after the tap is closed. According to the parameter given as an example, the arrow should indicate 3 atmospheres. Having achieved the desired indicators of the pressure gauge, put the relay cover in place and you can connect the pump to the network.
Hydraulic tank for station and heating system
The trouble-free operation of any system is ensured by a rubber bulb – a membrane. The extreme is constantly exposed to the pressure of air and water. When any of the pressures falls, the membrane deforms, and the service life is significantly reduced.
To prevent the formation of air congestion in the structures, special devices are used..
The technology for removing excess accumulations is used in the accumulator 100. What pressure must be in any of their tanks, the manufacturer describes.
To calculate the usual pressure in a pumping station, you can use the formula:
where Rathm is a small permissible value of pressure in the tank;
If the pressure is not built up or held
When the pump is turned on, it starts to work without stopping, since it cannot “catch up” the pressure in the system to the set maximum level. This happens quite often and for various reasons, many of which can be easily eliminated by hand..
Not enough pump power
One of the main reasons why the pumping station does not pump pressure is the discrepancy between the pump characteristics and the specified operating conditions, which include:
- The required volume of water supply;
- Delivery height to the level of the location of the water-folding devices;
- Diameter and length of the pipeline, etc..
In other words, the power of the device may simply not be enough to raise water to a given height, to overcome resistance in pipes in horizontal sections. This means that you initially did not take into account all the initial data and purchased a low-power station.
The situation can be corrected only by purchasing a new pump or reducing the maximum set pressure to the level that it can provide..
Note. If the problem appeared after a long period of normal operation, then it is associated with wear of the pump parts and a drop in its performance compared to the specified initial characteristics. Repairing the device or replacing it with a new one will help to solve it..
Air has entered the pipe
This happens with surface-type pumping stations..
Air can enter the suction pipe:
- If the tightness of the connection between the pipe and the pump is broken;
- When the pipe itself is depressurized (the appearance of cracks and fistulas);
The most common cause of pipe rupture is freezing of water in them.
- With a strong decrease in the water level in the source, when the check valve is above this level.
Everything is clear here, you hardly need instructions on how to troubleshoot these problems..
Water leaks from the system
Water leakage can occur anywhere in the system:
- From a crane left unclosed or torn off;
- Through a faulty toilet bowl drain;
- Through a rupture in the discharge or suction pipeline;
- Through poor-quality pipe connections with each other and equipment.
If the damage touches the part of the pipeline that is laid underground or under the floor, you may not understand for a long time why the pressure in the pumping station is dropping..
Advice. To avoid such troubles, when installing the system, it is advisable to provide easy access to it from the house, and protect the underground part from freezing by burying it well or providing electric heating..
Serious leaks do not allow the pumping station to gain the set pressure; it works continuously, making up for losses. It must be stopped forcibly in order to inspect all components and elements of the water supply system for leaks..
Leakage can occur through any of the specified connections
They are also the reason that the accumulated pressure is not maintained by the station in the absence of water flow through the distribution devices. And first of all, you should check the operation of the check valve, since it will not be possible to pump up pressure in the pumping station if it does not completely close and releases water back into the well.
This can occur due to wear, a weakening of the spring, or the ingress of solid particles into the valve, which prevents it from closing..
There is not enough voltage in the network
The voltage in the mains in the event of such problems should be measured first. Its fall is a fairly common cause of failures in the operation of pumps and pumping stations, as, indeed, of any other electrical equipment..
If this is a common occurrence in your area, there is only one way out – you need to install a voltage stabilizer. Its, frankly, a considerable price frightens many owners of private houses. But financial losses can turn out to be much higher in case of failure of complex household appliances and a pumping station that provides you with drinking water..
How to calculate the loss?
The loss of pressure in the water supply network occurs for the following reasons (blockages and rust of pipes are not considered):
- Pipe resistance in straight sections.
- Local resistance (bends, valves, etc.).
For the convenience of calculations, there are online calculators that allow you to find out the level of pressure drop in the pipeline in a matter of seconds. Also, to solve this problem, you can use special tabular data..
Calculation on straight sections
To calculate losses, you need to find out:
- water consumption;
- pipeline material, its diameter and length.
Selecting the desired value in the table and find out the value of the pressure drop.
Also, losses occur at bends and bends of the pipeline, as well as at the locations of valves and filters..
For calculations, there is a special table, in order to use it you need to find out the flow rate of water in the pipe – it is calculated as follows: the flow rate must be divided by the cross-sectional area of the pipe.
In this table, the data are indicated in centimeters of a water column, and therefore it is obvious that pressure losses at local resistances are not critical and are of fundamental importance for small networks..
Formula for calculating water pressure in a multi-storey building
Before presenting the formula for calculating the water pressure, it is necessary to clarify:
- 1 bar = 1.019 atmospheres;
- 1 bar = 10.19 meters of water column (m.w.);
- 1 atmosphere = 0.98 bar;
- 1 atmosphere = 10 m v.s.
Consider the formula based on measurements in meters of water column:
10 m.c. + (4 mx N), where:
– 10 m h.c. – this is the minimum pressure supplied to 1 MKD;
– 4 m – accepted floor height;
– N – the number of floors of the MKD.
Let’s calculate, for example, the pressure with which water should be supplied to a 9-storey building:
10 + (4 x 9) = 46 (meters of water), which is approximately 4.6 atmospheres.
Hydrostatic pressure force
Let us select a certain volume in a liquid in equilibrium, then we dissect it by an arbitrary plane AB into two parts and mentally discard one of these parts, for example, the upper one. In this case, we must apply forces to the plane AB, the action of which will be equivalent to the action of the rejected upper part of the volume on its remaining lower part.
Let us consider in the plane of section AB a closed contour with area ΔF, which includes some arbitrary point a. Let the force ΔP act on this area.
Then the hydrostatic pressure whose formula looks like
Рср = ΔP / ΔF
represents the force acting per unit area, will be called the mean hydrostatic pressure or the mean stress of the hydrostatic pressure over the area ΔF.
The true pressure at different points of this area can be different: at some points it can be higher, at others it can be lower than the average hydrostatic pressure. Obviously, in the general case, the average pressure Pav will differ less from the true pressure at point a, the smaller the area ΔF, and in the limit the average pressure will coincide with the true pressure at point a.
For liquids in equilibrium, the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid is similar to the compressive stress in solids.
The SI unit of pressure is the newton per square meter (N / m2) – it is called pascal (Pa). Since the pascal value is very small, enlarged units are often used:
kilonewton per square meter – 1kN / m2 = 1 * 103 N / m2
meganewton per square meter – 1MN / m2 = 1 * 106 N / m2
A pressure equal to 1 * 105 N / m2 is called bar (bar).
In the physical system, the unit of intent for pressure is dyne per square centimeter (dyne / m2), in the technical system – kilogram-force per square meter (kgf / m2). In practice, the pressure of a liquid is usually measured in kgf / cm2, and a pressure equal to 1 kgf / cm2 is called a technical atmosphere (at).
There is the following relationship between all these units:
1at = 1 kgf / cm2 = 0.98 bar = 0.98 * 105 Pa = 0.98 * 106din = 104 kgf / m2
It should be remembered that there is a difference between the technical atmosphere (at) and the physical atmosphere (At). 1 At = 1.033 kgf / cm2 and represents the normal pressure at sea level. Atmospheric pressure depends on the altitude of the location above sea level.
Tips on how to determine the pressure in the water supply
The pressure in the water supply can be measured with an instrument called a water pressure gauge. There is a household version for home use with an adapter for connecting to equipment, for example, to a faucet in the kitchen..
There is a method for measuring pressure without using a pressure gauge. To do this, you need a 3-liter jar and a stopwatch (or a watch with a second hand). It is necessary to open the tap at full capacity, substitute the jar and time it. After filling, you need to note the time for which the bank was filled. It will become a key indicator for determining pressure. It was experimentally and calculated that the correspondence between the filling time of the can and the pressure in the water supply was established..
Let’s take a closer look at this ratio in the table:
These indicators are very approximate, and therefore can only become the basis for calling representatives of the management company to conduct official measurements using special equipment.
Means of taking readings
Theoretical knowledge of the normative values regarding the water pressure allows you to move on to practice that gives an answer to the question of how to measure the water pressure in the tap or other water points of the apartment at home.
Method # 1 – using stationary pressure gauges
The main device for measuring pressure in water supply lines is a manometer. There are several types of devices for this purpose, which differ structurally and according to the principle of operation..
The most common type of water pressure reading instrument is a mechanical pressure gauge. It is reliable in operation, has an easy-to-read scale of values and an information dial.
Often the control of the water pressure in the apartment is limited to the readings of the device installed on the border that cut off the intra-apartment and central pipelines. However, in reality, the readings of such a manometer will not be entirely correct and accepted with some errors..
This is due to the fact that all pressure losses on the elements of the internal wiring of the apartment (filters, tees, shut-off and control valves) are not taken into account. In addition, turns and sections with a change in the cross-sections of pipelines affect the free head of water..
Therefore, the best option is to equip all inputs of water consumption points in the apartment with pressure gauges. This is quite accessible during the stages of housing construction or during repair work to replace water supply pipelines..
The absence of permanently installed devices does not deprive the consumer of the opportunity to measure the water pressure at any water point in other ways.
Method # 2 – using a portable pressure gauge
A feature of the portable measuring device is its versatility and the possibility of simple installation on pipelines and the same simple dismantling..
The use of this method allows you to measure the water pressure directly at the inlet of each plumbing fixture, which affects its pressure..
You can assemble a mobile pressure gauge with your own hands by improving the purchased factory device. To do this, you need: 1 – an ordinary water pressure gauge with a scale up to 6 bar; 2 – threaded extension; 3 – adapter from 3/8 inch gauge thread to half inch extension thread
Fum tape is used to seal threaded connections.
The most convenient connection point for measuring water pressure is a shower.
The measurement algorithm is as follows:
- The shower head is unscrewed from the hose.
- A pressure gauge is mounted on the hose.
- The shower tap opens.
- The pressure is measured.
To take correct readings of the device, it is necessary to get rid of the air lock during the measurement. It is eliminated by several switching of the mixer from tap to shower or by opening and closing another tap in the water supply system.
If there is no appropriate adapter, then instead of it, you can choose a hose with a diameter that allows you to connect it to a pressure gauge. In this case, the connection to the shower hose is made through a ½ inch threaded nipple..
The water pressure can fluctuate during the day, therefore, for the reliability of the readings, measurements are recommended to be made several times, including during the period of peak water analysis.
Method # 3 – non-device pressure determination
This method allows, with a certain degree of error, to measure the water pressure at the point of connection to plumbing fixtures without using special measuring devices..
To take measurements, you need to purchase a transparent PVC hose / tube about two meters long and with a diameter that allows you to connect it to a water tap
The experiment using a transparent PVC hose is carried out according to the following method:
- The hose is connected at one end to the parsing point, exposed and, preferably, fixed in a vertical position.
- The tap opens and the pipe is filled with water up to the mark corresponding to the bottom of the tap (zero level).
- The upper opening is hermetically sealed.
- The water tap opens to the maximum pressure.
- The height of the water column is measured from the zero level to the lower boundary of the airlock (H).
- The height of the airlock is fixed (h).
Distance measurements should not be carried out immediately, but after 1-2 minutes, after an air lock forms in the hose under the pressure of water from an open tap..
The formula for calculating the approximate value of water pressure from an open tap, when using a transparent hose as a pressure gauge, will be as follows. P = Ratm × (H + h) / h
The value of Ratm is taken as the value of atmospheric pressure in the tube before the start of the experiment – 1 atm.
