Swimsuit

The bather (Trollius) is a perennial herb from the Buttercup family. It is found on two continents – in North America and Eurasia. At the same time, the places where swimsuits grow in different countries may differ. So Western European species live in mountainous areas, and Eastern European ones – in forests, meadows and near rivers. In the countries of North America, only about two types of swimsuits live, but in the Asian region this flower is very widespread. In total, about three dozen types of bathers are distinguished in botany. Due to the fact that a bright flower growing in nature is often plucked into bouquets, many species have acquired the status of rare or protected.

There are several versions of the origin of the Latin name of this plant – Trollius. According to one of them, the flower is related to fabulous trolls, according to the other, the word is derived from the ancient Germanic “ball” and refers to spherical bushes and rounded flowers of a swimsuit. The Russian name of the plant is associated with its love for moist soils..

The bather is considered not only beautiful, but also a medicinal plant. Its herb and flowers are widely used in folk medicine as a urinary, choleretic, and anti-inflammatory agent. Tibetan medicine men use the flowers of the plant as a medicine for vision problems.

Opsyvanie swimsuit

Opsyvanie swimsuit

The bather is a herbaceous perennial with split leaves and a fibrous rhizome. His bush has a two-year development cycle. In the first year, a rosette of leaves is formed, and in the second, shoots already appear, on the tops of which are flowers. On each such shoot there are leaves, from the axils of which lateral stems can develop, also with flowers at the top. In this case, the leaves cover only the upper third of the stem height. The size of a flower on such a stem may decrease depending on its proximity to the top..

The flowering period is usually in May and June, but there are types of swimwear that bloom only in the middle of summer. The flowers of the swimsuit exude a delicate pleasant aroma that attracts honey insects. They have a spherical shape, while the buds can either open almost completely or remain half-open, forming only an opening for pollinating insects. Each flower contains up to 20 sepals in the form of bright orange or yellow petals. They are arranged in a spiral and, after flowering, begin to fall off. The petals of such flowers themselves serve as nectaries and include a honey pit. They are approximately equal in length to sepals, but can be shorter or longer. Their size and color are classified as species. Some flowers have a transitional color, combining yellow, orange and green tones..

After flowering, leaflets are formed on the peduncles, collected in spherical infructescences with black glossy seeds. They ripen and open in July or August. Such seeds can be used for plant propagation, but they quickly lose their germination. In addition, different species and varieties of swimsuits blooming at the same time can easily be pollinated, forming hybrids that are difficult to identify..

Outdoor swimsuit landing

Outdoor swimsuit landing

Sowing seeds

A bather can be grown from seeds, but for this they need to be stratified. This can be done in two ways, while the choice depends on the characteristics of a particular type of swimsuit. The first option involves sowing seeds immediately after harvesting or at the very end of autumn before the onset of frost. To do this, sow the seeds into a container and store it in an unheated place. You can dig in a box of seeds right in the garden. During the winter, they will undergo a stratification procedure and by May they will begin to germinate. The second method involves spring sowing. For this, the seeds, mixed with slightly damp sand, are preliminarily kept in the refrigerator on a vegetable shelf. The optimum storage temperature is about +3 degrees. In March, the finished planting material is sown in a selected container and placed in a warm place. For sowing, soil is used containing peat, sand and earth in proportions of 2: 2: 1. Germination of such seeds can take quite a long time: as a rule, the first shoots appear only by the end of April..

Seedlings must be protected from too bright sun and try to maintain soil moisture without overdrying it. When the sprouts have a second true leaf, they are dived, seated in increments of up to 10 cm. The seedlings obtained in this way are transferred to the garden only at the end of summer – until the beginning of September. By this time, the plants will be able to get strong enough. But such seedlings will bloom only for 3-4 years. At the same time, the number of peduncles appearing on the plant grows depending on the age of the flower – in the first year of flowering, only one flower stem may appear on the swimsuit..

Landing rules

In nature, the plant can be found both in shady forests and in sunny glades, but in the garden it should be placed in open areas, far from trees and large shrubs. Only a light shade is allowed in the afternoon. This will help extend the flowering period a little..

For planting a swimsuit, a neutral soil, light and fertile enough, is suitable. For drought-resistant varieties, light or medium loams with a good drainage layer and a high humus content are suitable. If the plant will be planted on poor soil, it should first be fertilized with a peat-humus mixture. For 1 sq. m it will take about 5 kg. Such a move will help make the soil more water-intensive. Even though the bather loves water, swampy areas will have a negative impact on her growth and rate of development..