How can the pressure be increased
If all the elements of the system are in good working order, but the working pressure in the water supply system is still not enough for a comfortable life or the work of a plumber, then it is necessary to understand the reasons for this situation. There can be two of them:
There is not enough water in a well or well for household needs.
There is plenty of water in the source, but the pressure in the water supply system is nevertheless low.
If there is too little water in the source
The first situation can arise as a result of various design errors. The main one is that a built source cannot provide a private house with a sufficient amount of water. This can be especially evident in the summer period, when the water level in underground sources decreases, and the demand for it increases. As a result, the water supply system is not supplied with enough water..
There are two ways to solve the problem:
Costly: Create an additional source of water used for non-essential needs, such as irrigating an area. At the same time, the main water supply remains unchanged..
More budgetary: the device of an additional storage tank in which water will accumulate in order to further compensate for the required water supply.
The size of the storage tank must be chosen based on how much water the house consumes in a day or two. It is not difficult to calculate it:
taking a bath takes 150-300 liters per person;
shower – 70-120 liters per person;
for cooking and washing dishes – up to 50 liters per family.
In order not to worry about the water consumption from the storage tank, its volume of 1-1.5 cubic meters is enough. This means that it will store up to 1.5 tons of water, which is quite enough for a family of 3-4 people without limiting their needs..
It is better to install an additional tank in the attic if the house is able to support its weight. In this case, you will have to take care of its insulation so that in winter the water does not turn into ice. But, even in the event of a power outage, water from the tank can flow by gravity to all points of parsing and provide minimal sanitary conveniences – hygiene and cooking.
The storage tank can be made of any material chemically neutral to water – food-grade metal or plastic. The tank is usually equipped with an additional control circuit that controls the water level and makes it possible to automatically fill at night or during the absence of the owners during the day..
If there is enough water in the source
The pressure in it is created by a separate device – an expansion tank or a hydraulic accumulator.
Please note that the pump power in a well or well does not affect the working pressure in the water supply system. It is only needed to create a water supply in the home water supply system..
Therefore, the easiest way to increase pressure is to install a circulation pump in the network. It increases the volume of water entering the parsing points due to its more intensive “suction” from the accumulator. When you open any tap in the network, a decrease in pressure occurs, this parameter is recorded by the pump sensor, and it turns on. As soon as the analysis of water stops and the tap closes, the pump turns off. As a result, the pressure in the network increases to the required value..
A more difficult way is to install a larger expansion tank with a higher working pressure. It is more expensive, but it simultaneously solves two problems:
the pressure in the water supply increases;
water supply increases.
The pressure in the expansion tank is determined by its manufacturer, so when purchasing it, you can immediately understand whether this model is suitable for the water supply of the house to be at the required level.
In addition, the expansion tank, unlike the pump, will not disturb the owners of the house with additional noise, creating the necessary pressure in the water supply pipes..
Ways to increase the pressure in the system
The problem with water pressure, especially in old houses, can be of a constructive and technical nature, in front of which public utilities are powerless. Also, in order to save energy, suppliers often turn off one or more general building booster pumps. Due to redundant circuits, the water supply does not completely stop, but the pressure in the system is significantly reduced.
In such a situation, it becomes necessary to use one of two or two methods at the same time for equipping the water supply network with additional equipment to increase the pressure and pressure of water.
Method # 1 – flow pump
Pumps of this type increase the water pressure without additional water intake, and no permission is required for their installation in apartments..
There are several types of these devices, differing in such characteristics as:
- type of control (manual, automatic);
- permitted water temperature;
- cooling method.
The built-in sensor of the device automatically reacts to the pressure drop in the system and raises it to the optimal value.
Structurally, the flow pump consists of a wet rotor, which is located in the pumped water. The rotor is separated from the starter by a thin stainless steel sleeve
Units of this type belong to surface circulation pumps. They can be easily and quickly mounted on existing engineering networks. As a rule, additional system reconstructions for the installation of flow pumps are not required..
The pressure generated by the pump can be adjusted in both manual and automatic mode.
When selecting a pump, it is necessary to compare its performance with water consumption in an apartment, so that, while using several household appliances that consume water, the capacity of the unit is sufficient for their normal operation..
For example, a pump with a capacity of 3.5 m3 / hour will be enough for three points of water parsing..
Small in size and weight, flow-through circulation pumps can be installed at the inlet of the central highway to an apartment, as well as directly in front of a sanitary household appliance or a gas water heater that consumes water
Of the most popular models of units for this purpose, one can single out a device from the Belgian manufacturer Grundfos UPA 15-90, which has a great market demand and a decent price-quality ratio..
The pump has a very good noise performance – 35 dB, which does not require additional sound insulation in living quarters. Despite the low power consumption – 120 W, the water pressure in the system increases by 0.6 – 0.8 bar.
An important specification of the unit – automatic blocking at a water flow of less than 90 liters per minute and protection of a wet rotor (simultaneous cooling and lubrication).
The pump can be installed both vertically and horizontally.
Method # 2 – pumping station
In the absence of the effect of using a flow pump, a more radical measure would be to install a pumping station in the apartment to increase the pressure.
Often, only such a forced measure can solve the problems with the water pressure of residents of the upper floors of high-rise buildings..
Structurally, the storage station consists of a pump and a water accumulator – a membrane tank. The pump pumps water into the tank and then delivers it to the taps
With the help of a pressure switch, water is supplied to the consumer with the required, predetermined pressure. When filling the receiver, the pump turns off.
The work of the station resumes after the water in the accumulator is consumed.
The advantages of such a device:
- the ability to use water even if it is absent in the water supply system;
- resistance to water pressure drops.
But it should be borne in mind that such units are relatively large and they are noisier than flow pumps. This imposes certain inconveniences in using them in apartments..
In addition, a powerful pumping station can suck in air from apartments located on the same water supply risers, which will turn off the pump and the need to fill the system with water..
Pumping stations are more widely used in private houses on autonomous water supply systems..
Recommendations for choosing a pumping station for increasing pressure and an overview of the top ten proposals, we gave in the next article.
Artificial increase in pressure in the water supply system
If, after the inspection of the pipeline system, no malfunctions were found, you can try to increase the pressure in the network by installing additional water pumps.
There are several ways to artificially increase the pressure in the water supply circuit:
- Installation of an additional network pump in the water supply system.
- Installation of a water station and storage tank.
- Installation in a pumping station complete with a hydraulic accumulator tank.
Inclusion of an additional pump into the circuit
Installation of additional water pressure equipment in the water circuit allows you to increase the volume of water supplied to the water distribution points. Installation of an additional network pump allows you to increase the head by 1-2 atm.
If the pressure indicators in the network are too low, and it is not possible to increase the water supply to the network, it is recommended to install an individual pumping station with a storage tank. Too low pressure makes it impossible for most plumbing fixtures and household equipment connected to the water supply to operate. During the time that residents do not use the water supply, a sufficient volume of water accumulates in the storage tank.
If necessary, water is supplied from the storage tank to the system using a pumping station, which creates the required pressure indicator for the smooth functioning of household appliances. The disadvantage of this method is that when the storage tank is empty, you will have to take a break and wait for it to fill up again.
What to look for when choosing a pump
When choosing pumping equipment, you should pay attention to its operating parameters:
- Equipment performance – characterized by the supply of a certain volume of water in liters per minute.
- Head height, in meters.
- Power output, in watts.
When choosing a pump, you need to take into account the average water consumption in the house. It depends on the number of residents, the number of water distribution points and the number of storeys of the building..
Too weak a pump will not be able to solve problems with low pressure, and too powerful can lead to premature failure of plumbing equipment – rupture of pipe joints, squeezing out gaskets, etc..
If you are not sure of the correctness of your calculations, it is recommended that you contact the plumbing engineers with this question..
Partial alteration of the water supply system
Sometimes the reason for insufficient pressure is an improperly assembled pipeline network. Most often this happens if the system is assembled independently by non-professional residents, without consulting a specialist. At the same time, it is possible to underestimate the required parameters of pipes, when, due to the small diameter, the throughput of the water supply system is insufficient for the normal supply of water to the whole house. Replacing too thin pipes will increase the pressure in the water supply network to acceptable levels.
Installing a hydraulic accumulator
A good alternative to an open drive with a pumping station can be the installation of a hydraulic accumulator in the house, it is also a hydraulic tank. Its functions are about the same – the accumulation and supply of water to the network. However, the pressure in it is created not due to the network pump, but due to the elastic force of the inner diaphragm and the air compressed by it. Its principle of operation is as follows:
- The lower and upper pressure values are set on the device. At a lower pressure indicator, the automation turns on the borehole pump, and the tank is filled with water. In this case, the membrane stretches, the pressure in the accumulator increases.
- When the pressure reaches a certain upper level, the pump automatically turns off, and water is supplied under pressure to the network.
- As water is consumed, the pressure in the network drops, and when it reaches the lower set value, the automation of the accumulator re-activates the well pump.
Installing a large diameter pipe
To increase the pressure and pass it through the system, you can mount another pipe of a slightly larger diameter than it was before. Indeed, the pressure force and the direct movement of the water flow in the pipes depend on the hydraulic pressure. If the pipe is with a small hole, then the value of this parameter is increased. The same applies to the speed of movement of the water current..
To remedy the situation, it is necessary to reduce the hydraulic pressure and water flow rate in the water supply. Here it will already be necessary to install the pipe wider than it was before. Due to the increased diameter of the water conduit, the speed of the water flow will decrease, and the jet in the washbasin or shower will increase..
More and more apartment owners are choosing this technique to correct the situation with a weak water pressure. True, a radical improvement still cannot be achieved if the water pipes in the neighboring premises are clogged.
We use a pumping unit
To increase the water pressure in the pipeline of the apartment, you can use another method, for example, install small pumping equipment, which is sold in any hardware store.
Even the smallest device is able to eliminate the source of the cause causing a decrease in the jet in the apartment pipeline. Ultra-compact pumps with high power can increase the water jet by up to 1.5 bar. This figure is enough to comfortably use the apartment pipeline. Install a powerful pump after the crane valve.
To ensure the pressure to a satisfactory degree necessary for the smooth operation of the device or equipment, a pumping system with good power is attached strictly in front of them. If desired, choose a model capable of making more water pressure by 0.8 atm.
The solution to the issue is the weakening of the water flow using a pumping mini-station, it gives a result if it is installed in a particular apartment.
For the pump to work automatically, it must do it in parallel with the sensor. When the jet meets the required parameters, the unit will shut down on its own. If the pump is turned off, the water flow can move completely freely in the pipe..
Discharge pumps: main types
Pump rotors are dry and flowing (wet). The elements of the wet unit are lubricated by the fluid passing through them. During operation, additional maintenance is not required. The main thing at the initial stage is to install it correctly..
Although the dry rotor is more powerful, it needs to be serviced in the process. When the unit is turned on, it emits peculiar sounds in the form of a mosquito squeak.
Plus: the rotor elements are protected by a water-resistant flap. Negative: they need to be cleaned sometimes.
Types of devices depending on the application:
- A pump capable of increasing the hydraulic pressure in a water pipe using manual operation. There are no automatic switches. Most often, the design is used if the “warm floor” system is installed.
- A device that is automatically triggered immediately after water supply. If the valve is closed, the pump will turn off.
For special installation of a circulating pump with pressure build-up, you must perform the following actions:
- Shut off the water.
- Where the device will be installed, cut a section of the pipe of the desired size.
- Install fittings at the joints to connect.
- Connect the pump to the pipeline.
It is no longer difficult to make a jet at the tap. It is necessary to clean the pipe from plaque or replace it completely. Install a device that regulates the hydraulic pressure in the drain.
By replacing some systems in the water supply
Improper assembly of water pipes can significantly affect the water flow in a negative direction. Aging of pipes and a large amount of deposits in them also leads to a drop in the pressure force.
If the assembly was done independently, without the help of specialists, it will not be superfluous to check again the correct selection of pipes and connections.
A large number of corner joints and branches, too narrow pipes in some areas will inevitably steal some part of the watercourse, reducing the pressure at the outlet.
If all other methods do not give a significant increase in pressure, you should contact a specialist in order to rebuild the pipeline..
Inclusion of an additional centrifugal pump in the circuit
A more realistic way is to install a centrifugal pump at the inlet of the pipeline to the apartment, designed to increase the water pressure. Its installation is carried out in the event that water enters the apartment, but in an extremely small amount, insufficient for the operation of household devices.
Centrifugal pumps of this type are available with two modes of operation:
- It can be operated manually, turning the unit on and off if necessary.
- When using the automatic mode, it starts after opening any tap in the apartment..
The start of operation of the device is provided by the flow sensor included in its design. When the liquid begins to move through the pipe, a signal is sent from the sensor to turn on the unit. Closing the tap serves as a signal to turn it off. The presence of such a sensor becomes protection against burnout. For this reason, devices equipped with a flow sensor are most popular..
Centrifugal pumps for increasing water pressure in an apartment are divided into two types according to the way they are cooled:
- with a dry rotor, equipped with an impeller located on the rotor of the engine. The impeller blades direct the air flow to the motor, thereby cooling it. These pumps operate with low noise and high efficiency;
- Glandless pumps use water flowing through the unit to cool the engine. The main advantage of using them is their quiet operation..
When purchasing a centrifugal pump, it should be borne in mind that there are universal pumps, and there are those that can be used only in cold, or only in hot water supply. The pump installed at the inlet of the water supply to the apartment, immediately after the water meter, can increase the pressure by 1-3 BAR.
Partial alteration of the system using flexible fittings
There are situations when the pressure is not enough for a particular device. In this case, the pump can only be installed on this device..
It often happens that the water pressure is insufficient to operate the boiler. There is cold water in the apartment, but there is practically no hot water. To pass through the heating device, the pressure existing in the water supply system is not enough. In this case, you can choose the place for installing the water pressure boosting pump directly in front of the household appliance..
If, to install a pump that increases the pressure at the entrance to the system, you need to be able to solder pipes for a water supply, then using a pump for a specific device is much easier. It connects to the plumbing fixture using flexible fittings. First of all, you need to choose the right centrifugal pump..
When choosing, consider:
- The maximum pump pressure must not exceed the permissible pressure of the device to which the pump will be connected.
- The pump must have a thread at the inlet and outlet for connecting a flexible hose.
- Together with the pump, a ball valve and a flexible hose are purchased, equipped with a thread that matches the thread on the device.
- If the thread does not match, then the required adapter is purchased.
- Be sure to purchase a fum tape designed to seal threaded connections. To determine the length of the hoses, the installation site of the pump is determined in advance.
How to eliminate the causes of low pressure in a private water supply
If the house is connected to a central highway, utilities and automation ensure a constant pressure along the entire line, except in emergency situations. With individual water supply, the owner will have to independently solve the issues of finding causes and troubleshooting, while problems should be sought in the operation of equipment from individual components (electric pump, automation, hydraulic accumulator), in plumbing fixtures or in the pipeline.
We increase the water pressure in a high-rise building
For hundreds of residents of a high-rise building, a weak water pressure in the kitchen or in the shower will become a significant obstacle. There can be many perpetrators of such provisions..
The issue can be resolved by installing a pumping device with sufficient power – a water mini-station at the entrance of the house pipeline system. If one already exists, then replace it with a new more powerful one..
Mini-hydraulic pump is designed to supply increased water flow directly to high-rise buildings. These devices are equipped with several mini-pumps and systems that work automatically..
The main task of mini-water stations is to reduce the workload in the time dimension, when the hydraulic pressure in the water supply rises or falls and deviates from the standard indicators.
To install such a pump on a high-rise building, all apartment residents will need to collect the required amount to buy it. The organization will also have to pay for the installation of a mini-hydraulic pump. Installation will be carried out by specialists with extensive experience. After installing the house unit, the problem with a weak water pressure will be eliminated.
We increase the water pressure in the house
In a private house, a reduced tap flow may also occur. Although houses from the private sector are equipped with autonomous mini-hydraulic pump stations. Usually, running water is pumped into the house from the nearest well or well..
If the pressure pumped by the pump is weak, then it is difficult to water green spaces, shrubs, trees on a personal plot. Insufficient water supply will also negatively affect living conditions..
To solve the problem of a weak water pressure in the courtyards of the private sector, personal plots, storage tanks of different volumes are most often built. The water supplied by the pumping unit will accumulate in them to the required volume. At the same time, a stable pressure is maintained in the autonomous pipeline system.
Care must be taken that there is a sufficient water level in the storage tank. Most often, this requires the installation of float switches. They will help you navigate what level of liquid is in the tank at the moment. An automatic device is also required to turn off / turn on the pump..
For an autonomous water supply system to work reliably and efficiently, it is important to install it correctly. Installation and equipment assembly must be carried out in full. The main components of the autonomous water supply:
- Pumping unit: borehole or surface;
- Hydraulic accumulator. The device has a rubber bottle. The main task of hydraulics is to maintain the required water level for a certain period of time. For example, when the pump is off;
- Safety valve. Its task is to keep the water flow strictly in one direction, preventing the opposite action;
- Elements that work automatically. For example, this is a relay, a sensor. In the water supply system, they are responsible for the hydraulic pressure. If an abnormal situation occurs, then the pump should automatically shutdown..
Checking the electric pump and pumping station
Surface or submersible electric pumps are used to take water from wells and boreholes, outdoor models are often supplied with additional automation fixed on one frame, the assembled structure is called a pumping station.
When the pressure in the water supply system decreases, which is measured by pressure gauges installed in the station or mainline, the operability of the submersible or surface electric pump is checked.
There are three main types of surface and submersible pumping units used in households: centrifugal, vibration and screw, the former are the most common and are used in all pumping stations that are installed in private houses
The main reason for the failure or poor operation of centrifugal electric pumps, in addition to the factory defect of irresponsible manufacturers, is the physical wear of the units during long-term operation. This process takes place especially quickly in borehole and well sources on sand, where solid particles act as an abrasive that erases the material of the centrifugal wheel, the inner surface of the body.
This leads to an increase in the gaps, increasing the hydraulic resistance, and a decrease in the efficiency (efficiency) of the device. As a result of the wear of the parts, the pressure created by the device drops, the only way out is to replace the worn out elements with new ones..
When using vibration models in wells and boreholes, the main part experiencing the abrasive effect of sand is a rubber disc piston, when it is abraded, the pressure in the line drops. But most often they face the negative consequences of vibrations that are present during the operation of the pump – with prolonged vibrations, self-loosening of the body fasteners, check valves and piston occurs, as a result of which the pump operates with low efficiency, supplying water with a small pressure.
In this case, the pumps for troubleshooting are disassembled and new rubber parts are installed, spring washers are placed under all the nuts to prevent them from loosening..
The screw pump has a design in which the water suction screw is located in a rubber sleeve, when working with a liquid containing a high amount of sand, the screw and elastic insert are abraded, as a result of which the pressure drops. In this case, disassembly of the unit and replacement of worn parts is also required to restore the physical parameters of the device..
Submersible pump – connection diagram
If the pumping equipment does not provide sufficient pressure
In addition to incorrect operation of the pump or its malfunction, a decrease in pressure in the system or its absence can cause the following factors:
- Low voltage in the power supply network. This factor affects the speed of rotation of the impellers and screws of electric pumps, the speed of movement of the piston of the vibration pump – in any case, reduced power supply reduces the performance of the pumps and their main characteristics: delivery volume and head. To normalize work, use a voltage stabilizer.
- Clogged filters of electric pumps. Electric pumps immersed in a well or borehole, with the exception of vibration pumps, suck water through filters located in the bottom or side of the body. In a highly silted environment, they are clogged with dirt, leading to a decrease in pressure, filters located at the inlet of the suction branch pipe of a surface pumping station are clogged in a similar way. To clean them, you will need to cure an electric pump or a branch pipe from a water intake source.
- Incorrect automation settings. All electric pumps to provide individual water supply operate in automatic mode, the main element of automation is a pressure switch that sets the upper and lower pressure thresholds at which the electric pump is turned on and off. In a typical relay, the factory settings correspond to the readings of 1.4 bar for the switch-on threshold and 2.8 bar for the shutdown of the electric pump.
In the event of a relay failure or incorrect setting, the pressure will be insufficient; it can be increased in the system by simply adjusting the upper threshold to the required value, for example, up to 3.5 bar. In this case, the electric pump will pump water into the installed hydraulic accumulator up to this value and when opening the taps, turning on the plumbing or household water-consuming electrical equipment, the water will flow to the consumer with the pressure set on the relay.
Installation and design of the coarse filter
Installation of the pump to increase the pressure
Installing a conventional pump to increase water pressure in a city apartment is quite simple. At least if you have at least a little knowledge in the field of plumbing and some construction skills. Work is carried out according to the instructions given in the table below. The simplest pump is installed directly on the water supply pipe.
Installation and operating instructions for the Grundfos UPA 15-90 pump. Download file (click on the link to open the PDF in a new window).
Table. Installing the pressure boosting pump.
|All materials and tools must be prepared. This is the pump itself, gas wrench, pliers, adapters, pencil, plumbing tow, angle grinder, thread cutting die.|
|On the pipe, in the place where the pump will be installed, the places where the pipe will be cut are marked with a pencil – they will be located from each other at a distance equal to the width of the device together with the adapter.|
|The flow of water is blocked, its residues are vented through the water tap, then the intended piece of pipe is cut off with an angle grinder, and the thread is cut along the edges with a die.|
|The threaded adapter is screwed onto the pipe using a gas wrench.|
|Special fittings are screwed into the adapters, which are included in the kit in this model. And so they are called “American”. Thanks to them, the pump can be easily removed and put on.|
|The pump is installed in its place.|
|The pump is connected to the electrical network using a cable. A three-core double-insulated cable is laid into the bathroom, connected to a waterproof outlet, into which the device itself is turned on.|
It is worth remembering that when working with plumbing, it is important to seal all connections with plumbing tow or FUM tape for greater density.
Water pressure in the water supply system: determination of the norm, methods of increasing pressure
There are several reasons for a decrease in pressure in the water supply system.
Clogged pipes are another possible cause of pressure drop.
On average, the pressure in a city apartment should be about 4 atm.
Too much pressure is also undesirable.
The washing machine will not work with insufficient pressure
We increase the pressure in the water supply
Pressure boosting pump
Working pump increasing pressure
Table of indicators of daily water consumption (in liters per person)
Characteristics of water pressure in the plumbing system
Additional centrifugal pump
The task of creating a high head can be divided between pumps; for this, the industry produces a wide range of household booster pumps of a centrifugal principle of operation, by connecting them to the main line, an increase in the flow rate and, accordingly, an increase in pressure can be achieved. Such models are installed in a pipeline rupture using common American threaded fittings..
It is necessary to ensure that the body is installed in compliance with the position specified in the instructions (violation of this requirement may result in automatic termination of warranty obligations), in which the direction of fluid supply coincides with the arrow placed on the body. The device can operate in manual or automatic mode, the latter option is preferable, it includes a flow sensor cut into the pipeline along with an electric pump.
When the taps are turned on, the flow sensor reacts to the movement of water and closes the power circuit of the electric pump, which turns on and, by rotating its impeller, increases the speed of fluid movement through the pipes, increasing the pressure. The choice of the model is carried out taking into account its pressure characteristics, power in watts (W), prices, it is believed that the pump for increasing the pressure from Grundfos has the highest cost.