To plant the bushes of the swimsuit, it is necessary to prepare pits at a distance of at least 30 cm from each other. The plant is transferred to them along with the soil clod. The bather is sensitive to transplants, so the corner for her placement must be chosen for sure. With proper care, bushes can grow on it for up to 10 years. Periodically, it is recommended to add soil to the roots of plants in order to avoid exposing them due to erosion of the soil..

Caring for a swimsuit in the garden

Caring for a swimsuit in the garden

After planting in open ground, the seedlings of swimsuits must be watered regularly. In addition, in the first month it is required to shade it from the bright sun. The height of mature shrubs growing in full sun is about half a meter. Shade bathers take longer to develop. They will be able to reach their maximum size not in the 3rd, but only in the 6th year or even later. Such plants have longer leaves and stems (up to 90 cm in height), but in shady corners they do not bloom so abundantly, and the color of the flowers becomes paler.

To stimulate a second wave of flowering, you can cut off faded flower stalks. But leaves, even yellowed ones, are not recommended to be touched until autumn. Removing them early will weaken the plant, and it will bloom much weaker next season..

Watering and feeding

Young bush bushes will need regular and ample watering, but mature plants also need to be watered systematically. It is especially important to keep an eye on this on hot sunny days and dry periods. Only settled water warmed by the sun is suitable for irrigation. For these purposes, rainwater can be adapted by collecting it in a voluminous tub installed in an open place. After thorough watering or rainfall, it is necessary to loosen and weed the area near the bushes. As you approach the center of the bush, you should loosen the soil not too deeply – only at a level of 3-5 cm. Otherwise, you can touch the roots located at the surface of the soil. At the end of summer, irrigation volumes begin to decrease.

Top dressing can be combined with watering. To fertilize the swimsuit, you can use urea or nitrophosphate by adding 1 teaspoon of the product to 10 liters of water. The optimal periods for fertilizing are mid-spring (application of nitrogen fertilizers), the beginning of flowering and the period before the onset of autumn. Organic fertilizers – humus and peat – are recommended to be applied in the form of mulching.

Asian swimsuit. Wonderful Siberian “frying”Asian swimsuit. Wonderful Siberian

Reproduction and transplantation methods

Seed breeding method of swimsuits is not very popular with gardeners, because it takes too long. Usually the plant is propagated by dividing the bush. The procedure is carried out either before flowering (in April) or after (until early September), but not more often than once every 5 years. You can divide adults (at least 5 years old), but not too old, healthy and overgrown bushes. In this case, the swimsuit will tolerate the transplant much better..

The selected bush is taken out of the ground, the roots are cleaned from the soil and washed thoroughly. With the help of a sharp disinfected tool, the bush is divided into parts so that on each division there are several leaf rosettes with roots. Small parts will take root more slowly than large ones. Sections are sprinkled with ash or kept in a manganese solution. After this, the cuttings are immediately seated in prepared holes up to 40 cm deep, keeping the same distance as when planting adult plants (from 30 cm). Root collars must be deepened to 3 cm, having previously cleared them of foliage. Fresh leaves should appear on them in a couple of weeks. Plants obtained in this way will be able to bloom as early as next year..

Cuttings can also be used for breeding swimsuits. They can be fresh shoots that form at the roots in the spring, as well as rosettes formed in the summer with a part of the root. They begin to root them from May to July, planting them in sandy peat soil. Can be pretreated with root stimulants.

Wintering period

Swimsuit

The bather is very winter-hardy, so it does not need shelter. By October, the leaves of the plant die off. After that, the bush must be trimmed so that only petioles about 3 cm long remain in place of the leaf outlet. They are needed to protect the kidney located in the central part of the outlet. A new flower shoot should appear from it in the spring..

The only exceptions are young specimens – autumn crops or seedlings planted in open ground. In the first winter, such plants are recommended to be covered with spruce branches..

Pests and diseases

The bather has sufficient resistance to diseases and pests, but sometimes it can still get sick. Most often, due to improper care, the bushes can be affected by fungal diseases. Among such infections are septoria and smut. The parts of the plant touched by them must be removed, and the remaining part must be treated with fungicides. If the lesion is too large, the bushes are dug up and destroyed entirely. To prevent such infections, it is necessary to identify the cause of their appearance and try to adjust the care of the flower..