Purchase of a hydroaccumulator
If the volume of water is insufficient, then you need a storage device. The device has another name – a membrane tank. The accumulator has two chambers. The first contains compressed air, the second, separated by a durable rubber membrane, collects tap water. This device allows you to create a reserve of liquid, which accumulates in the vessel during the day, and then is given to the needs of residents..
The materials from which the membrane tank is made are absolutely safe. The container is suitable for storing drinking water. More often, the accumulator is included in the circuit during the installation of the system, but it can be installed in an already operating pipeline. If there is a device, but its power is not enough, you can change it to a more efficient unit.
When choosing a place, take into account that a hydraulic unit, especially a large one, takes up a large area. A convenient approach to equipment is required for maintenance or possible repairs. The base must be reliable to absorb all vibrations. The accumulator is connected with a fitting having 5 outputs: it will be necessary to connect a pressure gauge, a pump, a relay and a pipe to the device. After installation, check for leaks.
Clogging of filters with dirt can cause low pressure; when using fine filters, their contamination can be determined visually, in coarse products you will have to disassemble the case to filter sand. To normalize the work in the filters, it is necessary to install new cartridges; in the sand model, unscrew the housing nut and pour out the accumulated debris.
Checking the pressure at all points
To determine the pressure, first of all, you need to use the readings of the built-in pressure gauges of the pumping station or automation units of submersible electric pumps. If the head has become less than the previously displayed values, check the line with a portable pressure gauge between the points of analysis: at the entrance of the pressure pipe into the well, the well and at the house. When the pressure readings of the device at the pumping station are normal, and the water from the taps comes with a low pressure, you should go through the house with a portable pressure gauge and measure the line inside the premises to determine the branch with a possible leak. You can simply turn on the tap and identify the problem section of the pipeline by a small stream.
Recommended comfort pressure
It is not convenient to use water from water taps and mixers with high or low pressure in the water supply system. For comfortable use of water from mixers and showers, the pressure in the water supply system is from 1.0 to 2.0 kgf / cm2. However, some types of household equipment require higher pressures. In this case, you should focus on the minimum for such equipment..
If water is used to irrigate a plot of a private house or in the country, you can increase the pressure in the water supply to 3 kgf / cm2, to reduce the irrigation time and compensate for the loss of pressure in a thin long hose.
What to do if there is no pressure or it does not meet the standard?
In this case, two situations are possible. First, water enters the pipeline, but the pressure is too weak. The second – on the upper floors, water does not enter the pipeline.
First you need to check the water supply system, since the cause of both problems can be a blockage in the pipeline..
This is done in several stages:
- Mud filters are checked first, since it is their clogging that is the most common reason for a decrease in pressure. Clean them if necessary..
- Then check the aerators, which can also become clogged, reducing the head. Sometimes cleaning them alone is enough to normalize the pressure..
- The condition of the reinforcement is checked. If the lumen has narrowed, then this was due to deposits, and it is better to change the shut-off valves.
- The last step is checking the pipes. They can also form insoluble deposits, and this affects the pressure indicators. There is only one way out – replacement.
If there is no blockage, then in the first case you need to install a pump that increases the pressure. It may be worth purchasing equipment with a higher capacity. However, if the reason lies in a decrease in the resource of the source, then here a more efficient pump will not only not help, but even aggravate the problem..
And if water does not flow to the second floor, then it will already be necessary to install a storage tank or a home station with a hydraulic accumulator. The latter is also often referred to as a diaphragm tank..
It is a device with a sealed body, which consists of two chambers separated from each other by a membrane made of a safe and durable material – butyl. One part of the tank is filled with air under pressure, the other gradually accumulates water coming from the water supply.
A station with a hydroaccumulator is good because it allows you to create a certain supply of drinking water in the house. And at the same time it solves pressure problems by regulating the pressure inside the accumulator chambers.
When the air pressure indicator reaches the threshold value, the built-in relay automatically turns off the running pump. When the pressure in the chamber with water decreases as it flows, the relay turns on the equipment. An air valve is provided to regulate the pressure in the diaphragm tank.
To install such a station with a hydraulic accumulator, remember that:
- the choice is made taking into account all the parameters of the system;
- you can place it at any level of the house;
- it must be installed so that there is free access to the equipment, in case of repair or maintenance.
How to align?
In such cases, as a rule, it is a question of reducing the water pressure, but not too much, to an indicator of 3-4 bar..
The ideal option would be to install a station with a hydraulic accumulator, where pressure switches and safety valves allow you to adjust the indicators without the intervention of the owner of the house..
Sometimes only safety valves are used for alignment, in the presence of which the compensator will send excess water into the sewer.
How to make permanent?
In order for the autonomous water supply system to work with a stable pressure head, it is necessary to eliminate the risk of water hammer, which remains high even when using a hydraulic accumulator with a membrane.
In addition, it is important to achieve pressure stabilization in those houses where several water intake points can work at the same time: for example, if one person uses the shower, the second starts the dishwasher, and the third decides to water the garden. In this case, install a frequency converter that:
In this case, install a frequency converter that:
- maintains a stable water pressure at several points;
- can operate in a smooth mode both at start-up and at stop, which prolongs its service life;
- equipped with protection against idling;
- makes it possible to significantly reduce the volume of the membrane tank, which allows you to immediately and solve the problem of unpleasant odor that appears during stagnant water.
Installation of a frequency converter should not cause any special problems. Moreover, many pumping stations already include a built-in converter..
But you can buy it separately and integrate it into a working system. It is only necessary when choosing to take into account such characteristics as power, voltage and rated current.
General recommendations on how to increase the water pressure in the water supply
To answer the question of how to increase the water pressure without consequences for consumers and the water supply network, first you need to determine the reasons for reducing the pressure. The following varieties can be distinguished:
leaks, breaks in the water supply system;
deposition of calcium salts on the inner surface of the pipes, due to which the pipe cross-section and their throughput are reduced;
clogging of the water treatment filter;
malfunctions of fittings and valves.
In apartment buildings, it is very common to turn off one or more water supply pumps at the distribution point. This is done in order to save energy or in the event of a malfunction of the electric pumps. As a rule, the water is not completely turned off, since there are usually redundant circuits, but the pressure drops significantly, and for the normal operation of consumption devices it must be significantly increased.
For initial diagnostics, the easiest way is to contact your neighbors and ask them about the presence of pressure in the water supply system. A local decrease in pressure indicates defects in the plumbing wiring in your apartment. If there was a general decrease in pressure, then you should report this to the service organization. The pressure in the water supply system must not fall below one bar and rise above four bar.
For constant monitoring of the water pressure in the system, a pressure gauge is installed at the inlet of the water main to the house or apartment..
In a private house, when using a pumping station, its performance is checked. The most common malfunction is a clogged depth filter, which is located at the water intake..
In addition to coarse filters, there are fine filters. They are usually set individually for each device that consumes water..
After checking all filters, it is necessary to check the pressure along the entire circuit of the pipeline sequentially in different places. In a complex water supply system, it is advisable to locate several pressure gauges with which you can monitor the water pressure at different levels (floors) or by groups of consumers. Thus, it is possible to quickly detect a water leak, after the elimination of which the pressure will rise..
Please note that there are several units of measure for water pressure. Base unit in metric system (SI) – Pascal
Water pressure is usually measured in megapascals (MPa). Non-systemic units are also used: bars, atmospheres, kgf / cm2, PSI, (sometimes even pounds / square inch). The table below compares all of these units..
The use of a flow-through and accumulative pressure increase method will increase the pressure of water from the water supply system and ensure its flow in the required amount.
1. An insert into the water supply system under the pressure of the pump is carried out at the inlet of the main line to the apartment. The water pressure increases due to the creation of an additional vacuum at the outlet from the general water supply system to the house. Modern pumps are small and energy efficient. Pressure adjustment is carried out both manually and automatically. The effect of this method will be an increase in pressure by 1-1.5 atm..
2. If the first method does not give results, then a pumping station should be installed as a more radical measure. Even with a minimum pressure in the system, the unit will operate around the clock in accumulation mode and create the necessary water reserve.
The receiver or accumulator allows you to be independent of pressure drops and even a short-term complete shutdown of the water supply. Its installation requires much more space and time than just installing a flow pump. The size of the storage tank should be ten times the daily water consumption. All in all, you get the perfect outlet pressure..
Technical equipment for increasing the water pressure in the apartment
When the cause of pressure problems is hidden outside the apartment, and contacting the management company does not work, then you can get out of the situation only by using mechanical methods of increasing pressure. You will need to install a pump with a hydraulic accumulator.
If the piping system in the apartment has no flaws, and everything is caused by the weak pressure that is supplied to the house, then the pump insert will be the only way out of the situation. An additional argument in favor of this solution is the higher pressure on the lower floors..
Having a lack of water pressure in the apartment, a pump or pumping station is installed in the system immediately after the meter. They allow you to raise the pressure level of water supplied directly to key consumers, such as a washing machine, dishwasher, bathroom, etc..
The pump for increasing the pressure directly in the apartment is small in size. Its dimensions can be no more than a liter can. In the event that there is a big problem with the pressure, then a more massive pump is installed.
The pumping station is the same pump, but additionally equipped with a hydraulic accumulator. This reservoir accumulates water in itself and subsequently gives it back. This eliminates the need to constantly start the pump when the tap is opened for a short time, for example, to fill a kettle. The pump and accumulator can act in one bundle. In this case, there is a platform on top of the reservoir to which the pump is screwed. In most cases, all equipment is bought separately, and is mounted together already directly in the apartment..
Key parameters for pump selection
To get a sufficient level of water pressure in the apartment, without creating problems for household appliances, you need to choose the right pump
First of all, you need to pay attention to its indicators:
- minimum water flow rate for switching on;
- maximum feed;
- operating pressure;
- section of connecting elements.
The minimum water flow rate for switching on is very important. The fact is that non-sensitive pumps can only work if the mixer is opened at full capacity. Subsequently, when you try to reduce the flow, the pump stops. Ideally, the automatic pump allows it to start at a flow rate of 0.12-0.3 l / min. An insensitive device will not pump up pressure when the toilet cistern is recruited, since it is connected through thin fittings and is filled with a low water flow.
Video – Options for solving the problem of low pressure in the tap
The maximum flow shows how much water the pump can pump in a certain period of time. It can be defined in liters per second or minute, as well as in cubic meters per hour. It is quite possible to purchase a weak pump, then the volume of injected water will not be enough for the normal operation of all equipment and other points of consumption. To calculate the optimal pump performance, you need to determine the volume of consumption of all points of water intake. For this, the use of tabular data will help. It is necessary to summarize the indicators of all consumers, adding a power reserve by 10-30%.
Table 1. Water consumption at different points of water intake.
The maximum pressure parameter is selected individually, based on the readings of the pressure gauge connected to the pipeline in the apartment. An indicator of 2-4 atmospheres is considered optimal. That is, you need to choose a pump that creates a pressure level that is not enough to normal.
The final key selection criterion is the cross-section of the connecting elements. As the pump cuts into the piping, ideally all fittings are sized to fit the existing piping. Incompatibility will require the purchase of additional adapters, which are accompanied by unnecessary costs.
Characteristic features of autonomous water supply systems
One of the most important characteristics of a water pressure system is the water pressure. Not only the pressure in the tap depends on it, which makes it possible to carry out ordinary hygiene procedures without problems, but also the operability of all water-consuming devices and equipment.
It should be taken into account that the functioning of an autonomous water pumping system differs from the centralized water supply of high-rise buildings..
First of all, an independent water supply system is a complex of specific measures, without the implementation of even one of which the circuit may not work at all, or work not as it should
There are some peculiarities in matters of maintaining a consistently optimal pressure of water extracted from an autonomous source..
The system of independent use of water supply sources for a country house includes interrelated elements:
- Piping, fittings, manometers.
- Submersible or surface pump for raising water from a source.
- Pumps increasing pressure, and there can be several of them, or a pumping station with a hydraulic accumulator for accumulating a reserve of water for the purpose of its further uninterrupted consumption.
- Relay that turns on, if necessary, and turns off the pump.
Unlike residents of high-rise buildings, the owner of a private house has to resolve issues related to the correct and effective interaction of all these elements on his own..
Feature # 1 – raising water from a well
Water intake and transportation are carried out directly from the water supply source.
And there may be several options. But which one to prefer depends mainly on the complexity and cost of raising the water to the surface. The most expensive are the artesian well and the well..
For the purpose of providing personal home ownership or giving with water, as a rule, relatively affordable sources are selected – a water well or an ordinary mine well
The first option – due to the need for deep drilling, using special equipment, the second – due to manual labor.
The igla or Abyssinian well is the easiest source for a device with your own hands and a source that is less expensive in terms of equipment.
Each of these options has its pros and cons, and the choice depends not only on the price and complexity of the work, but also on the specific geological conditions of the area..
Feature # 2 – water intake flow rate
The performance of the water supply system and the use of pumping equipment in it depends on the flow rate of the water source.
The correct calculation of the flow rate allows you to rationally use this source and competently approach the issue of pump selection.
The greater the ratio of the maximum possible volume of water for production from a well or well to the unit of time during which the source will be exhausted, the higher the water intake capacity is considered and, accordingly, the pump should be more powerful.
To determine the flow rate of the source, two indicators of the water level are used:
- Static – the length of the site from ground level to water at the source at rest.
- Dynamic – the distance from the surface to the established mark of the water mirror when the pump unit is in operation.
If the amount of water pumped out from the source is stable at the level of its replenishment, then we can say that the water intake capacity corresponds to the pump power. With a good flow rate of the source, the difference between these two levels should not exceed 1 meter.
The flow rate of the source is defined as the ratio of the pump performance – Vl, to the difference between the dynamic and statistical levels, multiplied by the height of the segment L – from the filter to the water level at rest of the source
The pump capacity should not be higher than the flow rate of the source. Otherwise, a situation is possible in which, having pumped out all the water, a conventional pump will continue to run “dry”. And this threatens to break it down.
It is recommended to install the pump away from the filter, but so that there is always a water level above it, at least 1 m.
Feature # 3 – transporting water to consumers
The use of an autonomous source dictates the need to install pumping equipment not only to raise water from the aquifer, but also to create a pressure sufficient to pump it through pipelines and then distribute it around the house at various levels.
Do not forget about irrigation and fire extinguishing systems, the operation of which must be ensured with the appropriate pressure..
When choosing pumping units, it is necessary to take into account the pressure-reducing hydraulic resistance of the pipes, which directly affects the water flow rate. And the longer the communication route from the source to the house and the final consumer, the greater this resistance becomes..
Additional barriers to water that reduce the pressure in the system are pipe bends, fittings of the pipeline system, filters and shut-off valves.
Therefore, for an autonomous water supply system, it is necessary to take into account not only the size of the worker, i.e. fixed under standard conditions pressure in the water supply system of the house, but also calculated – the maximum excess pressure.
According to the values of the calculated pressure, water pipes with the corresponding diameters and wall thicknesses are selected. All this affects the reliability, efficiency and durability of the decentralized water supply system..
The main causes of air congestion
If air pockets occur, check the tightness of the connections.
The appearance of bubbles in the water supply lines is associated with an internal physicochemical reaction or penetration from the outside. In the first case, gas escapes from the water stream itself, because about 30 grams of air are dissolved in 1000 liters of water. The release of the gaseous substance is faster if the liquid flows slowly and if it is heated. It is for this reason that voids and cavities appear much more often in hot water supply pipes. In the second case, air from the external environment seeps into the trunk networks..
The main reasons for the appearance of air from the outside in the water supply system of a private house:
- when the liquid level drops, air can be sucked in through the non-return valve;
- fitting elements with rubber sealing parts are poorly wrapped, depressurization occurs at the joints;
- the air in the water supply lines has not been removed from the first start of the system.
In vertically directed pipes, air rises up or is absorbed throughout the cavity. In horizontal – it accumulates in the highest places, which is unfavorable for the entire system.
The destruction of air bubbles occurs at a flow rate of a quarter of a meter per second. If it is less, traffic jams can remain in one place for a long time..
Danger of air bubbles in the pipeline
Water hammer is able to break the pipe
Bubbles, especially large ones, can destroy even strong elements of the line. The main troubles that they bring to the owners of private houses:
- They accumulate in the same areas, leading to breakage of pipe sections and adapters. They also pose a hazard to bending and winding pipe sections where air is trapped..
- They break the water flow, which is inconvenient for the user. The taps all the time “spit out” water, vibrate.
- Provoke water hammer.
Water hammering leads to the formation of longitudinal cracks, due to which the pipes gradually collapse. Over time, at the point of cracking, the pipe breaks, and the system ceases to function. Therefore, it is important to equip additional elements that allow you to quickly get rid of dangerous bubbles..
Why is the air in the water supply dangerous?
- Air bubbles crush the water flow, causing inconvenience to the consumer. Cranes constantly “spit”, behave unpredictably;
- Air locks accumulate in the same places, causing rapid destruction of pipes and adapters. There is a danger of turns and bends of pipes, where there is an opportunity for an air bubble to linger;
- Air in water supply pipes can provoke a water hammer. The unpleasant phenomenon gradually destroys the pipes, causing longitudinal cracks. Over time, the pipe bursts in the damaged area. For a long time, the owner may not notice the destruction, this is the main danger of water hammer.
Why does air appear in the water supply system
There are two reasons for the appearance of air in the water supply system of the house:
- Outside. Air enters the pipes through leaking joints;
- From the inside. Approximately 30 grams of air per 1 ton of water is dissolved in the stream of water passing through the pipes. Gradually the air is released. The slower the water flows, and the hotter it is, the faster the process goes. That is, in hot water supply systems, the likelihood of air jams is higher..
In the water supply systems of private houses, air appears for the following reasons:
- when the water level drops, air can be sucked in through the check valve;
- poorly tightened fittings with rubber seals;
- in hot water supply systems, the process of cavitation is observed: steam is formed, air bubbles collect in the water, forming voids or caverns;
- the air in the water supply pipes remained from the first start-up of the equipment.
Air bubbles contain 30% more oxygen than atmospheric air. This explains the high oxidizing capacity of air in hot water supply systems. Air bubbles can be of various shapes: spherical – small, no more than 1 millimeter in diameter, mushroom, oval.
In vertical pipes, bubbles rush upward or are distributed throughout the volume. In horizontal highways, they stop at the highest points, where they carry out destructive work..
When the water velocity in the pipes is more than 0.5 meters per second, the bubbles move without lingering. When the speed exceeds 1 meter per second, the bubbles break into very small bubbles.
It turns out a semblance of an emulsion of water and air. Air bubbles in the water supply system of a private house begin to collapse at a fluid speed of 0.25 meters per second.
How to get rid of air in the plumbing
If air bubbles interfere with the operation of the pipeline, but the bleed elements have not yet been installed, turn off the pumping station that pumps water from the well. Then open all drain taps and drain the water along with bubbles from the network. After that, connect the pressure equipment and let the water flow.
Devices for bleeding and descent will help to get rid of air jams in the water supply system of a private house forever:
- mechanical valves, such as the Mayevsky device;
- ball valves and valves;
- automatic air vents.
It is necessary to manually bleed the air with the help of shut-off valves, which is quite laborious. Therefore, it is better to choose alternative options.
How to prevent the formation of air in the heating system
Even at the design stage of the heating system, it is necessary to install all the elements in such a way as to ensure the free, unobstructed “circulation” of the air that is formed when the heat carrier is heated.
All closed systems must be equipped with air vents..
Separator of air and sludge Honeywell HF49.
In closed heating systems, air separators can be used, which allow you to completely clean the coolant, both from dissolved air and from air in the form of small and large bubbles. Separator design allows trapping and removing air particles.
How to get rid of an airlock
Unfortunately, the airlock is not always in an easily accessible place. In the event of design or installation errors, air can accumulate in the pipes. Bleeding him out of there is very difficult. First, we determine the location of the plug. In the place of the plug, the pipes are cold and a murmur is heard. If there are no obvious signs, they check the pipes by sound – they tap on the pipes. In a place where air is accumulated, the sound will be louder and louder..
The found airlock must be expelled. If we are talking about the heating system of a private house, for this, the temperature and / or pressure is raised. Let’s start with the pressure. The nearest drain valve (in the direction of movement of the coolant) and the make-up valve are opened. Water begins to flow into the system, raising the pressure. It forces the plug to move forward. When air enters the vent, it comes out. Stop making up after all the air is gone – the drain valve will stop hissing.
This is a security group. An automatic air vent is installed at the middle outlet
Not all air locks give up so easily. For extra stubborn, it is necessary to simultaneously raise the temperature and pressure. These parameters are brought to values close to the maximum. You cannot exceed them – it is too dangerous. If after that the plug has not gone away, you can try to open simultaneously the drain valve (to drain the system) and the make-up valve. Maybe this way it will be possible to move the airlock or get rid of it altogether..
If a similar problem occurs constantly in one place – there is an error in the design or wiring. In order not to suffer every heating season, a valve for air exhaust is installed in the problem area. A tee can be cut into the line and an air vent can be installed on the free inlet. In this case, the problem will be solved simply.
To do this, it is necessary to revise the entire pipeline, old steel pipes should be replaced with modern ones made of polymer materials. They are more reliable, virtually corrosion resistant and last longer. In this case, the pipes must be selected taking into account the operating conditions (pressure and temperature in the network) with a small margin of parameters. To reduce the flow rate, it is advisable to choose products with the largest possible diameter for the head. Find a middle ground.
Modern reliable pipes and connecting elements made of polymeric materials
How the drain valve works
The device of the Mayevsky valve shown in the drawing is easy to understand. In the end of the brass body with a ½ ”(DN 15) or ¾” (DN 20) external threaded connection, a Ø2 mm hole is made, whose cross-section covers the screw with a tapered tip. A small diameter hole is made on the side of the housing for air outlet.
Note. The redesigned air relief valve is equipped with a rotatable plastic insert, inside of which there is a branch duct. Convenient in that the position of the vent hole can be adjusted by turning the plastic washer.
Mechanical “air vent” works as follows:
- In heating operation mode, the locking screw is tightened and the cone tightly closes the hole.
- When it is necessary to release the airlock, the screw is unscrewed by 1-2 turns. Under the pressure of the coolant, air passes through a hole with a diameter of 2 mm, enters the outlet channel and moves outward through it.
- First, clean air comes out of the hole, then mixed with water. The screw is tightened after a dense stream of coolant comes out of the channel.
Mayevsky’s air valve with a manual drive is a reliable tool for venting gases from pipelines and heating radiators. The secret of reliability is the absence of moving parts that can clog, wear out or rust. Typically, the valve is used as a radiator air vent.
Manual air heating valves are divided into varieties according to the method of unscrewing the screw:
- using a plastic or metal handle;
- the traditional version is a slot for a flat screwdriver;
- square head screw to use a special wrench.
The device is not complicated, but the device is able to quickly and effectively rid the pipeline of bubbles. The principle of operation of a mechanical valve is as follows:
- A hollow cylinder with a lid, into which a threaded plug is mounted, is connected to the water supply with a threaded connection.