Types and varieties of a swimsuit with a photo

In gardening, many types and varieties of swimwear are used. Spectacular bright plants look great against the backdrop of green spaces, rocky ground, as well as the blue sky or pond. They are often planted near garden ponds, in flower beds in the zone of medium-sized plants, or as solo plantings in sunny areas. Dwarf varieties can decorate rockeries. Due to the fact that after the formation of the fruits, the stems of the swimsuit lose their decorative appearance and are cut off, they are often combined with neighbors, characterized by lush foliage, which can hide the absence of the stems of the swimsuits, and during the flowering period – to shade the brightness of its flowers. Among the most popular plant varieties:

Ledebour’s Leotard (Trollius ledebourii)

Ledebour's Bathing Suit

The most frost-resistant type of swimsuit. It can form bushes of one meter height. In their natural environment, such flowers can be found in Siberia, as well as in the Far East. They also grow in the countries of East Asia. The leaves of such a swimsuit are heavily dissected and are located on petioles. The stems have foliage only in the upper third part. The flowers reach 6 cm in diameter. The palette of their colors consists of shades of orange. The pointed petals of this species are longer than the stamens and rise slightly above them. Some of the varieties bloom only in July. The most common:

  • Goliath. Large-flowered variety (up to 7 cm) with pale orange petals and darker anthers and sepals. The flowering period starts at the end of May and lasts about a month..
  • Lightball. Forms bushes up to 60 cm in height. The flowers are medium, up to 5 cm in size, with yellow nectary petals and pale orange sepals.
  • Lemon Queen. The size of the bushes reaches 70 cm.Differs in flowers of a bright lemon color with a diameter of up to 6 cm.
  • Orange King. More compact bushes up to 0.5 m tall. Flowers with orange petals and darker sepals measure 5 cm.

Asian swimsuit (Trollius asiaticus)

Asian swimsuit

It is this type that is popularly known as “lights” or “frying”. In addition to Russia, it is also found in the vastness of Mongolia and the countries of Central Asia. Herbaceous perennial with five-part, finger-like leaves about 30 cm long. Stems with peduncles grow up to 50 cm. The flowers resemble a ball up to 5 cm in size and have reddish sepals and orange petals. This type of plant is considered one of the most attractive. Its varieties differ in different degrees of dissection of leaves, shades of color of flowers and the level of their doubleness..

European swimsuit (Trollius europaeus)

European swimsuit

You can meet such a swimsuit not only in Europe, but also in the Scandinavian countries and on the territory of Western Siberia. The plant lives in meadows, is found in glades and forest edges. The flowering period is in June. The appearance of Trollius europaeus is largely dependent on the growing area. So in the middle lane the bush can grow up to 80 cm, but in the tundra areas its size barely reaches 30 cm. The rosette is made up of five-part leaves on petioles. At the same time, the foliage shares have a patterned shape, and the plates themselves resemble rhombuses. The stem is simple or can be branched. Shoots of peduncles are leafy only in the upper part. The flowers are only slightly open, have a faint aroma and are colored in tones of yellow or golden colors. The size of each is about 5 cm. The petals have a rich orange color and are almost equal in size to the sepals. But, like other parts of the flower located in the inner part, they are almost completely hidden from view. The species has been known in horticulture for several centuries, it has two main variations: garden with light yellow flowers and large-flowered, with a more pronounced color.

The highest bather (Trollius altissimus)

The highest bathing suit

A species common in Western Europe. Most often it grows in meadows, but it can also be found in the mountains – in the Carpathians. The rosette is made up of deeply dissected dark green leaves with long petioles, reaching up to 60 cm in length. The foliage has jagged edges and well-defined veins. The dimensions of the branched stem can reach up to 1.5 m.In the leaf axils there can be about seven lateral stems, on which are located greenish-yellow flowers up to 6 cm in size.

Altai swimsuit (Trollius altaicus)

Altai swimsuit

The species is found both in Altai and in the regions of Western Siberia. In addition, it also lives in the northern regions of China, Mongolia and the states of Central Asia. Finger leaves form a rosette about 30 cm tall. A simple or branching stem growing from it reaches 90 cm, sessile leaf blades are located on it. The flowers are spherical and 5 cm in size. Each has about 2 dozen golden or orange sepals, sometimes reddish on the outside, as well as orange petals. The pistils of this species are black, and the stigma anthers have a purple tint..

Cultural swimsuit (Trollius x cultorum)

Cultural bathing suit

The species combines a large number of hybrid garden varieties of the swimsuit, created on the basis of several of the aforementioned varieties at once. It differs from the parent species in large flowers with a rich and more varied color. Varieties can differ not only in their decorative characteristics, but also in flowering periods. Among the most famous hybrids:

  • Alabaster. With large flowers of cream shades. It often blooms again in the last decades of summer..
  • Goldkwell. Variety with very bright yellow flowers up to 6 cm in size.
  • Canary Bird. Differs in pale yellow flowers.
  • Orange Princesses. Bush up to 60 cm tall, with catchy bright orange flowers.
  • Fire Globe. The size of the bush does not differ from the previous variety. It stands out for the color of the flowers: their petals are orange, and the sepals have a reddish tint.
  • Erlist of Oil. Small flowers with dark yellow sepals and light-colored nectary petals.