- A plastic float ball is suspended inside the cylindrical box. When there is only water in the pipeline, the float rises to the plug hole, and, due to the pressure of the water flow, tightly closes it.
- As soon as air seeps into the device, the ball goes down and bleeds the airlock.
Devices capable of removing air are mounted in the highest, turning and curved places of the line – where there is a high risk of air accumulation.
Selection of the required model
To purchase the desired design, you need to take into account the following nuances:
- place for the installation of the system;
- technical configurations of automation;
- distance from the point of fluid intake;
- the volume of the hydraulic tank;
- pump performance and power.
There are several types of systems – vortex, centrifugal and multistage control. The first two types are distinguished by high performance, good pressure, pleasant price and low noise level during operation..
The linkage located inside the structure is more sensitive to contamination of the working environment. The device is considered productive, it is used on pipelines and heating systems that use water.
A conventional lever air vent consists of:
- brass body;
- a hollow plastic float that moves inside;
- rocker arm, which is pivotally connected to the float;
- an elastomeric spool located at the end of the rocker arm;
- spring loaded spring;
- fixed clip;
Along with a decrease in the water level, the float begins to lower and pulls the lever with it. This, in turn, opens the oval outlet. Through this process, excess air is released to the outside. Such devices are considered common and are suitable for a water supply or heating system..
Membrane aerators are made from polyvinyl chloride. The most common use is to enter the system where it is necessary to get rid of excess air and air pockets, as well as to prevent pressure drops. Some technicians suggest using a bypass valve that maintains the pressure of the medium at the required level. This is due to the bypass through the branch pipe. The formed air will not be able to enter the system again due to the closure of the hole with a membrane.
The cylindrical air vent has an oblong shape. Such models are often produced automatically, in their device there is a float in the form of a cylinder. The models have a side or direct connection, they have a body with a cover, a float, a nozzle and a spool. A shut-off valve is located at the bottom, through which the product is connected to the water supply or heating system. The design must have an O-ring that protects it from leaks.
DHW dead-end circuit
Until about the 70s of the last century, hot water supply (DHW) systems in all houses under construction were organized in the same way.
However, this layout has two major drawbacks:
- Having opened a hot water tap, the home owner has to wait for it to heat up for several minutes. His wait is especially long at night and in the mornings, when in the absence of water intake the risers and hot water spills cool down. This is not only inconvenient, but also contributes to an unreasonably high water consumption;
Please note: when registering the consumption of hot water on a mechanical water meter, you are forced to pay for the entire volume passing through it. In fact, a significant part of this volume does not meet the requirements of the current operating standards: the DHW temperature must be within the range of +50 – + 75 ° С.
The mechanical meter in the photo registers the flow of water through the DHW pipeline, regardless of its temperature
- Heating of bathrooms and combined toilets in apartment buildings is provided by a heated towel rail powered by a hot water supply system. It is clear that in the absence of water extraction in a dead-end system, it will cool down. For the owner of an apartment, this means dampness and cold in the bathroom, and in the long term – a greater likelihood of fungus damage to the walls..
The sensor regulates the pressure and operation of the hydraulic tank, gives a signal how full the tank is and when it is necessary to turn on the pumping of fluid. This allows for the stable operation of the entire system without overloading and extends the life of other components. By the type of mechanism of operation, devices are divided into mechanical and electronic.
The sensor looks like a box with various elements under the lid. Inside it are two springs with nuts, which are needed to regulate the pressure. To increase the service life of the product, a filter should be installed. It traps suspended particles that can cause breakdowns. A distinctive feature of the element is the fact that the pump will not turn on without water.
Each model is pre-configured from the factory. But they are not always suitable for a specific connection scheme for all parts and conditions of use. Therefore, the consumer has to independently adjust the pressure inside the system with a hydraulic accumulator. As a rule, at marks of one and a half and two and a half atmospheres, the whole system works without failures. The maximum parameter that is allowed is a value of five atmospheres..
Note! It is not necessary to set high pressure, as this will lead to leaks, deformation of the pipe, internal parts will wear out faster.
The sensor works according to the following principle:
- inside the device, the springs are interconnected by a membrane that reacts to a change in pressure;
- when the contacts close or open, a signal is sent to the device;
- when the drive is full, the pressure increases;
- the spring is compressed and transfers the thrust force;
- the device reacts to the set values and turns off the pump;
- with a flow rate of liquid, the head weakens;
- the pump is running again.
When connecting the sensor, disconnect the equipment, fix the necessary parts and connect the wires. If you doubt the correct installation and connection of elements in the system, it is better to contact experienced craftsmen. If mistakes are made, the consequences will be very serious..
Pressure regulation in the hydraulic reservoir
Pressure regulation in the system must be carried out if the device is installed for the first time or breakdowns have appeared. If a malfunction occurs, you should find out the cause. If there are leaks or fistulas in the system, you need to get rid of them. The second component to check is the membrane..
If solid elements get into the pipeline, the rubber will quickly deteriorate. Therefore, experts recommend that it is imperative to install a filter for cleaning..
First, the user checks the air pressure in the tank. Inside it is a pear that is filled with liquid. Due to the air mass, it is compressed. Thanks to this, it is possible to maintain a certain onslaught inside the device. When a person opens the tap, the pear moves along the pipe, and the equipment is turned off..
Before checking the pressure in the device, you must disconnect it from the mains, and the tank must be empty. Next, you need to open the lid on the side of the container and find the nipple. Then, using a manometer, measure the pressure in the structure. It is believed that its optimal value is one and a half atmospheres. If it is less, then with the help of a pump it is raised.
Remember! If you have a tank with a capacity of about 20 liters, then the pressure is set at the level of one and a half atmosphere.
Before adjusting the pressure, it is necessary to take into account the data from the manufacturer. They are selected specifically taking into account the differences in the pipes, the difference between the levels of the device and the tap, as well as the possible drop in pressure.
Before adjusting, it is necessary to remove the cover on the sensor, under which there are springs. The small one regulates the activation of the pump, and the large one – its shutdown. How accurately the parameters are set, it is better to check with a pressure gauge..
Note! Do not set the upper and lower values to the maximum value. You can get acquainted with the limiting parameters in the data sheet.
The features of setting up sensors in the system can be found in the video:
By following these steps, the user will be able to adjust the pressure in the structure:
- all liquid should be drained from the pipeline;
- set the pressure in the hydraulic reservoir, which is ten percent less than the value at which the pump operates;
- connect the sensor to the power supply and monitor the operation of the device;
- use a pressure gauge to check the pressure in the system at which the equipment is turned off;
- open the tap in the house;
- mark the parameter when the device turns on.
To increase pressure, tighten the spring clockwise. To increase the difference between on / off of the device, tighten the small spring. After the required values have been set, the system is connected to the network. If everything is done correctly, then the pressure in the tap will be enough for the normal operation of all equipment in a residential area..
Important! As a rule, masters set the following values - one and a half and two and a half atmospheres.
It is not recommended to tune if all the water has not been drained from the system. This can lead to distortion of information. Many experts recommend grounding the relay and also wiring carefully. If traces of moisture are visible on the sensor body, immediately de-energize all elements. Once every three months, the internal components of the parts must be lubricated and cleaned of the formed salt. Thus, the service life of the structure can be increased..
Major mistakes when configuring elements
Errors may occur during customization of structural details. The master needs to take into account that a small spring reacts more strongly to a change in its position. Therefore, the nut on it must be tightened slowly. In this case, the difference between the upper and lower parameters should not be more than two atmospheres. If some value is increased by at least one atmosphere, then the hydraulic reservoir will be filled only by thirty percent..
Another important point during pressure regulation is setting the lower value. It should not be more than eighty percent of the maximum pressure value in the sensor. If the pressure from the tap is too small, you can replace the switch with a more powerful one..
The wizards recommend checking the system settings every six months. The adjustment process itself does not cause difficulties for users; in order to turn the nuts, you need to have a screwdriver with you. Before making adjustments, remember to drain all the liquid. Otherwise, the data on the devices will be incorrect. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the parameters that are set by the manufacturer. You can find them in the data sheet.
Reasons for the appearance of bubbles in the water
After making all the settings, the user may find that the pumping station is pumping water with air. As a result, the operation of the equipment is disrupted, the supply of fluid is interrupted, the pressure decreases and other breakdowns occur. The process of the appearance of air in water is called cavitation..
Air appears when the pressure drops too low. As a result, a large number of bubbles combine and large accumulations of air masses are formed. They can only be destroyed under the influence of a strong onslaught. During this process, the consumer may hear hiss..
Remember! Bubbles form in wells that are more than eight meters deep. In this case, install long pipes..
At great depths, the liquid turns into a gaseous state and enters the main stream. This process can be observed in wells with a telescopic structure. Often, a system can consist of several pipe sections, each of which has its own section. This structure resembles a telescope that every child had..
When air appears in the system, the consumer needs to get rid of the problem as soon as possible. Otherwise, vibration and shocks may appear after a while. This process leads to a drop in the pressure in the tap, a decrease in the power of the device, the destruction of its components, the formation of corrosion and breakdowns..
It is difficult to independently determine where the malfunction occurred. Therefore, it is better to contact qualified craftsmen who will help to cope with the air in the system..
Methods for eliminating air masses
If you notice that the pumping station is pumping air, you need to see if the equipment is suitable for the well. If the diameter of the source is not more than ten centimeters, then a submersible structure is installed, if this parameter is less, a circular. If bubbles appear, install a suction pipe with a larger diameter. You can try moving the device closer to the hydraulic tank. Also, if the pipe has many turns, then it must be replaced. It is advisable to eliminate bends at ninety degrees..
It will not be possible to completely get rid of the bends, but they must be performed at an angle of no more than forty-five degrees. In addition, pipes made of rigid material can be replaced with more flexible ones. To reduce pressure and eliminate many bubbles, instead of a check valve, you can install a gate valve, and the inside of the suction pipe should be smooth.
The features of the occurrence of cavitation can be found in the video:
To make the use of such a valve comfortable, it is necessary to install an electrical, mechanical or pneumatic structure..
Since bubbles can only be eliminated with high pressure, the user installs booster equipment. This will help increase the fluid level in the tank. In addition, you need to install the device below. To do this, dig a hole and install it in it. It is advisable to level the bottom of the cavity, compact it and fill it with sand or gravel. A layer of hard rock will help the pump stand more stable.
There are situations when the well is used only in summer. Over time, a person notices that bubbles have appeared in the liquid. To avoid this, the following nuances must be taken into account:
- Before starting the device, you need to take into account the condition of its oil seals. They are gaskets that are installed to seal the connections of the components so that moisture does not penetrate into the mechanism. If the element is worn out, air or moisture can seep into the pump..
In addition, bubbles can occur in the area where the pipe connects to the well. In this case, it is necessary to replace the damaged pipe section..
- If there is not enough water in the well, then the equipment can suck in air. In such a situation, it is necessary to reduce the amount of resource consumption or to dig a new well. To do this, you need to find a layer in which there is enough liquid. Drilling on your own is difficult, it is better to call a master who has a special device.
Remember! In order for air to be removed from the system in a timely manner, it is necessary to install mechanisms for its release. They are mounted at the top point, bend, in places where there is a high probability of accumulation of air masses..
Major equipment failures
Over time, the device may fail. Often the user can face the following problems:
- dirt has appeared inside the structure;
- the motor in the device is broken;
- sensor settings are out of order;
- the rubber band in the hydraulic reservoir is out of order;
- cracks appeared on the tank and others.
If the above problems occur, the device may malfunction or completely break down. It should be noted that when the device is operated without water, it quickly overheats and breaks down. In this case, the wiring may burn out or the components will be severely worn out. Consider the most common malfunctions.
If the equipment is turned on, but liquid does not flow into the container, the check valve should be checked. If it breaks down, then all the water is returned back to the well. It happens that the device does not pump liquid at all. In this case, it must be cleaned of salts and other dirt. It will be easier for the consumer to replace the entire part, rather than disassemble it for repair..
If a leak appears, the damaged section of the pipe must be replaced, and all connections must be checked. They must be airtight. Another reason why the equipment does not pump water is a decrease in the volume of liquid in the source..
You can get acquainted with the main equipment malfunctions in the video:
There are situations when the device has not been used for a long period. The space between the impeller and the casing is small. Over time, dirt accumulates in this place. When the appliance is turned on, it will make noise, but not work. The user needs to clean the components from dirt or replace the worn out components.
If jerks occur during operation of the equipment, you need to pay attention to the rubber band in the hydraulic tank. When it is worn out, the pressure drops. Then the consumer needs to replace the part with a new one and check the settings with a pressure gauge. If cracks appear on the container itself, it should be replaced with a new one. In addition, you should check the performance of the sensor responsible for the pressure..
When the pump suddenly stops turning on, make sure it is not broken and is receiving power. To do this, use a tester to check all terminals. If there is no power on any wire, the contact can be cleaned and carefully reconnected. If the winding itself on the motor burns out, then it is easier to buy a new one than to rewind it.
Automatic air vent
There are three types of machines for removing air from water supply networks:
- float valves;
- starting devices;
- combined type devices.
When choosing a drain, they look at the volume of potential traffic jams, the operating pressure in the network and the quality indicators of water. This data can be found in the technical manual of the device. You should not take a machine with maximum power. When operating at a minimum, it will wear out more likely..
The principle of operation of the automatic air vent
It is easy to guess that this type of air relief valve operates without human intervention. The element is a vertical brass barrel with a G ½ “(DN 15) threaded connection, where a plastic float is placed. The latter is connected by a lever with a spring-loaded air relief valve mounted in the cover.
For reference. Automated air vents (in common parlance – auto air vents, drains or dumpers) are produced with two types of connecting external threads – ½ “and 3/8”. But in the post-Soviet space, products with a half-inch thread are usually used, 3/8 is extremely rare.
The principle of operation of the automatic air vent is as follows:
- In operating mode, the chamber inside the body is filled with water, which presses the float upward. Spring loaded air valve closed.
- As air accumulates in the upper zone of the chamber, the coolant level decreases and the float begins to lower.
- When the level drops to a critical value, the weight of the float overcomes the elasticity of the spring and the valve opens, air will begin to bleed out..
- Due to the excess pressure in the heating system, the water will displace all the air from the chamber of the device, take its place and raise the float again. The valve will close.
When the pipeline network is filled with a coolant, air is removed continuously while the float lies at the bottom of the tank. As soon as water fills the chamber, the spring will close the valve and the bleed will stop. Note that some of the air mixture will remain inside the housing under the lid itself, which will not affect the normal operation of the heating in any way..
By design, air vents – automatic machines are available with direct and angular connection. Some manufacturers bring the discharge vertically upwards, others – to the side, from the side “spout” with a jet. From the point of view of an ordinary homeowner, these differences do not matter much, but a master – a plumber will be told a lot.
Example. Experience has shown that a side outlet automatic valve works more reliably than a vertical outlet. Conversely, a product with an elbow fitting is less efficient at collecting air bubbles than a design with a bottom direct connection..
The device of automatic air vents is constantly being improved. Leading manufacturers of heating system parts endow their products with additional functions:
- Protection against water hammer with a reflective plate (placed at the entrance to the chamber).
- Effective trapping of small bubbles is achieved in a flow-through design with two horizontal network connections. The lower zone of the increased volume of the tank is occupied by a special filler, which stops moving air bubbles and collects them in the chamber.
It is worth unscrewing the element from the adapter, and the spring will close the passage with a plate
- Possibility to remove the air vent for service purposes without emptying the pipes. This is achieved by installing an automatic shut-off valve with a spring on the inlet connection. When the plumber unscrews the element, the spring straightens and the washer with the O-ring closes the passage, as shown in the diagram above..
- Embedding a mini-valve in a radiator plug (see photo).
Air valves designed as radiator plugs
Lyrical digression. Homeowners and some “experts” unknowingly call the float air vent an automatic Mayevsky crane, which is fundamentally wrong. The inventor Mayevsky in the 30s of the last century proposed the design of a manual crane, but he has nothing to do with the “machine”.
It is advantageous to install a station with a pump when you need to often use water at the same time in several rooms. There is no need to spend a lot of time on maintaining the entire system. The pressure sensor allows you to ensure the normal operation of all household or water heating equipment in the house. This is especially true for those who install the pump at a shallow or deep depth..
The device itself is not cheap, but it has a number of advantages:
- The structure is ready for use. By purchasing a device, the user does not need to look for the necessary elements, assemble the system on his own. In the finished configuration, a hydraulic tank is installed, which, in terms of its volume, is suitable for the power of the equipment, as well as the sensor and automation. The consumer only needs to connect the system to the network and connect all the components in series.
- The equipment is universal. It makes no difference where the water will come to the dwelling – from a well, a well, a station with a pump will work equally effectively.
- Ease of installation. Installation of the device does not take much time for a person. The entire system can be disassembled in the summer for preventive maintenance.
- Water flows continuously into the house. Liquid accumulates in the hydraulic tank, so even when the light is turned off, it still flows from the tap for some time.
- Automatic control. Automation is responsible for turning the device off and on. The sensor reacts to the generated pressure in the system for the operation of household appliances.
Energy is consumed economically. Setting up and installing the device is not cheap. But after a short period of time, it completely pays for itself.
- The whole system works reliably. Automation helps to stabilize the pressure in the pipes. Most models are equipped with protection against overheating and dry operation.
Note! Don’t buy equipment that is too cheap. The manufacturer reduces the cost of production by installing low-quality parts.
In order for the equipment to serve any heating period, it is necessary to purchase designs from trusted manufacturers. Each technique has its own drawbacks. The disadvantages of a pump station are as follows:
- you must follow the rules for installing equipment and operating conditions;
- the equipment may make an unpleasant noise during operation;
- there are some restrictions on the depth of water intake;
- the installation of the device must be carried out together with the automation;
- you need to know how to adjust the sensors;
- a filter should be installed to purify the liquid to extend the operating life of the device.
It is worth noting that the advantages of installing a structure are much greater. In order for the equipment to serve as long as possible and not fail, it is necessary to follow the rules of its use and periodically carry out preventive maintenance. If, for any reason, you doubt that you will be able to correctly design the system and select the model, contact experienced craftsmen. This will help save money in the event of improper installation..
Manual and automatic air vents
How to expel air from the water supply system after it is discharged? The most logical solution is to bleed the air through the air vent installed directly on the lintel between the risers.
There you can find an air vent of one of two types:
|Mayevsky’s brass faucet||Manual (Mayevsky faucet) – a plug with a wrench twisting valve or a screwdriver. To eliminate the airing of the hot water supply system, it is enough to unscrew the valve a couple of turns, wait until the air coming out of the tap hole is replaced by water, and turn the valve back on. Sometimes it is necessary to bleed air two or three times as water displaces new air bubbles into the upper part of the circuit.|
|Automatic air vent device||An automatic air vent for water supply does the same without the need for the owner. When its chamber is filled with air, the float connected to the spool is lowered – after which the water pressure displaces the air lock. The floating float hermetically closes the spool.|
Useful: for self-installation of a jumper on a hot water supply, the Mayevsky tap can be replaced with a screw valve or a water tap. They are not so compact, but more convenient to use, since they open without the use of any tools.
The obvious advantage of the Mayevsky crane is its cheapness. That is why only manual air vents were used in Soviet-built houses..
However, from the point of view of ease of use, they are far behind automatic air vents:
- Some of the residents of the upper floors are simply afraid to use shut-off valves unfamiliar to them;
- Keys to Mayevsky’s taps with complex valves are constantly being lost;
Key from the Mayevsky crane
- Excessive enthusiasm of tenants, coupled with technical illiteracy, often lead to flooding of apartments. The fact is that a valve that has been completely screwed out (and even more so – the valve itself) is almost impossible to screw in under pressure. Especially when scalding hot water gushes out of the hole.
Without air vent
How to remove air from the water supply system with your own hands if you do not have access to the air vent or if it is faulty?
The instruction is ridiculously simple:
- Shut off one of the bridged DHW risers;
- Fully open one or two hot water taps in any apartment on this riser. After a very short time, the air lock will fly out at the front of the water flow, and the water going to the discharge will heat up;
- After all the air is out, close the taps and open the valve on the riser.
Do I need an air vent in the DHW system of a private house?
The answer is pretty obvious. An air vent is necessary if your hot water system uses recirculation and there are no plumbing fixtures at its top through which air can escape..
Note: the presence of a high-pressure circulating pump, coupled with a low circuit height, means that you can not be afraid of stopping the circulation. However, the air in the DHW system is often the cause of annoying hydraulic noise..
Homemade air accumulator
Automatic devices do not always cope with air extraction in country houses. Usually there are a lot of air bubbles in such lines, water gushes from the valve device.
Instead of an air vent machine, a drive is installed, which is a tank with a tube and a tap.
The device can be built by hand. For efficient operation, the cross-section of the air accumulator must be five times larger than that of the pipeline. The accumulator is mounted at the highest point of the aquifer.
When installing water supply networks in a country cottage, it is important to provide for the installation of devices for eliminating air. They protect the working system from water hammer and rapid destruction..
Where are the air release valves
In any hot water heating system, there are places where the installation of air vents is required. If we talk about Mayevsky’s taps, then they need to be installed on all batteries in order to bleed the collecting air. The exact place is in the plug of the upper corner, remote from the connection point of the supply line to the device. The air bubble forms exactly there.
The automatic air valve must be installed strictly vertically at the following points in the heating network:
- in the safety group of a boiler connected to a closed system;
- on both underfloor heating collectors;
- if the highest point is the pipeline, and not the radiator, then the float air vent cuts into it;
- into a buffer tank and an indirect heating boiler, if this is provided for by the design;
- on the heated towel rail coil;
- into a common distribution manifold of a complex and branched system (for both collectors);
- to the hydraulic circuit separator (hydraulic arrow).
In addition to these points, air dumpers are installed in problem areas of the heating network, where, due to the difficult conditions of laying the pipes, they form U-shaped loops, turned upward. For example, a highway bypasses a doorway or a flight of stairs on top, and then goes down again. In such expansion joints, air locks are formed with a probability of 100%, so an air vent is needed there, better – an automatic one..
When the highest point of the network is a pipe or a compensator, a valve is mounted on it.
Advice. Never cut the Mayevsky tap directly into the pipeline, as bubbles will pass by it along with the flow of the coolant and the valve will be useless. For proper operation, the manual “vent” needs a chamber for collecting air (the “machine” has its own). Make a tie-in into the main line with a vertical pipe, which will serve as an air collector, and install a tap on top.
If, when filling the heating network with water, you do not want to run between radiators with a screwdriver, replace the Mayevsky valves with automatic angle air vents. This option is also suitable for residents of apartments heated centrally: air jams often appear in cast-iron batteries, and there is no way to remove them from there..
Another tip. To prevent the bulb of the corner air vent from sticking out in plain sight and clinging to the curtains, take a mini-model of the valve built into the radiator cap.
Instead of a conclusion – tips for choosing
The first and foremost recommendation is not to buy Chinese-made automatic air vents. The consequences of such savings are well known to heating masters:
- together with the air, the product passes the coolant, which causes streaks on the body and floor, and the pressure drops in the system;
- a poor-quality air vent may jam and not work;
- the insides of the element quickly deteriorate under the influence of the coolant.
With Mayevsky’s cranes, the situation is not so deplorable for one reason – there is nothing to break there. On the other hand, the product does not belong to complex heating equipment and its price is quite affordable even from well-known brands. For example, manufacturers Icma, Caleffi and Valtec offer decent mid-priced products. Also famous for their reliability are “machines” from the Spirotech brand, shown in the picture.
Now we will give a number of tips for choosing valves for air release:
- It is better to take Mayevsky’s crane with a handle, so as not to fiddle with screwdrivers and keys. It is convenient to twist it even in hard-to-reach places when the radiator is hidden in a niche.
- If small children live in an apartment or a private house, put a manual tap under a screwdriver. The child can reach the handle, open the valve and scald himself with the coolant.
- If possible, use an automatic valve with a shut-off valve. It will allow you to remove a part at any time for the purpose of repair or replacement..
- The anodized coating of the case does not play a special role during operation. It protects the metal from oxidation.
- The presence of additional functions that improve the operation of heating is encouraged. If your budget allows, use a bubble trap.
The principle of operation of the deaerator is applied here – many elements that fill the chamber trap bubbles and direct them to the air vent valve
Note. On sale there is a combined shut-off valve and equipment equipped with a relief valve. These include circulating pumps, balancing valves and a variety of taps. You should not focus on such products, it is better to buy and install each detail of the circuit separately.
Cavitation as a cause
Before starting to clarify the issue, it is important to know: the pumps are installed depending on the diameter of the well! For sizes 100 mm, a submersible pump is suitable, a smaller diameter requires a circular or plunger pump.
What is cavitation? This is a violation of the continuity of the fluid flow, otherwise it is the filling of water with bubbles. Cavitation occurs in those areas where the pressure drop reaches a critical rate. The process is accompanied by the formation of voids in the flow, the release of bubble formations of air that appear due to vapors and gases released from the liquid. Being in the area of reduced pressure, the bubbles can increase and collect in large void cavities, which are carried away by the fluid flow and, in the presence of high pressure, are destroyed without a trace, and in the conditions of an ordinary household well, they often remain and it turns out that the pump during operation pumps air bubbles from wells without giving out the required volume of water.
Revealing the cavitation zone is sometimes impossible due to the lack of special instruments, but it is important to know that such a zone can be unstable. If the deficiency is not eliminated, then the consequences can be devastating: vibration, dynamic effects on the flow – all this leads to pump breakdown, because each device is characterized by the specified value of the cavitation margin. Otherwise, the pump has a minimum pressure, within which the water that has got into the device retains its density properties. With pressure changes, cavities and air voids are inevitable. Therefore, the selection of the pump should be carried out depending on the volume of water required to meet the economic and domestic needs..
The destruction of air bubbles occurs only when they are transferred by a stream to the area of increased pressure, which is accompanied by small hydraulic shocks. The frequency of impacts leads to the appearance of a hissing sound, which can be used to determine the presence of air in the well..
The nature of water hammer in pipelines
Water hammer is a shock wave that propagates along the surface of the water supply system, as well as along the reinforcement elements. The destructive effect of such a phenomenon is associated, first of all, with the inability of the liquid to compress.
If water could, for example, be compressed like a gas several times, then the pipes would not burst from a sharp increase in pressure. Excessive pressure occurs when the movement of the liquid stops abruptly, but other phenomena in the water supply system can also cause a water hammer..
How to eliminate water hammer
To prevent a water hammer in the heating pipes and the water supply system, several methods are used.
Close the tap smoothly
If the valve is tight, then it can be moved in small jerks..
A blow occurs, but broken into several weak ones. What does not entail consequences.
Mechanical overlap can be organized safely, but systems equipped with automation (heating) are deprived of this..
To mitigate the impact, a shock absorber is installed in the line. In front of the thermostat, a section of elastic pipe is installed (reinforced plastic or rubber resistant to high temperatures).
Due to stretching, with a pressure surge, the pipe increases for a while, extinguishes the pressure.
0.2-0.3 m a sufficient cushioning distance.
A tube with a diameter of 0.2-0.4 mm in the direction of travel is inserted into the valve. It does not affect the performance of the system, but in the event of a pressure surge, it can be thrown over the valve into the pipeline..
For your information
The method is only productive in a new system and not made of metal. The presence of corrosion is all to nothing.
The accumulator is one of the compensating devices. Suitable for both water supply systems and heating systems. This is a rubber reservoir separated by a membrane.
The lower part contains liquid, the upper part contains air under pressure. A similar system is found on automatic pressure regulating pumps..
In a heating system, the compressor is installed at a weak point where shock is possible. With a jump in pressure, water presses on the membrane and shifts it towards the air, as a result, the pressure is extinguished.
When the pressure returns to normal, the water hammer stops, the membrane returns to its original place.
Special dampers are also used in the water main..
Compliance with the rules for the installation of water and heating communications allows you to minimize the likelihood of such a dangerous phenomenon as water hammer, but it will not be possible to completely eliminate it only with properly designed systems. To avoid such an unpleasant situation, an integrated approach and compliance with safety rules and technical instructions are required..
You can significantly reduce the likelihood of water hammer if you follow the following rules when installing water pipes and operating them.
- When starting the water supply or heating system into operation, the shut-off elements of the fittings should open very slowly. The shut-off of the fluid supply should also be very smooth. Smooth closing and opening of valves should be carried out not only at industrial facilities, but also when starting water supply and heating in a private house. Excessive pressure in the event of a water hammer can easily damage home communications, so you should not neglect the technical safety rules in the case when water in a private house is supplied with significant pressure.
- If automatic devices for smooth opening and closing of shut-off valves are installed in the water supply or heating system, then the human factor can be completely eliminated in the event of a water hammer. Of course, when using electronics, plumbing systems become dependent on electric current, but in order to completely eliminate the likelihood of failure due to installed machines, it is necessary to equip such mechanisms with a backup source of electricity. Such a safety net is absolutely necessary, both in a large enterprise and for the normal functioning of communications located in a private house. It is recommended to equip pumping stations with automatic adjustment. In this case, it is also possible to avoid water hammer from a sudden pressure drop as a result of turning on or off powerful pumping equipment..
- The use of accumulators and damper devices also allows you to minimize the consequences of a sharp increase in pressure in the water supply network. Such devices usually consist of a metal housing with a membrane located inside. When a water hammer occurs, the membrane moves, which allows the excess fluid to be contained. When the threat of a pipeline rupture
bypasses and the pressure will decrease, the membrane will be returned to its original position due to the air located on the reverse side.
- To reduce the pressure in the water supply networks, a safety valve can be used, which opens when the liquid reaches a certain value. Such devices are also able to protect the pipeline from destruction, but to organize this type of protection, you will need to make an additional branch from the valve to the sewer system
- To protect against water hammer in a private house or apartment, you can use a very simple method, in which excessive pressure is compensated by stretching the walls of the pipeline. It is not at all necessary to install heating or water supply using such materials, but a section of the pipeline made using heat-resistant rubber is capable of completely absorbing a water hammer in a small system.
- Bypassing the thermostat is an effective measure to combat low-force water hammer, therefore, such an “improvement” of autonomous heating can only be done in a private heating system. As a rule, it is enough to make a hole with a diameter of 0.5 mm in the main valve, so that when high pressure occurs, the excess liquid moves freely into the cold water circuit..
- A thermostat with protection installed in the heating system also avoids such a dangerous phenomenon as water hammer. The principle of operation of such a device is that an additional small mechanism is located in the main valve of the thermostat, which opens regardless of the temperature of the liquid. Such an internal valve will begin to pass liquid when the coolant pressure approaches the maximum allowable value, thereby protecting the pipes from bursting.
How to protect communications in an apartment from water hammer
Depressurization of the water supply system in an apartment can lead to very serious consequences, especially if, as a result of a breakthrough, damage was caused to neighbors whose apartment is located on the floor below where the accident occurred.
On the section of the water supply located in the apartment, old metal pipes can be installed, which eventually rust and can collapse during operation, not to mention the deadly “force of a water hammer.
IMPORTANT! To minimize the likelihood of a leak, it is recommended to install valve-type taps, which, due to their design features, are not able to instantly shut off the water. Lever ball valves, which are so convenient not only in the kitchen, but also in the shower, can cause a serious accident.
Despite the fact that accumulators are most often used in private houses, the water supply of which is carried out by means of a pump located in a deep well, such products will help to protect the water supply in the apartment from water hammer..
In addition, the accumulated liquid in such devices can be used in the event of a temporary shutdown of the water supply. You can also protect the water supply system from water hammer with the help of special dampers that are installed in the cold or hot water supply pipe..
It is strictly forbidden to install any devices in the centralized heating system without permission. To protect the living space from a water hammer, a specialist from the management company should be allowed during a test run of heating.
If all air jams are removed from the radiators and pipelines on time, then it will be possible not to fear a water hammer, due to the observance of all necessary measures to prevent such a phenomenon in the boiler room and on the way of delivering the coolant to the apartment.
To reduce the risk of depressurization of hot water supply systems, it is also recommended to replace the taps with screw structures, and the pipeline should be made of modern materials that make it possible to cope with the excess pressure in the pipeline as efficiently as possible..
A few words about the theory of water hammer
The occurrence of a water hammer is possible only because the fluid is not compressed enough to compensate for the sudden pressure surge. With an increase in pressure in one place, its force spreads to the entire section of the pipeline, and finding a “weak link” leads to deformation or destruction of the material.
This effect arising in high-pressure pipelines was first discovered by the Russian scientist N.E. Zhukovsky at the end of the 19th century. Zhukovsky also derived a formula by which you can calculate the minimum time required to close the tap in order to avoid a dangerous increase in pressure in a closed water supply system.
This formula looks like this:
- Dp is the pressure increase in N / m2;
- p is the density of the liquid kg / m3.
- u0 and u1 – the average value of the fluid velocity in the pipeline before and after closing the valve.
The scientist proved that the speed of propagation of a shock wave depends primarily on the diameter and material of the pipe. Also, this indicator depends on the degree of compressibility of the fluid..
The calculation must be carried out only after the density of water has been experimentally established, which, depending on the amount of salts dissolved in it, can differ significantly. The rate of propagation of a water hammer is always calculated using the following formula:
- c is the shock wave velocity;
- L is the length of the pipeline;
- T – time.
By substituting the values in this formula, you can accurately determine the speed of propagation of the water hammer. Water hammer is a wave that vibrates at a certain frequency..
Calculating, if necessary, the number of fluctuations per unit of time will also not be difficult. It is enough to use the following formula:
- M is the duration of the oscillation cycle;
- L is the length of the pipeline;
- a – wave speed (m / s).
To simplify the calculations, below will be given the indicators of the shock wave velocity during water hammer for pipes made of the following materials:
- Steel – 900 – 1300 m / s;
- Cast iron – 1000 – 1200 m / s;
- Plastic – 300 – 500 m / s.
Substituting these values into the formula, you can accurately calculate the frequency of fluctuations of a water hammer in a section of a water supply of a certain length.
This is the theory of water hammer in the shortest mathematical descriptions. When designing modern engineering systems, powerful computers are used to perform such calculations, so there is no need to manually calculate the speed and force of a water hammer..
Briefly about the main
To bring water into the house, the user installs a pump with a hydraulic reservoir. Over time, during the operation of the system, malfunctions may appear, the water will come with bubbles. In such a situation, a person needs to check the tightness of pipes, connections, the compliance of the power of the device with the well, the presence of bends in the pipeline, as well as pressure. The last parameter affects the water pressure from the tap. You can check the settings in the system using a pressure gauge. If, after all the settings, the equipment still malfunctions, the faulty elements should be replaced. To increase the operational life of the structure, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures and monitor the condition of all components.